Iiro P Jaaskelainen

Summary

Affiliation: Helsinki University of Technology
Country: Finland

Publications

  1. pmc The role of speech production system in audiovisual speech perception
    Iiro P Jaaskelainen
    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland
    Open Neuroimag J 4:30-6. 2010
  2. ncbi request reprint Short-term plasticity in auditory cognition
    Iiro P Jaaskelainen
    Laboratory of Computational Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, FIN 02015 TKK, Espoo, Finland
    Trends Neurosci 30:653-61. 2007
  3. doi request reprint Formant transition-specific adaptation by lipreading of left auditory cortex N1m
    Iiro P Jaaskelainen
    Laboratory of Computational Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland
    Neuroreport 19:93-7. 2008
  4. pmc Lipreading and covert speech production similarly modulate human auditory-cortex responses to pure tones
    Jaakko Kauramäki
    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Brain Research Unit, Low Temperature Laboratory, and Advanced Magnetic Imaging Centre, Helsinki University of Technology, FI 02015 TKK, Espoo, Finland
    J Neurosci 30:1314-21. 2010
  5. ncbi request reprint Bayesian inverse analysis of neuromagnetic data using cortically constrained multiple dipoles
    Toni Auranen
    Laboratory of Computational Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland
    Hum Brain Mapp 28:979-94. 2007
  6. doi request reprint Automatic fMRI-guided MEG multidipole localization for visual responses
    Toni Auranen
    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland
    Hum Brain Mapp 30:1087-99. 2009
  7. pmc Two-stage processing of sounds explains behavioral performance variations due to changes in stimulus contrast and selective attention: an MEG study
    Jaakko Kauramäki
    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science BECS, Brain and Mind Laboratory, Aalto University School of Science, Espoo, Finland
    PLoS ONE 7:e46872. 2012
  8. ncbi request reprint Hierarchical Bayesian estimates of distributed MEG sources: theoretical aspects and comparison of variational and MCMC methods
    Aapo Nummenmaa
    Laboratory of Computational Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, PO Box 9203, 02015, HUT, Espoo, Finland
    Neuroimage 35:669-85. 2007
  9. doi request reprint Synchrony of audio-visual speech stimuli modulates left superior temporal sulcus
    Marja H Balk
    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Aalto University School of Science and Engineering, Espoo, Finland
    Neuroreport 21:822-6. 2010
  10. ncbi request reprint Perception of matching and conflicting audiovisual speech in dyslexic and fluent readers: an fMRI study at 3 T
    Johanna Pekkola
    Laboratory of Computational Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland
    Neuroimage 29:797-807. 2006

Detail Information

Publications51

  1. pmc The role of speech production system in audiovisual speech perception
    Iiro P Jaaskelainen
    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland
    Open Neuroimag J 4:30-6. 2010
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint Short-term plasticity in auditory cognition
    Iiro P Jaaskelainen
    Laboratory of Computational Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, FIN 02015 TKK, Espoo, Finland
    Trends Neurosci 30:653-61. 2007
    ....
  3. doi request reprint Formant transition-specific adaptation by lipreading of left auditory cortex N1m
    Iiro P Jaaskelainen
    Laboratory of Computational Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland
    Neuroreport 19:93-7. 2008
    ..This suggests that visual speech activates and adapts auditory cortex neural populations tuned to formant transitions, the basic sound-sweep constituents of phonemes, potentially explaining enhanced speech perception during lipreading...
  4. pmc Lipreading and covert speech production similarly modulate human auditory-cortex responses to pure tones
    Jaakko Kauramäki
    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Brain Research Unit, Low Temperature Laboratory, and Advanced Magnetic Imaging Centre, Helsinki University of Technology, FI 02015 TKK, Espoo, Finland
    J Neurosci 30:1314-21. 2010
    ..These findings suggest that the lipreading-related suppression in the auditory cortex is caused by top-down influences, possibly by an efference copy from the speech-production system, generated during both own speech and lipreading...
  5. ncbi request reprint Bayesian inverse analysis of neuromagnetic data using cortically constrained multiple dipoles
    Toni Auranen
    Laboratory of Computational Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland
    Hum Brain Mapp 28:979-94. 2007
    ..To overcome the difficulties with the present model, we propose the use of loose orientation constraints and combined model of prelocalization utilizing the hierarchical minimum-norm estimate and multiple dipole sampling scheme...
