Harun Evrengul

Summary

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Serial analyses of ventricular late potentials in patients with reciprocal ST segment changes during acute myocardial infarction
    Levent Can
    Department of Cardiology, Ege University School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey
    Jpn Heart J 44:1-10. 2003
  2. ncbi request reprint The effect of preinfarction angina on clinical reperfusion time in patients with acute myocardial infarction receiving successful thrombolytic therapy
    Harun Evrengul
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Can J Cardiol 21:915-20. 2005
  3. ncbi request reprint Spectral and time-domain analyses of heart-rate variability during head-upright tilt-table testing in children with neurally mediated syncope
    Harun Evrengul
    Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Pediatr Cardiol 27:670-8. 2006
  4. ncbi request reprint Relation of insulin resistance and left ventricular function and structure in non-diabetic patients with essential hypertension
    Harun Evrengul
    Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Acta Cardiol 60:191-8. 2005
  5. ncbi request reprint Time and frequency domain analyses of heart rate variability in patients with epilepsy
    Harun Evrengul
    Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Yunus Emre Mh 6402 sk 12 7, Kinikli Denizli, Turkey
    Epilepsy Res 63:131-9. 2005
  6. ncbi request reprint Bilateral diagonal earlobe crease and coronary artery disease: a significant association
    Harun Evrengul
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Dermatology 209:271-5. 2004
  7. ncbi request reprint The antiarrhythmic effect and clinical consequences of ischemic preconditioning
    Harun Evrengul
    Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey
    Coron Artery Dis 17:283-8. 2006
  8. ncbi request reprint Interaction of plasma homocysteine and thyroid hormone concentrations in the pathogenesis of the slow coronary flow phenomenon
    Harun Evrengul
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Cardiology 108:186-92. 2007
  9. ncbi request reprint Elevated homocysteine levels in patients with slow coronary flow: relationship with Helicobacter pylori infection
    Harun Evrengul
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, 12 7 Kinikli, Denizli, Turkey
    Helicobacter 12:298-305. 2007
  10. ncbi request reprint The relationship between heart rate recovery and heart rate variability in coronary artery disease
    Harun Evrengul
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 11:154-62. 2006

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications53

  1. ncbi request reprint Serial analyses of ventricular late potentials in patients with reciprocal ST segment changes during acute myocardial infarction
    Levent Can
    Department of Cardiology, Ege University School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey
    Jpn Heart J 44:1-10. 2003
    ..The improvement in SAECG parameters after TT in these patients is probably the result of earlier reperfusion leading to less myocardial damage...
  2. ncbi request reprint The effect of preinfarction angina on clinical reperfusion time in patients with acute myocardial infarction receiving successful thrombolytic therapy
    Harun Evrengul
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Can J Cardiol 21:915-20. 2005
    ..The beneficial effects of PA on infarct size have been attributed to the development of ischemic preconditioning and faster coronary recanalization in patients treated with thrombolytic therapy (TT)...
  3. ncbi request reprint Spectral and time-domain analyses of heart-rate variability during head-upright tilt-table testing in children with neurally mediated syncope
    Harun Evrengul
    Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Pediatr Cardiol 27:670-8. 2006
    ..This exaggerated response may be the factor that activates the pathological reflexes of NS. The pathological mechanism leading to NS appears to be independent of the specific type of hemodynamic response to HUT...
  4. ncbi request reprint Relation of insulin resistance and left ventricular function and structure in non-diabetic patients with essential hypertension
    Harun Evrengul
    Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Acta Cardiol 60:191-8. 2005
    ..Insulin may exert a direct growth-promoting effect on cardiomyocytes. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between left ventricular structure, function and IR in patients with EH...
  5. ncbi request reprint Time and frequency domain analyses of heart rate variability in patients with epilepsy
    Harun Evrengul
    Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Yunus Emre Mh 6402 sk 12 7, Kinikli Denizli, Turkey
    Epilepsy Res 63:131-9. 2005
    ..This increased sympathetic activity could play a key role in the development of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with epilepsy and may be related to the higher incidence of sudden death in this disorder as compared to controls...
  6. ncbi request reprint Bilateral diagonal earlobe crease and coronary artery disease: a significant association
    Harun Evrengul
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Dermatology 209:271-5. 2004
    ..The association between the presence of diagonal earlobe crease (ELC) and coronary artery disease (CAD) still remains controversial...
