Jon D Elhai

Summary

Publications

  1. doi Diagnostic alterations for post-traumatic stress disorder: examining data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication and National Survey of Adolescents
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069 2390, USA
    Psychol Med 39:1957-66. 2009
  2. doi Assessing posttraumatic stress disorder with or without reference to a single, worst traumatic event: examining differences in factor structure
    Jon D Elhai
    Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 3390, USA
    Psychol Assess 21:629-34. 2009
  3. ncbi Outpatient medical and mental healthcare utilization models among military veterans: results from the 2001 National Survey of Veterans
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
    J Psychiatr Res 42:858-67. 2008
  4. ncbi Validation of the telephone-administered PHQ-9 against the in-person administered SCID-I major depression module
    Thomas H Fine
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43614 2598, USA
    J Affect Disord 150:1001-7. 2013
  5. ncbi Age differences in posttraumatic stress disorder, psychiatric disorders, and healthcare service use among veterans in Veterans Affairs primary care clinics
    B Christopher Frueh
    Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, HI 96720, USA
    Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 15:660-72. 2007
  6. doi Sociodemographic, perceived and objective need indicators of mental health treatment use and treatment-seeking intentions among primary care medical patients
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069 2390, United States
    Psychiatry Res 165:145-53. 2009
  7. ncbi Examining the uniqueness of frequency and intensity symptom ratings in posttraumatic stress disorder assessment
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 2390, USA
    J Nerv Ment Dis 194:940-4. 2006
  8. doi Reliability and validity of the Trauma Symptom Inventory with veterans evaluated for posttraumatic stress disorder
    Jessica J Snyder
    Department of Psychology, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD, USA
    Psychiatry Res 170:256-61. 2009
  9. ncbi Empirical examination of a proposed refinement to DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder symptom criteria using the National Comorbidity Survey Replication data
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion 57069 2390, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 69:597-602. 2008
  10. doi The PTSD symptom scale's latent structure: an examination of trauma-exposed medical patients
    James A Naifeh
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069 2390, United States
    J Anxiety Disord 22:1355-68. 2008

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications57

  1. doi Diagnostic alterations for post-traumatic stress disorder: examining data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication and National Survey of Adolescents
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069 2390, USA
    Psychol Med 39:1957-66. 2009
    ..The present study examines the impact of using these structural models for the diagnosis of lifetime PTSD while retaining the DSM-IV PTSD's six-symptom diagnostic requirement...
  2. doi Assessing posttraumatic stress disorder with or without reference to a single, worst traumatic event: examining differences in factor structure
    Jon D Elhai
    Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 3390, USA
    Psychol Assess 21:629-34. 2009
    ..Measurement invariance testing revealed that non-trauma-exposed participants were different from both trauma-exposed groups on factor structure parameters, but trauma groups were not substantially different from each other...
  3. ncbi Outpatient medical and mental healthcare utilization models among military veterans: results from the 2001 National Survey of Veterans
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
    J Psychiatr Res 42:858-67. 2008
    ..The results demonstrate that need remains an important factor that drives healthcare use among veterans and does not seem to be overshadowed by socioeconomic factors that may create unfair disparities in treatment access...
  4. ncbi Validation of the telephone-administered PHQ-9 against the in-person administered SCID-I major depression module
    Thomas H Fine
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43614 2598, USA
    J Affect Disord 150:1001-7. 2013
    ..We assessed item-to-item correspondence between the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) major depression episode portion of the major depressive module...
  5. ncbi Age differences in posttraumatic stress disorder, psychiatric disorders, and healthcare service use among veterans in Veterans Affairs primary care clinics
    B Christopher Frueh
    Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, HI 96720, USA
    Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 15:660-72. 2007
    ..To expand our understanding of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence, its psychiatric characteristics, and service use among elderly veterans in Veterans Affairs (VA) primary care clinics...
  6. doi Sociodemographic, perceived and objective need indicators of mental health treatment use and treatment-seeking intentions among primary care medical patients
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069 2390, United States
    Psychiatry Res 165:145-53. 2009
    ....
