Thomas M File

Summary

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Gemifloxacin: a new, potent fluoroquinolone for the therapy of lower respiratory tract infections
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities, College of Medicine and Summa Health System, 75 Arch St Suite 105, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2:831-43. 2004
  2. doi request reprint Duration and cessation of antimicrobial treatment
    Thomas M File
    Infectious Disease Section, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, Ohio
    J Hosp Med 7:S22-33. 2012
  3. doi request reprint Duration and cessation of antimicrobial treatment
    Thomas M File
    Infectious Disease Section, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, OH, USA
    J Hosp Med 7:S22-33. 2012
  4. doi request reprint Does empiric therapy for atypical pathogens improve outcomes for patients with CAP?
    Thomas M File
    Infectious Disease Section, Department of Internal Medicine, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, OH 44272, USA
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 27:99-114. 2013
  5. doi request reprint Summary of ceftaroline fosamil clinical trial studies and clinical safety
    Thomas M File
    Infectious Disease Section, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 55:S173-80. 2012
  6. doi request reprint FOCUS 1: a randomized, double-blinded, multicentre, Phase III trial of the efficacy and safety of ceftaroline fosamil versus ceftriaxone in community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rootstown, OH, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 66:iii19-32. 2011
  7. doi request reprint Integrated analysis of FOCUS 1 and FOCUS 2: randomized, doubled-blinded, multicenter phase 3 trials of the efficacy and safety of ceftaroline fosamil versus ceftriaxone in patients with community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rootstown, Ohio, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 51:1395-405. 2010
  8. doi request reprint New diagnostic tests for pneumonia: what is their role in clinical practice?
    Thomas M File
    Infectious Disease Section, Internal Medicine Department, Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rootstown, OH 44272, USA
    Clin Chest Med 32:417-30. 2011
  9. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of a new pharmacokinetically enhanced formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanate (2000/125 mg) in adults with community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, including penicillin-resistant strains
    Thomas M File
    Summa Health System, 75 Arch Street, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 25:110-9. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint The science of selecting antimicrobials for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)
    Thomas M File
    Infectious Disease Section, Northeastern Ohio University College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH, USA
    J Manag Care Pharm 15:S5-11. 2009

Detail Information

Publications67

  1. ncbi request reprint Gemifloxacin: a new, potent fluoroquinolone for the therapy of lower respiratory tract infections
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities, College of Medicine and Summa Health System, 75 Arch St Suite 105, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2:831-43. 2004
    ..2%. A nonphototoxic rash (usually a mild, maculopapular rash) was observed in 2.8% of patients in clinical studies...
  2. doi request reprint Duration and cessation of antimicrobial treatment
    Thomas M File
    Infectious Disease Section, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, Ohio
    J Hosp Med 7:S22-33. 2012
    ..Journal of Hospital Medicine 2012;7:S22-S33. © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine...
  3. doi request reprint Duration and cessation of antimicrobial treatment
    Thomas M File
    Infectious Disease Section, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, OH, USA
    J Hosp Med 7:S22-33. 2012
    ....
  4. doi request reprint Does empiric therapy for atypical pathogens improve outcomes for patients with CAP?
    Thomas M File
    Infectious Disease Section, Department of Internal Medicine, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, OH 44272, USA
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 27:99-114. 2013
    ....
  5. doi request reprint Summary of ceftaroline fosamil clinical trial studies and clinical safety
    Thomas M File
    Infectious Disease Section, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 55:S173-80. 2012
    ..aureus (93.0%-94.5%). Ceftaroline fosamil was well tolerated, with a safety profile similar to the comparator agents used in these phase 3 trials...
  6. doi request reprint FOCUS 1: a randomized, double-blinded, multicentre, Phase III trial of the efficacy and safety of ceftaroline fosamil versus ceftriaxone in community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rootstown, OH, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 66:iii19-32. 2011
    ....
  7. doi request reprint Integrated analysis of FOCUS 1 and FOCUS 2: randomized, doubled-blinded, multicenter phase 3 trials of the efficacy and safety of ceftaroline fosamil versus ceftriaxone in patients with community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rootstown, Ohio, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 51:1395-405. 2010
    ..Ceftaroline was evaluated for the treatment of CAP in 2 randomized, double-blind, multicenter trials: Ceftaroline Community Acquired Pneumonia Trial versus Ceftriaxone in Hospitalized Patients (FOCUS) 1 and FOCUS 2...
  8. doi request reprint New diagnostic tests for pneumonia: what is their role in clinical practice?
    Thomas M File
    Infectious Disease Section, Internal Medicine Department, Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rootstown, OH 44272, USA
    Clin Chest Med 32:417-30. 2011
    ..Subsequent studies and clinical experience will clarify their real clinical value...