  7. ncbi request reprint The antiarrhythmic effect and clinical consequences of ischemic preconditioning
    Harun Evrengul
    Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey
    Coron Artery Dis 17:283-8. 2006
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint Interaction of plasma homocysteine and thyroid hormone concentrations in the pathogenesis of the slow coronary flow phenomenon
    Harun Evrengul
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Cardiology 108:186-92. 2007
    ..Accordingly, we investigated the levels of plasma Hcy and thyroid hormones and their relationship in patients with SCF...
  9. ncbi request reprint Elevated homocysteine levels in patients with slow coronary flow: relationship with Helicobacter pylori infection
    Harun Evrengul
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, 12 7 Kinikli, Denizli, Turkey
    Helicobacter 12:298-305. 2007
    ..Helicobacter pylori chronically infect the human stomach and causes malabsorption of vitamin B(12) and folate in food, leading ultimately to an increase in circulating Hcy levels...
  10. ncbi request reprint The relationship between heart rate recovery and heart rate variability in coronary artery disease
    Harun Evrengul
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 11:154-62. 2006
    ..Reduced heart rate recovery (HRR) in coronary artery disease (CAD) is predictive of increased cardiovascular mortality and is related to reduced parasympathetic tonus...
  11. ncbi request reprint [Ischemic preconditioning]
    Harun Evrengul
    Pamukkale Universitesi Tip Fakultesi, Kardiyoloji Anabilim Dali, Denizli
    Anadolu Kardiyol Derg 3:144-9. 2003
    ..The exploration of the exact mechanisms of ischemic preconditioning might improve the treatment strategies for acute myocardial infarction in the future...
  12. ncbi request reprint Heart rate variability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
    Harun Evrengul
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Rheumatol Int 24:198-202. 2004
    ..This increased sympathetic activity could play a key role in the development of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in RA and may be related to the higher incidence of sudden death in this disorder...
  13. ncbi request reprint QT dispersion and left ventricular hypertrophy in athletes: relationship with angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D polymorphism
    Halil Tanriverdi
    Department of Cardiology, Medical Faculty, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey
    Acta Cardiol 60:387-93. 2005
    ..The aim of this study was to assess whether physiologic left ventricular hypertrophy as a result of physical training is associated with an increased QT length or dispersion depending on ACE I/D polymorphism...
  14. ncbi request reprint [Do left ventricular mass, diameters and long-axis systolic function differ according to angiotensin converting enzyme genotypes?]
    Dursun Dursunoglu
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University, Medical Faculty, 20200 Denizli, Turkey
    Anadolu Kardiyol Derg 5:172-7. 2005
    ..In this study we aimed to investigate the relation between ACE I/D gene polymorphism and left ventricular mass (LVM), dimensions and systolic functions calculated by mitral annular motion (MAM) in young healthy male subjects...
  15. ncbi request reprint Early sign of atherosclerosis in slow coronary flow and relationship with angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D polymorphism
    Halil Tanriverdi
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Heart Vessels 22:1-8. 2007
    ..Increased IMT in patients with SCF shows that subclinical atherosclerosis may play role in this phenomenon. This increase was most marked in the presence of D allele of ACE genotype, which is associated with vascular hypertrophy...
  16. ncbi request reprint Carotid intima-media thickness in coronary slow flow: relationship with plasma homocysteine levels
    Halil Tanriverdi
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Coron Artery Dis 17:331-7. 2006
    ..In this study, we aimed to determine the carotid artery intima-media thickness, which is a marker of atherosclerosis in patients with coronary slow flow, and its possible relationship with the total homocysteine level...
  17. ncbi request reprint Effect of obstructive sleep apnea on aortic elastic parameters: relationship to left ventricular mass and function
    Halil Tanriverdi
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Circ J 70:737-43. 2006
    ..Aortic elastic parameters are important markers for left ventricular (LV) function and are deteriorated in cardiovascular disease...
  18. ncbi request reprint Effect of homocysteine-induced oxidative stress on endothelial function in coronary slow-flow
    Halil Tanriverdi
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Cardiology 107:313-20. 2007
    ..In our study, endothelial function in patients with CSF and their relationship with Hcy and oxidative stress parameters are investigated...