  6. doi request reprint Automatic fMRI-guided MEG multidipole localization for visual responses
    Toni Auranen
    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland
    Hum Brain Mapp 30:1087-99. 2009
    ..On this account, the algorithm acts perhaps more as a stochastic optimizer than enables a full Bayesian posterior analysis...
  7. pmc Two-stage processing of sounds explains behavioral performance variations due to changes in stimulus contrast and selective attention: an MEG study
    Jaakko Kauramäki
    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science BECS, Brain and Mind Laboratory, Aalto University School of Science, Espoo, Finland
    PLoS ONE 7:e46872. 2012
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint Hierarchical Bayesian estimates of distributed MEG sources: theoretical aspects and comparison of variational and MCMC methods
    Aapo Nummenmaa
    Laboratory of Computational Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, PO Box 9203, 02015, HUT, Espoo, Finland
    Neuroimage 35:669-85. 2007
    ..The difficulties in using a unimodal variational distribution as a proxy for a truly multimodal distribution are also discussed. Simulated MEG data with realistic sensor and source geometries are used in performing the analyses...
  9. doi request reprint Synchrony of audio-visual speech stimuli modulates left superior temporal sulcus
    Marja H Balk
    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Aalto University School of Science and Engineering, Espoo, Finland
    Neuroreport 21:822-6. 2010
    ..It is possible that this reflects sensitivity of the left middle superior temporal sulcus to temporal synchrony of audio-visual speech stimuli...
  10. ncbi request reprint Perception of matching and conflicting audiovisual speech in dyslexic and fluent readers: an fMRI study at 3 T
    Johanna Pekkola
    Laboratory of Computational Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland
    Neuroimage 29:797-807. 2006
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Attention to visual speech gestures enhances hemodynamic activity in the left planum temporale
    Johanna Pekkola
    Laboratory of Computational Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland
    Hum Brain Mapp 27:471-7. 2006
    ..These findings suggest that attention to visually perceived speech gestures modulates auditory cortex function and that this modulation takes place at a hierarchically relatively early processing level...
  12. pmc Automatic relevance determination based hierarchical Bayesian MEG inversion in practice
    Aapo Nummenmaa
    Laboratory of Computational Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland Advanced Magnetic Imaging Centre, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland
    Neuroimage 37:876-89. 2007
    ..Our results show, with a comparison to the basic MNE, that the hierarchical VB approach yields robust and physiologically plausible estimates of distributed sources underlying MEG measurements, in a rather automated fashion...
  13. ncbi request reprint Nonlinear relationship between emotional valence and brain activity: evidence of separate negative and positive valence dimensions
    Mikko Viinikainen
    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, Finland
    Hum Brain Mapp 31:1030-40. 2010
    ..This is consistent with the basic division of behavior to approach and withdrawal, where differentiation of hostile and hospitable stimuli is crucial...
  14. pmc Mental action simulation synchronizes action-observation circuits across individuals
    Lauri Nummenmaa
    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Brain Research Unit, O V Lounasmaa Laboratory, and Advanced Magnetic Imaging Centre, Aalto NeuroImaging, Aalto University, FI 0076 Espoo, Finland, and Turku PET Centre, FI 20520 Turku, Finland
    J Neurosci 34:748-57. 2014
    ..We propose that sharing a third person's feelings synchronizes the observer's own brain mechanisms supporting sensations and motor planning, thereby likely promoting mutual understanding. ..
  15. ncbi request reprint Processing of audiovisual speech in Broca's area
    Ville Ojanen
    Laboratory of Computational Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, P O Box 3000, FIN 02015 HUT, Helsinki, Finland
    Neuroimage 25:333-8. 2005
    ..On the other hand, matching acoustic and visual inputs would converge on the same neurons...
  16. ncbi request reprint Primary auditory cortex activation by visual speech: an fMRI study at 3 T
    Johanna Pekkola
    Laboratory of Computational Engineering, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
    Neuroreport 16:125-8. 2005
    ..Further, a significant hemisphere by stimulus interaction occurred, suggesting left Heschl's gyrus specialization for visual speech processing...