  7. ncbi Examining the uniqueness of frequency and intensity symptom ratings in posttraumatic stress disorder assessment
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 2390, USA
    J Nerv Ment Dis 194:940-4. 2006
    ..Implications for future PTSD clinical and research assessment are discussed, including the potential to decrease administration time for these commonly used PTSD measures, given their time-consuming nature...
  8. doi Reliability and validity of the Trauma Symptom Inventory with veterans evaluated for posttraumatic stress disorder
    Jessica J Snyder
    Department of Psychology, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD, USA
    Psychiatry Res 170:256-61. 2009
    ..Structural validity was also supported in confirmatory factor analyses, with a three-factor model, and a similar model merging two of these three factors, best fitting the observed data...
  9. ncbi Empirical examination of a proposed refinement to DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder symptom criteria using the National Comorbidity Survey Replication data
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion 57069 2390, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 69:597-602. 2008
    ....
  10. doi The PTSD symptom scale's latent structure: an examination of trauma-exposed medical patients
    James A Naifeh
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069 2390, United States
    J Anxiety Disord 22:1355-68. 2008
    ..Implications of the results are discussed, and a framework is proposed for resolving discrepant findings in the PTSD CFA literature...
  11. doi Reliability and validity of the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale-Short Form
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, The University of South Dakota, 414 East Clark Street SDU 114, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 2390, USA
    Psychiatry Res 159:320-9. 2008
    ..Implications for future research on mental healthcare use correlates are discussed, as well as the need for enhancing peoples' attitudes toward treatment...
  12. ncbi Correlates of mental health service use intensity in the National Comorbidity Survey and National Comorbidity Survey Replication
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, South Dakota Union 114, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
    Psychiatr Serv 58:1108-15. 2007
    ..This study explored sociodemographic and mental health correlates of intensity of mental health care use in two large-scale surveys, aiming to discover the set of correlates with the greatest predictive capacity...
  13. doi Relations between the underlying dimensions of PTSD and major depression using an epidemiological survey of deployed Ohio National Guard soldiers
    Tracey L Biehn
    Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Mail Stop 948, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 3390, United States
    J Affect Disord 144:106-11. 2013
    ..In the present study, the authors investigated the relationship between the underlying symptom dimensions of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dimensions of major depressive disorder (MDD)...
  14. doi Changes in the Beck Depression Inventory-II's underlying symptom structure over 1 month of inpatient treatment
    Jon D Elhai
    Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 3390, USA www jon elhai com
    J Nerv Ment Dis 201:371-6. 2013
    ..Implications for changes to the structure of depression symptoms and in the clinical practice of tracking depression over time are discussed...
  15. doi Posttraumatic stress disorder's frequency and intensity ratings are associated with factor structure differences in military veterans
    Jon D Elhai
    Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 3390, USA
    Psychol Assess 22:723-8. 2010
    ..Implications for the clinical assessment of PTSD and interpretation of the extant literature base on PTSD's factor structure are considered...
  16. doi Statistical procedures for analyzing mental health services data
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, The University of South Dakota, 414 East Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069 2390, USA
    Psychiatry Res 160:129-36. 2008
    ..Implications of matching data analytic techniques appropriately with the often complexly distributed datasets of mental health services utilization variables are discussed...
  17. doi Posttraumatic stress disorder in DSM-5: estimates of prevalence and symptom structure in a nonclinical sample of college students
    Jon D Elhai
    Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Mail Stop 948, 2801 W Bancroft St, Toledo, OH 43606 3390, USA www jon elhai com
    J Anxiety Disord 26:58-64. 2012
    ..4-1.8% points higher for the DSM-5 (vs. the DSM-IV) diagnostic algorithm. The DSM-5 symptom set fit the data very well based on confirmatory factor analysis, and neither symptom set's factors were more correlated with depression...
  18. doi Exploring the relationship between underlying dimensions of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in a national, trauma-exposed military sample
    Jon D Elhai
    Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Ohio 43606 3390, USA http www jon elhai com
    J Affect Disord 133:477-80. 2011
    ..Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are highly comorbid and intercorrelated. Yet little research has examined the underlying processes explaining their interrelationship...
  19. ncbi Clinical profile differences between PTSD-diagnosed military veterans and crime victims
    James A Naifeh
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069 2390, USA
    J Trauma Dissociation 9:321-34. 2008
    ..Some potential implications of these findings and considerations for future research are discussed...
