A Shafik

Summary

Affiliation: Cairo University
Country: Egypt

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Study of the pelvic floor muscles in vaginismus: a concept of pathogenesis
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 105:67-70. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Experimental use of the obturator internus muscle as a functioning pelvic floor muscle in dogs
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Cairo University, Egypt
    Eur J Surg 167:782-8. 2001
  3. ncbi request reprint Study of the levator ani muscle in the multipara: role of levator dysfunction in defecation disorders
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, 2 Talaat Harb Street, Cairo, Egypt
    J Obstet Gynaecol 22:187-92. 2002
  4. ncbi request reprint Effect of rectal distension on rectal electromechanical activity
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Cairo University, Egypt
    J Invest Surg 14:283-9. 2001
  5. ncbi request reprint Role of the enteric nervous plexus in rectal motile activity: an experimental study
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Cairo University, Egypt
    J Invest Surg 14:275-81. 2001
  6. ncbi request reprint The "uninhibited rectum": a cause of fecal incontinence
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    J Spinal Cord Med 24:159-63. 2001
  7. ncbi request reprint Role of the sigmoid colon in the defecation mechanism with evidence of sigmoido-anal inhibitory and ano-sigmoid excitatory reflex
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo
    Front Biosci 6:B25-9. 2001
  8. ncbi request reprint Effect of pelvic floor muscle contraction on vesical and rectal function with identification of puborectalis-rectovesical inhibitory reflex and levator-rectovesical excitatory reflex
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Cairo University, Egypt
    World J Urol 19:278-84. 2001
  9. ncbi request reprint Electric activity of the rectosigmoid canal and its relation to rectal and sigmoid electric activity: an evidence of a sphincteric function of the rectosigmoid canal
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Front Biosci 6:B6-9. 2001
  10. ncbi request reprint Transmission of rectal electric waves: is it through circular or longitudinal smooth muscle layers or both?
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Cairo University, Egypt
    Arch Physiol Biochem 109:127-34. 2001