  9. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of a new pharmacokinetically enhanced formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanate (2000/125 mg) in adults with community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, including penicillin-resistant strains
    Thomas M File
    Summa Health System, 75 Arch Street, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 25:110-9. 2005
    ..Both amoxicillin/clavulanate, 2000/125 mg and comparators were well tolerated, with few patients withdrawing from the studies...
  10. ncbi request reprint The science of selecting antimicrobials for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)
    Thomas M File
    Infectious Disease Section, Northeastern Ohio University College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH, USA
    J Manag Care Pharm 15:S5-11. 2009
    ..Initiating appropriate empiric therapy can be challenging given elevated resistance rates among Streptococcus pneumoniae strains...
  11. ncbi request reprint Evolution of amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of adults with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and community-acquired pneumonia in response to antimicrobial-resistance patterns
    Thomas M File
    Department of Internal Medicine, Northwestern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH, USA
    Clin Lab Med 24:531-51. 2004
    ..The b-lactamase inhibitor clavulanate allows for coverage of b-lactamase-producing pathogens, such as H influenzae and M catarrhalis. This article reviews the rationale for, and evolution of, oral amoxicillin clavulanate for ABRS and CAP..
  12. ncbi request reprint Gemifloxacin once daily for 5 days versus 7 days for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized, multicentre, double-blind study
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH and Summa Health System, 75 Arch Street, Suite 105, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 60:112-20. 2007
    ..Short-course therapy has been advocated for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We compared the efficacy and safety of 5 and 7 day courses of gemifloxacin for outpatient treatment of mild-moderate CAP...
  13. ncbi request reprint Streptococcus pneumoniae and community-acquired pneumonia: a cause for concern
    Thomas M File
    Infectious Disease Service, Summa Health System, Akron, Ohio, USA
    Am J Med 117:39S-50S. 2004
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Antimicrobial therapy of community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Summa Health System, 75 Arch Street, Suite 105, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 18:993-1016, xi. 2004
    ....
  15. ncbi request reprint The development of pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin/clavulanate for the management of respiratory tract infections in adults
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH Infectious Disease Service, Summa Health System, Akron, OH, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 30:S131-4. 2007
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint Emergence of levofloxacin-resistant pneumococci in immunocompromised adults after therapy for community-acquired pneumonia
    Kevin B Anderson
    Summa Health System, Akron, Ohio 44304, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 37:376-81. 2003
    ..In immunocompromised patients with suspected or proven pneumococcal infection, it may be prudent not to use fluoroquinolone monotherapy empirically when the patient has a history of fluoroquinolone therapy in at least the past 4 months...
  17. doi request reprint A disease model descriptive of progression between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations and community-acquired pneumonia: roles for underlying lung disease and the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 33:58-64. 2009
    ..For S. pneumoniae, achieving an AUIC > or =100 can attenuate progression, regardless of GLG. Thus, AUIC > or = 100 appears to be a viable antibiotic selection strategy to protect patients with S. pneumoniae from developing CAP...
  18. doi request reprint Burden of community-acquired pneumonia in North American adults
    Thomas M File
    Department of Internal Medicine, Northeastern Ohio University, College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH, USA
    Postgrad Med 122:130-41. 2010
    ..Given the significance of the disease burden, the potential benefit of pneumococcal vaccination in adults is substantial...
  19. ncbi request reprint [Clinical impact of appropriate use of antibiotic in hospital according to CARAT criteria]
    Thomas M File
    Infectious Disease Section, Department of Internal Medicine, Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, Ohio, USA
    Infez Med 16:30-7. 2008
    ..Promoting the appropriate use of antibiotics should provide for optimal outcomes for our patients...
  20. ncbi request reprint How long should we treat community-acquired pneumonia?
    Nikole M Scalera
    Summa Health System, Akron, Ohio 44304, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 20:177-81. 2007
    ....
  21. doi request reprint Case studies of lower respiratory tract infections: community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Disease Section, Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rootstown, Ohio, USA
    Am J Med 123:S4-15. 2010
    ..The cases presented in this review highlight many of the recent recommendations from the IDSA/ATS guidelines...
  22. doi request reprint Recommendations for treatment of hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia: review of recent international guidelines
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, and Summa Health System, Akron, Ohio, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 51:S42-7. 2010
    ..Developers of future clinical trials will need to be mindful of these recommendations to maintain best practice care for each investigator...
  23. ncbi request reprint Guidelines for empiric antimicrobial prescribing in community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH, USA
    Chest 125:1888-901. 2004
    ..Prospective data are required to evaluate which of these two approaches offers clinical superiority...