  17. ncbi request reprint Adaptation of neuromagnetic N1 responses to phonetic stimuli by visual speech in humans
    Iiro P Jaaskelainen
    Laboratory of Computational Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, P O Box 9203, Innopoli 2, Tekniikant 14, FIN 02015 HUT Finland
    Neuroreport 15:2741-4. 2004
    ..This suggests that seeing articulatory gestures of a speaker influences auditory speech perception by modulating the responsiveness of auditory-cortex neurons...
  18. doi request reprint Enhanced early-latency electromagnetic activity in the left premotor cortex is associated with successful phonetic categorization
    Jussi Alho
    Brain and Mind Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Aalto University, School of Science, PO BOX 12200, FIN 00076 Aalto, Finland
    Neuroimage 60:1937-46. 2012
    ..Together, these results suggest that the dorsal stream involvement in speech perception is dependent on perceptual task demands and that phonetic categorization performance is influenced by the left premotor cortex...
  19. pmc Stimulus-related independent component and voxel-wise analysis of human brain activity during free viewing of a feature film
    Juha M Lahnakoski
    Brain and Mind Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, School of Science, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland
    PLoS ONE 7:e35215. 2012
    ..Our results encourage the use of naturalistic stimuli and tasks in cognitive neuroimaging to study how the brain processes stimuli in rich natural environments...
  20. pmc Short-term plasticity as a neural mechanism supporting memory and attentional functions
    Iiro P Jaaskelainen
    Brain and Mind Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Aalto University, School of Science, Espoo, Finland
    Brain Res 1422:66-81. 2011
    ....
  21. pmc Naturalistic FMRI mapping reveals superior temporal sulcus as the hub for the distributed brain network for social perception
    Juha M Lahnakoski
    Brain and Mind Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, School of Science, Aalto University Espoo, Finland
    Front Hum Neurosci 6:233. 2012
    ..Our results highlight the role of the pSTS in processing multiple aspects of social information, as well as the feasibility and efficiency of fMRI mapping under conditions that resemble the complexity of real life...
  22. ncbi request reprint Perceiving identical sounds as speech or non-speech modulates activity in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus
    Riikka Möttönen
    Laboratory of Computational Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland
    Neuroimage 30:563-9. 2006
    ..Altogether, the present findings suggest that activation of the neural speech representations in the left STSp might be a pre-requisite for hearing sounds as speech...
  23. pmc Emotions promote social interaction by synchronizing brain activity across individuals
    Lauri Nummenmaa
    Brain Research Unit, O V Lounasmaa Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, and Advanced Magnetic Imaging Centre, School of Science, Aalto University, FI 00076 Aalto, Finland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:9599-604. 2012
    ..By enhancing the synchrony of brain activity across individuals, emotions may promote social interaction and facilitate interpersonal understanding...
  24. pmc Selective attention increases both gain and feature selectivity of the human auditory cortex
    Jaakko Kauramäki
    Laboratory of Computational Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland
    PLoS ONE 2:e909. 2007
    ..While most of the literature explains the neural basis of selective attention by means of an increase in neural gain, a number of papers propose enhancement in neural selectivity as an alternative or a complementary mechanism...
  25. pmc Functional magnetic resonance imaging phase synchronization as a measure of dynamic functional connectivity
    Enrico Glerean
    Brain and Mind Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science BECS, School of Science, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland
    Brain Connect 2:91-101. 2012
    ..g., event-related or blocked design) paradigms. A MATLAB toolbox FUNPSY ( http://becs.aalto.fi/bml/software.html ) is openly available for using these metrics in fMRI data analysis...
  26. pmc Inter-subject synchronization of prefrontal cortex hemodynamic activity during natural viewing
    Iiro P Jaaskelainen
    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Helsinki University of Technology, FIN 02015 TKK, Espoo, Finland
    Open Neuroimag J 2:14-9. 2008
    ..We further show that probabilistic independent component analysis (ICA) reveals meaningful activations in individual subjects during natural viewing...
  27. pmc Increasing FMRI sampling rate improves granger causality estimates
    Fa Hsuan Lin
    Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland
    PLoS ONE 9:e100319. 2014
    ..We therefore conclude that the high-temporal resolution of InI improves the Granger causality connectivity analysis of the human brain. ..
  28. ncbi request reprint Bayesian analysis of the neuromagnetic inverse problem with l(p)-norm priors
    Toni Auranen
    Laboratory of Computational Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, P O Box 9203, 02015 HUT, Espoo, Finland
    Neuroimage 26:870-84. 2005
    ....