  20. doi Differences in posttraumatic stress disorder diagnostic rates and symptom severity between Criterion A1 and non-Criterion A1 stressors
    Mary E Long
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, Department of Psychology, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
    J Anxiety Disord 22:1255-63. 2008
    ..Similar patterns of differences in PTSD scores between stressor types were also found across the three PTSD symptom criteria. Implications are discussed as to the ongoing controversy of the PTSD construct...
  21. ncbi Psychiatric symptoms and health service utilization in rural and urban combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, University of South Dakota, Vermillion 57069 2390, USA
    J Nerv Ment Dis 192:701-4. 2004
    ..Rural combat PTSD patients therefore seem to have similar mental health needs compared with their urban counterparts, with important service delivery implications...
  22. ncbi Varying cautionary instructions, monetary incentives, and comorbid diagnostic training in malingered psychopathology research
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069 2390, USA
    J Pers Assess 88:328-37. 2007
    ..We discuss malingering research design implications regarding the use of cautionary instructions, financial incentive levels, and comorbid training...
  23. ncbi Gender- and trauma-related predictors of use of mental health treatment services among primary care patients
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, University of South Dakota, Vermillion 57069, USA
    Psychiatr Serv 57:1505-9. 2006
    ..Use of mental health care was investigated as a function of gender, traumatic event frequency, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and attitudes toward treatment among 194 primary care patients...
  24. ncbi Symptom severity and lifetime and prospective health service use among military veterans evaluated for PTSD
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 2390, USA
    Depress Anxiety 24:178-84. 2007
    ..Health problems were related to prospective medical service use. Clinical and administrative implications in predicting health care use among trauma survivors are discussed...
  25. doi The factor structure of major depression symptoms: a test of four competing models using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9
    Jon D Elhai
    Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 3390, USA
    Psychiatry Res 199:169-73. 2012
    ..2010) and Richardson and Richards (2008). Implications for understanding the components and mechanisms of MDD are discussed...
  26. ncbi Psychometric properties of the UCLA PTSD reaction index. part II: investigating factor structure findings in a national clinic-referred youth sample
    Jon D Elhai
    Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, USA
    J Trauma Stress 26:10-8. 2013
    ..Results support the use of the PTSD-RI for evaluating PTSD among youth...
  27. doi Evidence for a unique PTSD construct represented by PTSD's D1-D3 symptoms
    Jon D Elhai
    Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606, USA
    J Anxiety Disord 25:340-5. 2011
    ..These three symptoms may represent a unique latent construct. Implications are discussed...
  28. pmc US Department of Veterans Affairs disability policies for posttraumatic stress disorder: administrative trends and implications for treatment, rehabilitation, and research
    B Christopher Frueh
    Department of Psychology, University of Hawai i, Hilo, HI 96720, USA
    Am J Public Health 97:2143-5. 2007
    ..Current VA disability policies require fundamental reform to bring them into line with modern science and medicine, including current empirically supported concepts of resilience and psychiatric rehabilitation...
  29. ncbi The SCID PTSD module's trauma screen: validity with two samples in detecting trauma history
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 2390, USA
    Depress Anxiety 25:737-41. 2008
    ..Our results lend support to previous research establishing the SCID trauma screen as a useful screening device in settings where a more comprehensive trauma screen is not possible...
  30. doi Psychometric properties of the Trauma Assessment for Adults
    Matt J Gray
    Department of Psychology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071 3415, USA
    Depress Anxiety 26:190-5. 2009
    ..The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the psychometric properties of this frequently used measure...
  31. doi Do gender and age moderate the symptom structure of PTSD? Findings from a national clinical sample of children and adolescents
    Ateka A Contractor
    Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA
    Psychiatry Res 210:1056-64. 2013
    ..Sex did not show a robust moderating effect. We conclude by discussing implications for clinical assessment, theory building, and future research. ..
  32. doi Measurement differences from rating posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in response to differentially distressing traumatic events
    Jon D Elhai
    Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA
    Assessment 19:299-307. 2012
    ..Results generally support the recommended PTSD assessment protocol instructing participants to rate PTSD symptoms from a single, worst index event...