  24. ncbi request reprint International guidelines for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults: the role of macrolides
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, Ohio, USA
    Drugs 63:181-205. 2003
    ..The difference in the emphasis placed on the importance of the atypical pathogens as well as the expression of MRSP in North America compared with Europe partly explains this variance...
  25. ncbi request reprint New insights in the treatment by levofloxacin
    Thomas M File
    Infectious Disease Service, Summa Health System, Akron, Ohio 44304, USA
    Chemotherapy 50:22-8. 2004
    ..Remarkably, levofloxacin continues to expand its list of indications. The development of a new high-dose 750-mg schedule has the potential to decrease the duration of treatment as well as reduce the emergence of resistance...
  26. ncbi request reprint Evaluation and use of a rapid Staphylococcus aureus assay by an antimicrobial stewardship program
    Tamara L Trienski
    Tamara L Trienski, Pharm D, is Clinical Lead Pharmacist Antimicrobial Stewardship Heather L Barrett, M D, is Postgraduate Year IV Pathology Resident Timothy R Pasquale, Pharm D, M B A, is Clinical Lead Pharmacist Infectious Disease and Joseph R DiPersio, Ph D, DABMM, is Director of Microbiology, Summa Health System Akron City Hospital, Akron, OH Thomas M File Jr, M D, M Sc, MACP, FIDSA, FCCP, is Chair, Division of Infectious Disease, Summa Health System Akron City Hospital, and Professor, Internal Medicine, and Master Teacher and Chair, Infectious Disease Section, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown
    Am J Health Syst Pharm 70:1908-12. 2013
    ..The performance of a rapid test for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a large community hospital was investigated...
  27. ncbi request reprint Impact of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the hospital setting
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    Cleve Clin J Med 74:S6-11. 2007
    ..This article provides a brief review of the differences between health care-associated and community-acquired MRSA and discusses the potential impact of the changing epidemiology of MRSA on the hospital setting...
  28. ncbi request reprint Solutions to the problem of bacterial resistance
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Akron, Ohio 44304, USA
    Treat Respir Med 4:25-30. 2005
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint Community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, Ohio, and Infectious Disease Service, Summa Health System, Akron, Ohio, USA
    Lancet 362:1991-2001. 2003
    ..The appropriate use of vaccines against pneumococcal disease and influenza should be encouraged. Several guidelines for management of CAP have recently been published, the recommendations of which are reviewed...
  30. doi request reprint What can we learn from the time course of untreated and partially treated community-onset Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia? A clinical perspective on superiority and noninferiority trial designs for mild community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, Ohio, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 47:S157-65. 2008
    ..Because the composite rate of success in recent randomized clinical trials exceeds 90%, it would seem that a noninferiority margin of 10% is reasonable for trials for mild CAP...
  31. ncbi request reprint Clinical implications of 750 mg, 5-day levofloxacin for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH, USA
    Curr Med Res Opin 20:1473-81. 2004
    ..To evaluate the time to symptom resolution and i.v.-to-p.o. transition in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients treated with 750 mg or 500 mg levofloxacin...
  32. ncbi request reprint Legionnaires disease with bacteremic coinfection
    Michael J Tan
    Department of Internal Medicine, Summa Health System, Akron, OH, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 35:533-9. 2002
    ..Initial empiric antimicrobial therapy for patients who live in areas of endemicity and who are smokers should be treated with antimicrobial agents that have activity against pneumococcus and Legionella species...
  33. ncbi request reprint A new dosing paradigm: high-dose, short-course fluoroquinolone therapy for community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Northeastern Ohio University College of Medicine, Rootstown, Ohio, USA
    Clin Cornerstone . 2003
    ..This article discusses the use of high-dose, short-course fluoroquinolone therapy as an effective option for patients with community-acquired pneumonia...
  34. ncbi request reprint Management of community-acquired pneumonia: a focus on conversion from hospital to the ambulatory setting
    James S Tan
    Infectious Disease Section, Department of Internal Medicine, Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine and Summa Health System, Akron, Ohio 44304, USA
    Am J Respir Med 2:385-94. 2003
    ..Following prompt intravenous therapy and stabilization, patients with CAP should be treated with oral therapy in the ambulatory setting...