  29. pmc Auditory-cortex short-term plasticity induced by selective attention
    Iiro P Jaaskelainen
    Brain and Mind Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Aalto University School of Science, Espoo, 00076 Aalto, Finland
    Neural Plast 2014:216731. 2014
    ..Importantly, some of the auditory-cortical short-term plasticity effects observed during selective attention predict enhancements in behaviorally measured sound discrimination performance. ..
  30. ncbi request reprint Memory-based comparison process not attenuated by haloperidol: a combined MEG and EEG study
    Eero Pekkone
    Department of Neurology, Medical Engineering Centre, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland
    Neuroreport 13:177-81. 2002
    ..Our results indicate that memory-based sound comparison and preceding cortical processing underlying stimulus detection are not attenuated by haloperidol, whereas haloperidol appears to accelerate preattentive sound comparison...
  31. ncbi request reprint Tryptophan depletion effects on EEG and MEG responses suggest serotonergic modulation of auditory involuntary attention in humans
    Jyrki Ahveninen
    Cognitive Brain Research Unit, Department of Psychology, P O Box 13, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, FIN 00014, Finland
    Neuroimage 16:1052-61. 2002
    ..In conclusion, the results suggest that decreased level of central 5-HT function after ATD may decrease involuntary attention shifting to task-irrelevant sound changes and thus modulate resource allocation to the task-relevant activity...
  32. ncbi request reprint Serotonin modulates early cortical auditory processing in healthy subjects: evidence from MEG with acute tryptophan depletion
    Seppo Kahkonen
    BioMag Laboratory, Engineering Centre, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
    Neuropsychopharmacology 27:862-8. 2002
    ..The results suggest that the neurotransmitter serotonin is involved in early auditory cortical processing. Further, the serotonin modulation may be different in males and females...
  33. pmc Task-modulated "what" and "where" pathways in human auditory cortex
    Jyrki Ahveninen
    Harvard Medical School Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, CNY 149 13th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:14608-13. 2006
    ..This finding suggests that selective-attention effects are feature-specific in the human nonprimary auditory cortex and that they arise from enhanced tuning of receptive fields of task-relevant neuronal populations...
  34. ncbi request reprint Serotonergic modulation of mismatch negativity
    Seppo Kahkonen
    Cognitive Brain Research Unit, University of Helsinki, Finland
    Psychiatry Res 138:61-74. 2005
    ..No effects on P50 were observed. The present results suggest serotonergic modulation of preattentive auditory change detection, suggested to initiate involuntary attention shifting in the human brain...
  35. ncbi request reprint Auditory selective attention modulated by tryptophan depletion in humans
    Jyrki Ahveninen
    Department of Psychology, PO Box 9, FIN 00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Neurosci Lett 340:181-4. 2003
    ..The P50 latencies were increased after ATD, irrespective of attention. In conclusion, serotonin may regulate attentional modulation of early cortical stimulus processing...
  36. ncbi request reprint Cholinergic modulation of preattentive auditory processing in aging
    Eero Pekkonen
    Department of Neurology, University of Helsinki, PO Box 340, FIN 00029 HUS, Finland
    Neuroimage 27:387-92. 2005
    ..The combined MEG/EEG measurements using particularly auditory N100 response might offer an objective tool to monitor cholinergic activity in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  37. ncbi request reprint Enhanced magnetic auditory steady-state response in early Alzheimer's disease
    Daria Osipova
    Cognitive Brain Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Neurophysiol 117:1990-5. 2006
    ..We studied the auditory steady-state response (SSR) which represents the net effect of entrained background activity and superimposed cortical evoked responses, in AD patients and healthy controls...
  38. ncbi request reprint Inherited auditory-cortical dysfunction in twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia
    Jyrki Ahveninen
    Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 60:612-20. 2006
    ..We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate the inheritance of auditory-cortical deficiencies in twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia...
  39. pmc Parallel input makes the brain run faster
    Tommi Raij
    MGH MIT HMS Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Neuroimage 40:1792-7. 2008
    ..This arrangement could also allow very early top-down modulation of the bottom-up stream of sensory information...
  40. ncbi request reprint MRI-constrained spectral imaging of benzodiazepine modulation of spontaneous neuromagnetic activity in human cortex
    Jyrki Ahveninen
    Massachusetts General Hospital Massachusetts Institute of Technology Harvard Medical School Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, CNY149 13th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Neuroimage 35:577-82. 2007
    ..Anatomically constrained spectral imaging displays the cortical loci of drug effects on oscillatory brain activity, providing a novel tool for human pharmacological neuroimaging...