Detail Information

Publications116 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Study of the pelvic floor muscles in vaginismus: a concept of pathogenesis
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 105:67-70. 2002
    ..Neither the cause of vaginismus nor the muscles involved are precisely identified...
  2. ncbi request reprint Experimental use of the obturator internus muscle as a functioning pelvic floor muscle in dogs
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Cairo University, Egypt
    Eur J Surg 167:782-8. 2001
    ..To investigate the possibility of using the obturator internus muscle instead of the levator ani as a pelvic floor muscle...
  3. ncbi request reprint Study of the levator ani muscle in the multipara: role of levator dysfunction in defecation disorders
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, 2 Talaat Harb Street, Cairo, Egypt
    J Obstet Gynaecol 22:187-92. 2002
    ..Levator dysfunction may lead to constipation and faecal or urinary incontinence as a result of pudendal neuropathy and the development of pudendal canal syndrome...
  4. ncbi request reprint Effect of rectal distension on rectal electromechanical activity
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Cairo University, Egypt
    J Invest Surg 14:283-9. 2001
    ..These findings appear to explain the cause of rectal atony, which occurs in rectal inertia and leads to constipation...
  5. ncbi request reprint Role of the enteric nervous plexus in rectal motile activity: an experimental study
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Cairo University, Egypt
    J Invest Surg 14:275-81. 2001
    ..This suggests that the enteric plexus has no direct action on the rectal motile activity but mediates the rectal reflex actions. This concept might explain some of the hitherto unknown mechanisms of rectal dyssynergia syndromes...
  6. ncbi request reprint The "uninhibited rectum": a cause of fecal incontinence
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    J Spinal Cord Med 24:159-63. 2001
    ..In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the uninhibited rectum may be a cause of FI in patients with normal anal pressure and sphincteric mechanism who were considered to have idiopathic FI...
  7. ncbi request reprint Role of the sigmoid colon in the defecation mechanism with evidence of sigmoido-anal inhibitory and ano-sigmoid excitatory reflex
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo
    Front Biosci 6:B25-9. 2001
    ..These 2 reflexes are believed to keep the SC contracting and the rectal neck dilated until complete SC evacuation occurs. The study seemingly negates the role of rectal distension as a prerequisite for balloon expulsion...
  8. ncbi request reprint Effect of pelvic floor muscle contraction on vesical and rectal function with identification of puborectalis-rectovesical inhibitory reflex and levator-rectovesical excitatory reflex
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Cairo University, Egypt
    World J Urol 19:278-84. 2001
    ..This reflex is probably evoked to promote rectal and vesical evacuation...
  9. ncbi request reprint Electric activity of the rectosigmoid canal and its relation to rectal and sigmoid electric activity: an evidence of a sphincteric function of the rectosigmoid canal
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Front Biosci 6:B6-9. 2001
    ..The higher amplitude of the RSC waves may be due to the thicker RSC musculosa in comparison to that of the SC and R and may by itself be an evidence of the sphincteric function of the RSC...
  10. ncbi request reprint Transmission of rectal electric waves: is it through circular or longitudinal smooth muscle layers or both?
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Cairo University, Egypt
    Arch Physiol Biochem 109:127-34. 2001
    ..This concept is evidenced not only by the current findings but also by the histologic structure of the rectal musculature being of the unitary type of smooth muscles...
  11. ncbi request reprint Study of the motile activity of the small intestine in constipated subjects
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Hepatogastroenterology 48:1665-8. 2001
    ..It was hypothesized that rectal distension occurring in rectal inertia constipation might cause enteric hypotonia. This hypothesis was investigated...
  12. ncbi request reprint Colonic pacing in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome: technique and results
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Front Biosci 8:b1-5. 2003
    ..No complications were encountered and the method was well accepted and tolerated. Further studies on a large group of patients are required...
  13. ncbi request reprint Study of the effect of straining on the bulbocavernosus muscle with evidence of a straining-bulbocavernosus reflex and its clinical significance
    A Shafik
    Cairo University, Cairo
    Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 13:294-8. 2002
    ..The role of BCM in the pathogenesis of uterovaginal prolapse and rectocele needs further study...
  14. ncbi request reprint Physiological assessment of the function of the ileocecal junction with evidence of ileocecal junction reflexes
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    Med Sci Monit 8:CR629-35. 2002
    ..We investigated the response of the ICJ to cecal and ileal distension and the nature of this response (direct or reflex)...
  15. pmc Electrophysiological study of the rectosigmoid canal: evidence of a rectosigmoid sphincter
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    J Anat 200:517-21. 2002
    ..The greater increase of the electrical activity and pressure of the rectosigmoid canal upon electrostimulation, compared to that of the SC or R, strongly supports the presence of a rectosigmoid sphincter...
  16. ncbi request reprint The histomorphologic structure of the levator ani muscle and its functional significance
    A Shafik
    Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 13:116-24; discussion 124. 2002
    ..abdominal pressure and visceral weight. The skeletal fibers pass into various histologic stages before they transform to smooth fibers...
  17. ncbi request reprint Parasympathetic extrinsic reflex: role in defecation mechanism
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    World J Surg 26:737-40; discussion 741. 2002
    ..The difference between them in inducing defecation might be significant to our understanding the defecation act in the neurogenic rectum, a point that needs further study...
  18. ncbi request reprint The motor efficacy of the artificial colonic pacemaker in colonic inertia patients
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Front Biosci 7:b6-13. 2002
    ..Ex-pacemaker stimulation presumably leads to local activation of interstitial cells of Cajal and segmental step-wise contraction...
  19. ncbi request reprint Study of the motile activity of the colon in rectal inertia constipation