  35. ncbi request reprint Clinical efficacy of newer agents in short-duration therapy for community-acquired pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Department of Internal Medicine, Northeastern Ohio Universities, College of Medicine, Rootstown, Ohio, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 39:S159-64. 2004
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint Impact of an antimicrobial stewardship program on patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections
    Timothy R Pasquale
    Timothy R Pasquale, Pharm D, M B A, is Infectious Disease Clinical Specialist, Carolinas HealthCare System, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC Tamara L Trienski, Pharm D, is Clinical Lead Pharmacist, Antimicrobial Stewardship and Deana E Olexia, Pharm D, is Clinical Staff Pharmacist, Summa Health System, Akron City Hospital, Akron, OH Joseph P Myers, M D, is Vice President of Medical Affairs, Southwest Region, Summa Health System, Summa Barberton Hospital, Barberton, OH Michael J Tan, M D, is Infectious Disease Physician Anthony K Leung, D O, is Infectious Disease Physician Jose E Poblete, M D, is Infectious Disease Physician and Thomas M File Jr, M D, is Infectious Disease Physician, Summa Health System, Akron
    Am J Health Syst Pharm 71:1136-9. 2014
    ..The impact of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) on the management of therapy and hospital resources for patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) at a community teaching hospital was evaluated...
  37. doi request reprint Performance measure of urinary antigen in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia
    John Selickman
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 67:129-33. 2010
    ..03). Test performance was less sensitive than prospective studies indicate. Patients with impaired renal function were significantly more likely to have positive UAg tests...
  38. ncbi request reprint Outcome of treatment of respiratory tract infections due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, including drug-resistant strains, with pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxycillin/clavulanate
    Thomas M File
    Summa Health System, Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, 75 Arch Street, Suite 105, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 20:235-47. 2002
    ..pneumoniae infection as this formulation covers many PRSP that are non-susceptible to amoxycillin (+/-clavulanic acid) (MICs of >/=4 mg/l) as well as common beta-lactamase-producing respiratory pathogens...
  39. ncbi request reprint Ventilator-associated pneumonia: gearing towards shorter-course therapy
    Thea de Jesus Chua
    Summa Health System, 75 Arch Street, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 19:185-8. 2006
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureas: not only a cause of skin infections, also a new cause of pneumonia
    Thomas M File
    Summa Health System, Akron, Ohio, USA and Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, Ohio, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 18:123-4. 2005
  41. ncbi request reprint Effect of Introducing Procalcitonin on Antimicrobial Therapy Duration in Patients With Sepsis and/or Pneumonia in the Intensive Care Unit
    Bryan M Bishop
    Summa Health System, Akron City Hospital, Akron, OH, USA
    Ann Pharmacother 48:577-83. 2014
    ..Utilizing procalcitonin (PCT) levels to limit antimicrobial overuse would be beneficial from a humanistic and economic perspective...
  42. doi request reprint Emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 genotype as a major cause of late-onset nosocomial pneumonia in intensive care patients in the USA
    Timothy R Pasquale
    Summa Health System, Akron City Hospital, 525 E Market Street, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    Int J Infect Dis 17:e398-403. 2013
    ..To compare demographic and clinical characteristics, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain characteristics, in patients with early-onset (EO) and late-onset (LO) MRSA nosocomial pneumonia...
  43. ncbi request reprint Lower respiratory tract infections
    Thomas M File
    Summa Health System, 75 Arch Street, Akron, OH 44304, USA
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 18:xiii-xiv. 2004
  44. ncbi request reprint Rational use of antibiotics to treat respiratory tract infections
    Thomas M File
    Department of Medicine, Summa Health System, Akron, OH, USA
    Am J Manag Care 8:713-27. 2002
    ..To foster the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents for respiratory tract infections and to review factors that should help achieve this objective...
  45. doi request reprint Determining the duration of therapy for patients with community-acquired pneumonia
    Nikole M Scalera
    Summa Health System, 75 Arch St Suite 506, Akron, OH, 44304, USA
    Curr Infect Dis Rep 15:191-5. 2013
    ..CAP treatment duration can further be reduced successfully into the clinical setting with the assistance of an antibiotic stewardship team...
  46. ncbi request reprint Telithromycin new product overview
    Thomas M File
    Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Northeastern Ohio University, Rootstown, OH, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 115:S1-13. 2005
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint Managing patients with recurrent acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: a common clinical problem
    Sanjay Sethi
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, State University of New York, VA Medical Research, Buffalo, NY, USA
    Curr Med Res Opin 20:1511-21. 2004
    ..There is a substantial need for more research to understand the etiology and identify efficacious interventions to reduce the frequency of exacerbations of COPD...
  48. ncbi request reprint Clinical and public health implications of macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
    R C Moellering
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Chemother 14:42-56. 2002
    ..Further studies are required to monitor and control macrolide resistance and evaluate settings in which macrolide treatment failures are occurring, and new therapeutic interventions are needed...