  41. ncbi request reprint Impaired pre-attentive auditory processing in opioid dependence with and without benzodiazepine co-dependence revealed by combined magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography
    Reetta Kivisaari
    Medical Imaging Centre, Box 281, Helsinki University Central Hospital, 00029 HUS, Finland
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 31:1378-86. 2007
    ..There were no group differences in EEG amplitude measures. In conclusion, our results suggest delayed pre-attentive auditory processing of novel information in opioid dependence. Benzodiazepine co-dependence modulated N1m response...
  42. ncbi request reprint Acute tryptophan depletion decreases intensity dependence of auditory evoked magnetic N1/P2 dipole source activity
    Seppo Kahkonen
    BioMag Laboratory, Engineering Centre, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P O Box 340, 00029 HUS, Finland
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 164:221-7. 2002
    ..Depletion of tryptophan (TRP), a precursor for serotonin has been described to reduce serotonin content in brain of animals and humans...
  43. ncbi request reprint Impaired temporal lobe processing of preattentive auditory discrimination in schizophrenia
    Eero Pekkonen
    Department of Neurology, University of Helsinki, Finland
    Schizophr Bull 28:467-74. 2002
    ..These results suggest that patients with schizophrenia have impaired auditory processing in the temporal lobes underlying preattentive stimulus discrimination that is also selectively delayed in the left hemisphere...
  44. ncbi request reprint Dopamine modulates involuntary attention shifting and reorienting: an electromagnetic study
    Seppo Kahkonen
    Cognitive Brain Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Neurophysiol 113:1894-902. 2002
    ..Dopaminergic function has been closely associated with attentional performance, but its precise role has remained elusive...
  45. pmc Dysfunction in early auditory processing in major depressive disorder revealed by combined MEG and EEG
    Seppo Kahkonen
    BioMag Laboratory, Helsinki University Central Hospital and the Cognitive Brain Research Unit, University of Helsinki, Helsinky, Finland
    J Psychiatry Neurosci 32:316-22. 2007
    ..We investigated whether MDD affects neural mechanisms of involuntary attention studied by auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) and auditory evoked magnetic fields (AEFs)...
  46. ncbi request reprint Acute tryptophan depletion does not change somatosensory evoked magnetic fields
    Seppo Kahkonen
    Cognitive Brain Research Unit, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 170:332-3. 2003
    ..Serotonin is shown to regulate the activity of primary auditory cortex, but little is known about serotonin modulation of other sensory cortices...
  47. ncbi request reprint Effects of scopolamine on MEG spectral power and coherence in elderly subjects
    Daria Osipova
    Cognitive Brain Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, P O Box 9 00014, Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Neurophysiol 114:1902-7. 2003
    ..In order to test the sensitivity of spectral power and hemispheric coherence to changes in cholinergic transmission, we evaluated quantitative magnetoencephalogram (MEG) after intravenous injection of scopolamine...
  48. pmc Human posterior auditory cortex gates novel sounds to consciousness
    Iiro P Jaaskelainen
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard Medical School, Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:6809-14. 2004
    ..Our converging findings suggest that transient adaptation of feature-specific neurons within human posterior auditory cortex filters superfluous sounds from entering one's awareness...
  49. ncbi request reprint Source estimation of spontaneous MEG oscillations in mild cognitive impairment
    Daria Osipova
    Cognitive Brain Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Neurosci Lett 405:57-61. 2006
    ..Deficits in the distribution of oscillatory sources in the resting state are thus likely to occur at later stages of cognitive impairment than MCI...
  50. ncbi request reprint Altered generation of spontaneous oscillations in Alzheimer's disease
    Daria Osipova
    Cognitive Brain Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Finland
    Neuroimage 27:835-41. 2005
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint Aging and cholinergic modulation of the transient magnetic 40-Hz auditory response
    Jyrki Ahveninen
    Cognitive Brain Research Unit, Department of Neurology, University of Helsinki, FIN 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Neuroimage 15:153-8. 2002
    ..In sum, the transient magnetic 40-Hz auditory response may be useful in studies on brain cholinergic deficits in elderly subjects...