  19. ncbi request reprint Do female patients with metabolic syndrome have masked left ventricular dysfunction?
    Dursun Dursunoglu
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University, Medical Faculty, 20200 Denizli, Turkey
    Anadolu Kardiyol Derg 5:283-8. 2005
    ....
  20. ncbi request reprint Aortic stiffness, flow-mediated dilatation and carotid intima-media thickness in obstructive sleep apnea: non-invasive indicators of atherosclerosis
    Halil Tanriverdi
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Respiration 73:741-50. 2006
    ..Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and aortic stiffness are early signs of atherosclerosis. The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed in OSA patients using these parameters...
  21. ncbi request reprint Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme polymorphism on aortic elastic parameters in athletes
    Halil Tanriverdi
    Department of Cardiology, Medical Faculty, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey
    Cardiology 104:113-9. 2005
    ..Therefore, the ACE genes, which have been shown to be polymorphic, could be candidate genes for large-artery stiffness...
  22. ncbi request reprint Cigarette smoking induced oxidative stress may impair endothelial function and coronary blood flow in angiographically normal coronary arteries
    Halil Tanriverdi
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Circ J 70:593-9. 2006
    ..In the present study the effect of smoking on endothelial functions and coronary flow was investigated, as well as the relationship of these factors with oxidative stress parameters, in subjects with normal coronary arteries...
  23. ncbi request reprint Effects of a beta-blocker on ventricular late potentials in patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction receiving successful thrombolytic therapy
    Harun Evrengul
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Jpn Heart J 45:11-21. 2004
    ..012, McNemar test). Beta-blockers reduce the incidence of LPs following thrombolytic therapy in patients with anterior AMI. This might be explained by the possible beneficial effect of BB on the arrhythmogenic substrate...
  24. ncbi request reprint Simvastatin may improve myocardial perfusion abnormality in slow coronary flow
    Mahmut Cakmak
    Department of Cardiology, Siyami Ersek Cardiac and Thoracic Surgery Center, Istanbul, Turkey
    Cardiology 110:39-44. 2008
    ..We aimed to investigate the effect of statin on myocardial perfusion in patients with SCF...
  25. ncbi request reprint Assessment of systolic function by atrioventricular plane displacement in patients with diastolic dysfunction
    Dursun Dursunoglu
    Pamukkale University Medical Faculty, Department of Cardiology, Denizli, Turkey
    Acta Cardiol 59:409-15. 2004
    ..The aim of our study is to estimate the left ventricular ejection fraction by AVPD method (EFAVPD), in addition to Teicholz's short axis method (EF-T) and Simpson's biplane method (EF-2D) in patients with DD...
  26. ncbi request reprint Improved endothelium dependent vasodilation in endurance athletes and its relation with ACE I/D polymorphism
    Halil Tanriverdi
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Circ J 69:1105-10. 2005
    ..In this study, the relationship between endothelial function and ACE gene polymorphisms was investigated in athletes and sedentary subjects...
  27. ncbi request reprint Effect of insulin resistance on left ventricular structural changes in hypertensive patients
    H Asuman Kaftan
    Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pamukkale, Denizli, Turkey
    Int Heart J 47:391-400. 2006
    ..003). Cardiac changes in hypertensive patients include increased LVMI and altered LV geometry. The concentric LV geometry seen in hypertensive patients might be mediated, at least in part, by increased insulin levels and the HOMA index...
  28. ncbi request reprint Effect of pre-infarction angina on ventricular late potentials in patients with acute myocardial infarction and successful thrombolysis
    Harun Evrengul
    Ege University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Izmir, Turkey
    Acta Cardiol 58:295-301. 2003
    ..It is also well established that thrombolytic therapy reduces the incidence of LP. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between pre-infarction angina and LP in patients receiving successful thrombolytic therapy...
  29. ncbi request reprint The effect of statin therapy on ventricular late potentials in acute myocardial infarction
    Meral Kayikcioglu
    Ege University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Izmir, Turkey
    Int J Cardiol 90:63-72. 2003
    ..To determine whether early statin therapy in acute myocardial infarction has any effect on ventricular late potentials which are considered as a noninvasive tool for evaluation of arrhythmogenic substrate...