  49. ncbi request reprint Oral gemifloxacin versus sequential therapy with intravenous ceftriaxone/oral cefuroxime with or without a macrolide in the treatment of patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized, open-label, multicenter study of clinical effic
    Hartmut Lode
    Department of Chest and Infectious Diseases, Hospital Heckeshorn, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus, Free University Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Clin Ther 24:1915-36. 2002
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint Optimizing therapy for community-acquired pneumonia with the goal of rapid resolution of illness
    Thomas M File
    Clin Infect Dis 41:1706-8. 2005
  51. ncbi request reprint Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults
    Lionel A Mandell
    McMaster University Medical School, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 44:S27-72. 2007
  52. pmc Prevalence and antibacterial susceptibility of mef(A)-positive macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae over 4 years (2000 to 2004) of the PROTEKT US Study
    David J Farrell
    G R Micro Ltd, 7 9 William Rd, London NW1 3ER, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 45:290-3. 2007
    ..However, the ketolide antibacterial telithromycin consistently demonstrated in vitro activity against these isolates over the 4 years of the study (MIC90=0.5 to 1 microg/ml)...
  53. ncbi request reprint Update of practice guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent adults
    Lionel A Mandell
    McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 37:1405-33. 2003
  54. ncbi request reprint Medication options for the treatment of CAP
    Lionel A Mandell
    Am Fam Physician 74:1479. 2006
  55. ncbi request reprint Levofloxacin for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia
    Joseph P Lynch
    University of California, Los Angeles, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care Medicine and Hospitalists, The David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 4:725-42. 2006
    ..However, ciprofloxacin-resistant organisms are becoming more prevalent so prudence must be exercised when prescribing this agent...
  56. ncbi request reprint Performance measurement in community-acquired pneumonia: consequences intended and unintended
    Thomas M File
    Clin Infect Dis 44:942-4. 2007
  57. ncbi request reprint The clinical relevance of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: a new perspective
    Thomas M File
    Clin Infect Dis 42:798-800. 2006
  58. ncbi request reprint Etiology and management of community-acquired pneumonia in Asia
    Toshiharu Matsushima
    Division of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Medicine, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Japan
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 15:157-62. 2002
    ..pneumoniae. Some Asian countries have their own guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia, but these are written in their own languages...
  59. pmc Factors associated with antimicrobial resistance and mortality in pneumococcal bacteremia
    Mark I Neuman
    Division of Emergency Medicine, Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Emerg Med 32:349-57. 2007
    ..7). Harboring an antibiotic non-susceptible strain (OR 1.4) and male sex (OR 1.4) were associated with increased risk of mortality, whereas black race (OR 0.6) and evidence of focal infection (OR 0.6) were associated with decreased risk...
  60. ncbi request reprint Viral respiratory tract infections: increasing importance and a new pathogen
    Thomas M File
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 16:125-7. 2003
  61. ncbi request reprint What is optimal antimicrobial therapy for bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia?
    Thomas M File
    Clin Infect Dis 36:396-8. 2003
  62. ncbi request reprint Integrated results of 2 phase 3 studies comparing tigecycline and levofloxacin in community-acquired pneumonia
    Cristina Tanaseanu
    Department of Internal Medicine, St Pantelimon Clinical Emergency Hospital, Bucharest OP 22, Romania
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 61:329-38. 2008
    ..6% TGC versus 6.9% LEV) were significantly higher in LEV. Discontinuations for AEs were low (TGC, 26 patients [6.1%]; LEV, 34 patients [8.1%]). TGC appeared safe and achieved cure rates similar to LEV in hospitalized patients with CAP...
  63. ncbi request reprint A clinician's guide to the appropriate and accurate use of antibiotics: the Council for Appropriate and Rational Antibiotic Therapy (CARAT) criteria
    Thomas G Slama
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
    Am J Med 118:1S-6S. 2005
    ..The criteria, which are aimed at optimizing antibiotic therapy, include evidence-based results, therapeutic benefits, safety, optimal drug for the optimal duration, and cost-effectiveness...
  64. ncbi request reprint Judicious use of antibiotics to treat respiratory tract infections
    Thomas M File
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 15:149-50. 2002
  65. ncbi request reprint A worldwide perspective of atypical pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia
    Forest W Arnold
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 175:1086-93. 2007
    ..In different regions of the world, monotherapy with a beta-lactam antimicrobial is common...
  66. ncbi request reprint Short-course treatment of community-acquired pneumonia
    Lionel A Mandell
    Clin Infect Dis 37:761-3. 2003
  67. ncbi request reprint Pneumonia in older adults: reversing the trend
    Thomas M File
    JAMA 294:2760-3. 2005