  33. ncbi Utility of the trauma symptom inventory's atypical response scale in detecting malingered post-traumatic stress disorder
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, University of South Dakota, Vermillion 57069 2390, USA
    Assessment 12:210-9. 2005
    ..66, NPP = .54). Although ATR was not developed as a malingered PTSD screen, instead serving as a general validity screen, caution is recommended in its current clinical use for detecting malingered PTSD...
  34. doi Heterogeneity in clinical presentations of posttraumatic stress disorder among medical patients: testing factor structure variation using factor mixture modeling
    Jon D Elhai
    Department of Psychology, University of Toledo
    J Trauma Stress 24:435-43. 2011
    ..The 3-class model fit the data very well and was validated against external measures of anxiety and rumination...
  35. doi PTSD factor structure differences between veterans with and without a PTSD diagnosis
    Tracey L Biehn
    Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, 2801 W Bancroft St, Toledo, OH 43606 3390, United States
    J Anxiety Disord 26:480-5. 2012
    ..This study contributes to our understanding of how a PTSD diagnosis impacts the structure of PTSD symptoms at the latent level...
  36. ncbi Clinical symptomatology of posttraumatic stress disorder-diagnosed Australian and United States Vietnam combat veterans: an MMPI-2 comparison
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark Street, SDU 114, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 2390, USA
    J Nerv Ment Dis 191:458-64. 2003
    ..Results suggest that American and Australian Vietnam combat PTSD samples are very similar to each other, with implications for the treatment outcome literature...
  37. ncbi Discriminating malingered from genuine civilian posttraumatic stress disorder: a validation of three MMPI-2 Infrequency scales (F, Fp, and Fptsd)
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, University of South Dakota, Vermillion 57069 2390, USA
    Assessment 11:139-44. 2004
    ..Analyses demonstrated Fptsd's incremental validity over F but not over Fp. Based on the two studies examining Fptsd, Fptsd may be more appropriate for combat trauma victims, and Fp may be more appropriate for civilian trauma victims...
  38. doi Comparing posttraumatic stress disorder's symptom structure between deployed and nondeployed veterans
    Ryan M Engdahl
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, University of South Dakota, SD, USA
    Psychol Assess 23:1-6. 2011
    ....
  39. doi Testing whether posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder are similar or unique constructs
    Jon D Elhai
    Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 3390, USA
    J Anxiety Disord 25:404-10. 2011
    ..Results raise further questions about PTSD's distinctiveness from MDD, and the causes of their comorbidity...
  40. ncbi Anhedonia and emotional numbing in combat veterans with PTSD
    Todd B Kashdan
    Department of Psychology, MS 3F5, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA
    Behav Res Ther 44:457-67. 2006
    ..Results were consistent with research on the distinction of appetitive and aversive functioning, providing insight into the nature of PTSD...
  41. ncbi Predictors of general medical and psychological treatment use among a national sample of peacekeeping veterans with health problems
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD, USA
    J Anxiety Disord 21:580-9. 2007
    ..This study highlights the importance of an integrated primary care-mental health service delivery model for veterans...
  42. ncbi Mental health service use among American Red Cross disaster workers responding to the September 11, 2001 U.S. terrorist attacks
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, University of South Dakota, 414 East Clark Street SDU 114, Vermillion, SD 57069 2390, USA
    Psychiatry Res 143:29-34. 2006
    ..Findings support other recent research on MH service use after the September 11 attacks...
  43. doi Rape myth acceptance, sexual trauma history, and posttraumatic stress disorder
    Shannon N Baugher
    University of South Dakota, Vermillion, USA
    J Interpers Violence 25:2036-53. 2010
    ..PTSD did not moderate RMA's relationship with attitudes toward women and GRI. This study has clinical implications for treatment as well as for the development of rape myth-dispelling programs...
  44. pmc Therapist fidelity with an exposure-based treatment of PTSD in adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder
    Mary E Long
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine, USA
    J Clin Psychol 66:383-93. 2010
    ....
  45. doi Heterogeneity in the latent structure of PTSD symptoms among Canadian veterans
    James A Naifeh
    Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    Psychol Assess 22:666-74. 2010
    ..For both factor models, class membership was significantly predicted by age and depression diagnosis. Implications of these findings are discussed...