  30. ncbi request reprint Aortic elastic properties in patients with coronary artery ectasia
    Nurullah Tuzun
    Department of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey
    Circ J 71:506-10. 2007
    ....
  31. doi request reprint Aortic stiffness and flow-mediated dilatation in normotensive offspring of parents with hypertension
    Harun Evrengul
    Department of Cardiology, Sifa Hospital, Sanayi Caddesi No 7, Izmir, Turkey
    Cardiol Young 22:451-6. 2012
    ..Accordingly, the current study was designated to evaluate flow-mediated dilatation and aortic stiffness, which are early signs of atherosclerosis in young subjects with parental history of hypertension...
  32. doi request reprint Oxidative stress parameters in patients with slow coronary flow
    Yasar Enli
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey
    Adv Ther 25:37-44. 2008
    ..We investigated the probable role of free-radical damage in the pathogenesis of slow coronary flow (SCF) by using oxidative stress parameters...
  33. ncbi request reprint Multiple myxomas originating from anterior and posterior mitral leaflets in the left ventricle leading to LV outflow tract obstruction
    Ali Vefa Ozcan
    Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey
    Circ J 72:1709-11. 2008
    ..The myxomas were successfully removed with the mitral leaflets via left atriotomy and mitral valve replacement. No embolic events occurred in the preoperative or postoperative period. In this article, we wanted to present...
  34. doi request reprint 30-year patency of a saphenous vein graft in coronary bypass graft surgery
    Ali Vefa Ozcan
    Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Kinikli, Turkey
    Ann Thorac Surg 85:e23. 2008
  35. ncbi request reprint Lp(a) lipoprotein and lipids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: serum levels and relationship to inflammation
    Dursun Dursunoglu
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University Medical Faculty, Denizli, Turkey
    Rheumatol Int 25:241-5. 2005
    ..The associations of Lp(a) levels with atherosclerotic disorders, diabetes, RA, and renal diseases suggest that Lp(a) might be involved in autoimmune reactions...
  36. ncbi request reprint The association between coronary flow rate and impaired heart rate recovery in patients with metabolic syndrome: A preliminary report
    Yusuf I Alihanoglu
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Cardiol J 21:257-64. 2014
    ..The aim of this study is to evaluate heart rate recovery (HRR) and association between coronary flow rate and HRR in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) who had morphologically normal coronary angiogram...
  37. doi request reprint Myocardial infarction in a 17-year-old patient due to neurofibromatosis-associated coronary aneurysm
    Harun Evrengul
    Department of Cardiology, Sifa University, Izmir, Turkey
    Cardiol Young 23:454-6. 2013
    ..A 17-year-old girl with neurofibromatosis presented to our institute with subacute myocardial infarction. Coronary angiogram revealed an aneurysm with thrombus in the left anterior descending artery...
  38. ncbi request reprint Preservation of pleural integrity in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: effect on postoperative bleeding and respiratory function
    Ibrahim Goksin
    Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine, Heart Center, Kinikli Denizli, Turkey
    Acta Cardiol 61:89-94. 2006
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of preserved integrity of pleura on postoperative bleeding and respiratory function in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)...
  39. doi request reprint Aortic pressures, stiffness and left ventricular function in coronary slow flow phenomenon
    Halil Tanriverdi
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Cardiology 116:261-7. 2010
    ..In this study, we aimed to evaluate central aortic pressure, aortic stiffness and left ventricular (LV) function in patients with coronary slow flow...
  40. ncbi request reprint Clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of the patients with relatively slow atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia
    Harun Evrengul
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    J Interv Card Electrophysiol 40:117-23. 2014
    ....
  41. doi request reprint Coronary artery perforations: four different cases and a review
    Ismail Dogu Kilic
    Pamukkale University, Medical Faculty, Department of Cardiology, 20070 Denizli Turkey Electronic address
    Rev Port Cardiol 32:811-5. 2013
    ..A short literature review, in addition to four cases of CAP, is presented in this report. ..
  42. ncbi request reprint Angiotensin-converting enzyme polymorphism in healthy young subjects: relationship to left ventricular mass and functions
    Dursun Dursunoglu
    Pamukkale University Medical Faculty, Department of Cardiology, Denizli, Turkey
    Acta Cardiol 60:153-8. 2005
    ..The aim of the study is to analyse the ACE gene I/D polymorphisms in healthy young subjects and to evaluate its relationship to left ventricular mass and functions...
  43. ncbi request reprint Severe sleep apnea syndrome diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction
    Nese Dursunoglu
    Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Pamukkale Universitesi Tip Fak, Gogus Hastaliklari Anabilim Dali, Kinikli 20200, Denizli, Turkey
    Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 15:e3-6. 2007
    ..Apnea and desaturation resolved on bi-level positive airway pressure. Patients with acute myocardial infarction who have apnea and hypoxemia without evident heart failure should be evaluated for sleep disorders...
  44. doi request reprint The safety and efficacy of etanercept on cardiac functions and lipid profile in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis
    Soner Senel
    Division of Rheumatology, Cumhuriyet University School of Medicine, Sivas, Turkey
    J Investig Med 60:62-5. 2012
    ..We sought to assess the effects of etanercept on cardiac functions and lipid profile in RA patients without overt cardiac disease...
  45. pmc Iatrogenic cardiac herniation and torsion after surgery for a penetrating cardiac injury
    Gokhan Onem
    Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Pamukkale University, 20070 Denizli, Turkey
    Tex Heart Inst J 33:526-8. 2006
    ..We present an unusual case of sudden cardiogenic shock that was caused by torsion and herniation of the heart after an operation for a penetrating cardiac injury. The patient was successfully treated by urgent surgical intervention...
  46. ncbi request reprint Massive right atrial myxoma causing right ventricular inflow obstruction: an unusual presentation of myxoma
    Veysel Sahin
    Division of Cardiac Surgery, Sifa Medical Center, Izmir, Turkey
    J Card Surg 25:293-5. 2010
    ..The tumor was detected by echocardiography and resected along with a section of the tricuspid septal leaflet, followed by primary repair, resulting in relief of her symptoms...
  47. doi request reprint Left ventricular non-compaction in pregnancy
    Ismail Dogu Kilic
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Istanbul, Turkey
    Cardiovasc J Afr 24:e1-2. 2013
    ..In this case report we present a patient who referred to our clinic with symptoms of heart failure during pregnancy and whose echocardiographic examination revealed prominent trabeculations in the left ventricle...
  48. ncbi request reprint Calcified giant congenital non-coronary sinus Valsalva aneurysm ruptured into the left ventricular outflow tract
    Ali Vefa Ozcan
    Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey
    Anadolu Kardiyol Derg 7:E2-3. 2007
  49. doi request reprint Effect of infliximab treatment on QT intervals in patients with ankylosing spondylitis
    Soner Senel
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Cumhuriyet University School of Medicine, Sivas, Turkey
    J Investig Med 59:1273-5. 2011
    ..Early detection of possible cardiac involvement may not be clinically evident, whereas it may be detected by electrocardiography...
  50. ncbi request reprint Disappearance of myocardial bridging of the left anterior descending coronary artery after inferior myocardial infarction
    Bekir Serhat Yildiz
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey
    Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars 42:395-8. 2014
    ..Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment of MB are both important. Since MB is congenital, its disappearance is unlikely. We here report a very rare case of disappearance of MB after inferior MI. ..
  51. pmc A Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection Case Noticed during a Primary PCI
    Ismail Dogu Kilic
    Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli 20070, Turkey
    Cardiol Res Pract 2010:794026. 2010
    ....
  52. doi request reprint Ventricular tachycardia-based long QT without hypocalcaemia after use of ibandronic acid
    Yusuf Izzettin Alihano─člu
    Department of Cardiology, Medical Faculty, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey
    Cardiovasc J Afr 24:e11-4. 2013
    ..We report on a case of a VT-based long QT syndrome associated with the use of ibandronic acid. ..
  53. pmc Single coronary artery originating from the right sinus of Valsalva and hypoplastic left anterior descending artery: An extremely rare combination of congenital coronary artery anomalies
    Harun Evrengul
    Sifa Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Izmir, Turkey
    Exp Clin Cardiol 17:243-4. 2012
    ..In the present report, the authors discuss this extremely rare combination of congenital coronary anomalies and their clinical implications...