  46. doi Imagery rescripting and exposure group treatment of posttraumatic nightmares in Veterans with PTSD
    Mary E Long
    Michael E DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA
    J Anxiety Disord 25:531-5. 2011
    ..These preliminary findings suggest that a nightmares treatment can be adapted to successfully reduce distress associated with combat Veterans' chronic nightmares. Clinical and research implications are discussed...
  47. doi The role of cognitions in imagery rescripting for posttraumatic nightmares
    Mary E Long
    Michael E DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, Texas, USA
    J Clin Psychol 67:1008-16. 2011
    ..These findings provide preliminary evidence that trauma-related cognitions may improve over time as a result of imagery rescripting...
  48. doi DSM-5 PTSD's symptom dimensions and relations with major depression's symptom dimensions in a primary care sample
    Ateka A Contractor
    Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA
    Psychiatry Res 215:146-53. 2014
    ..PTSD's arousal did not mediate the relationship between PTSD's dysphoria and somatic/non-somatic depression. Implications are discussed. ..
  49. ncbi PTSD's underlying symptom dimensions and relations with behavioral inhibition and activation
    Ateka A Contractor
    Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Mail Stop 948, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 3390, United States
    J Anxiety Disord 27:645-51. 2013
    ..Further, PTSD's avoidance factor significantly mediated relations between BIS/BAS severity and PTSD's dysphoria factor. ..
  50. doi Posttraumatic stress disorder instrument wording content is associated with differences in factor structure
    Jon D Elhai
    Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 3390, USA
    J Trauma Stress 24:208-12. 2011
    ..03. For the PTSD Symptom Scale, the numbing model's BIC was 6161.38 compared to the dysphoria model's BIC of 6102.87. Groups differed on variable intercepts and residual variances. Instrument and construct implications are discussed...
  51. doi Posttraumatic stress disorder, poor physical health and substance use behaviors in a national trauma-exposed sample
    Ariel L Del Gaizo
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, Department of Psychology, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD, United States
    Psychiatry Res 188:390-5. 2011
    ..However, substance use behaviors did not significantly mediate the relationship between PTSD and poor physical health...
  52. ncbi Enhancing patient satisfaction and increasing treatment compliance: patient education as a fundamental component of PTSD treatment
    Matt J Gray
    Department of Psychology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 3415, USA
    Psychiatr Q 75:321-32. 2004
    ..Participants reported very high satisfaction with services, increased awareness of PTSD treatment options, greater optimism and symptom improvement and enhanced motivation to continue with treatment as a result of attending the group...
  53. doi An experimental comparison of index traumatic event queries in PTSD assessment
    James A Naifeh
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD, United States
    J Anxiety Disord 24:155-60. 2010
    ..The queries varied in their emphasis on current distress and description of PTSD criteria. Findings revealed no significant differences between groups, providing preliminary support for the "worst event" method...
  54. ncbi Which instruments are most commonly used to assess traumatic event exposure and posttraumatic effects?: A survey of traumatic stress professionals
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Health Institute, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 2390, USA
    J Trauma Stress 18:541-5. 2005
    ..Highest professional degree, time since degree award, and student status yielded no differences in extent of reported trauma assessment test use...
  55. ncbi Clinical presentations in combat veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder
    Jon D Elhai
    Disaster Mental Heealth Institute, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, 57069 2390, USA
    J Clin Psychol 59:385-97. 2003
    ..1990). Clusters also were different in disability-seeking status, employment status, and income. Implications for research and clinical practice using the MMPI-2 with combat veterans presenting with PTSD are briefly addressed...
  56. ncbi Relations Between PTSD and Distress Dimensions in an Indian Child/Adolescent Sample Following the 2008 Mumbai Terrorist Attacks
    Ateka A Contractor
    Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA
    J Abnorm Child Psychol 42:925-35. 2014
    ..Additionally, PTSD's dysphoria factor related more to BSI-18's depression than BSI-18's anxiety/somatization factors; this may explain PTSD's comorbidity mechanism with depressive disorders. ..
  57. ncbi The factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder: a literature update, critique of methodology, and agenda for future research
    Jon D Elhai
    Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Mail Stop 948, 2801 W Bancroft St, Toledo, OH 43606 3390, USA www jon elhai com
    J Anxiety Disord 25:849-54. 2011
    ....