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17:270-5. 2002
    ..This effect was postulated to occur through the recto-colic reflex. As the colonic status in rectal inertia constipation was scarcely addressed in the literature, we investigated this point...
  20. ncbi request reprint Role of the longitudinal smooth muscle coat in the ileal motile activity: evidence of ileo-ileal inhibitory reflex
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17:1267-71. 2002
    ..The role of the longitudinal smooth muscle of the small intestine in gut motility is poorly understood; this point was investigated in the current study...
  21. ncbi request reprint Colosigmoid junction: a study of its functional activity with identification of a physiologic sphincter and involvement in reflex actions
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    J Invest Surg 16:29-34. 2003
    ..quot; The role of the colosigmoid sphincter and reflexes in colonic motility disorders remains to be investigated...
  22. ncbi request reprint Study of the mechanism underlying the difference in motility between the large and small intestine: the "single" and "multiple" pacemaker theory
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Front Biosci 6:B1-5. 2001
    ..The concept of "single" and "multiple" pacemakers explaining the difference in the motility of small from that of large gut needs further studies...
  23. ncbi request reprint The corporo-glans ligament: description and functional significance of a ligament connecting the corpora cavernosa to the glans penis
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Int J Impot Res 16:220-3. 2004
    ..We suggest that it firmly connects the GP to the CC during penile thrusting. Further studies are required to assess the possible role of this ligament in erectile dysfunction...
  24. ncbi request reprint Electrourethrogram: study of the electric activity of the urethra and its clinical significance
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Int Urol Nephrol 34:539-43. 2002
    ..We investigated the hypothesis that also the non-sphincteric part of the urethra possesses electric activity which may have clinical significance...
  25. ncbi request reprint Electrophysiologic identification of the location of the colonic pacemakers in humans: further study
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    J Invest Surg 16:289-97. 2003
    ..These suggestions need to be further studied...
  26. ncbi request reprint Effect of perineal compression on vesical motor activity
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faulty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    Scand J Urol Nephrol 37:348-51. 2003
    ..It has been reported that digital pressure on the perineum inhibits bladder contraction; however, the mechanism is not fully understood. We investigated the hypothesis that this mechanism may be reflex in nature...
  27. ncbi request reprint Study of the mechanism of rectal motility: the 'mass squeeze contraction'
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    Arch Physiol Biochem 109:418-23. 2001
    ..The recognition of the rectal motor modality appears to be important for the understanding of rectal motility disorders. However, further studies are required to confirm these findings...
  28. ncbi request reprint Study of the functional activity of the cecocolonic junction with identification of a "physiologic sphincter", "cecocolonic inhibitory reflex" and "colocecal excitatory reflex"
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Surg Radiol Anat 25:16-20. 2003
    ..The role of the CCJ and related reflexes in colonic motility disorders needs to be studied...
  29. ncbi request reprint Study of the effect of temperature on the rectal function with evidence of thermorectal reflex
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    Int J Colorectal Dis 16:357-61. 2001
    ..Rectal sensation seems to originate from mechanoreceptors which are stimulated by passive rectal filling or active contraction. We investigated the effect of temperature on rectal function...
  30. ncbi request reprint Overactive bladder inhibition in response to pelvic floor muscle exercises
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    World J Urol 20:374-7. 2003
    ..The results of the current study encourage the treatment of overactive bladder with PFM contractions...
  31. ncbi request reprint Identification of a sphincter at the sigmoidorectal canal in humans: histomorphologic and morphometric studies
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Clin Anat 16:138-43. 2003
    ..This sphincter may explain the higher pressure at the SRC and the response of the SRC to rectal and SC contractions. The localized smooth muscle bundles in the ME may represent a rectosigmoid pacemaker...
  32. ncbi request reprint Percutaneous peripheral neuromodulation in the treatment of fecal incontinence
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    Eur Surg Res 35:103-7. 2003
    ..To assess the results of peripheral neuromodulation for the treatment of fecal incontinence (FI) resulting from uninhibited rectal contraction (URC) or uninhibited anal sphincter relaxation (UASR)...
  33. ncbi request reprint Effect of colonic distention on ileal motor activity with evidence of coloileal reflex
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    J Gastrointest Surg 7:701-5. 2003
    ..quot; Whenever the right colon is distended with a substantial volume of chyme that increases the intraluminal pressure, it is suggested that ileal relaxation occurs, which delays the emptying of chyme from the ileum...
  34. ncbi request reprint Role of positive anorectal feedback in rectal evacuation: the concept of a second defecation reflex: the anorectal reflex
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    J Spinal Cord Med 26:380-3. 2003
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Magnetic pudendal neurostimulation: a novel method for measuring pudendal nerve terminal motor latency
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Clin Neurophysiol 112:1049-52. 2001
    ..This effect was used to develop a novel technique for measuring the pudendal nerve terminal motor latency (PNTML) to the external anal sphincter (EAS) in healthy volunteers and patients with fecal incontinence...
  36. ncbi request reprint Rectal inhibition by inferior rectal nerve stimulation in dogs: recognition of a new reflex--the 'voluntary anorectal inhibition reflex'
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 13:413-8. 2001
    ..The effect of inferior rectal nerve (IRN) stimulation on the rectum was studied, postulating that nerve stimulation might inhibit rectal contractility and could thus be used in the management of defecation disorders...
  37. ncbi request reprint Effect of rectal distension on the small intestine with evidence of a recto-enteric reflex
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University
    Hepatogastroenterology 47:1030-3. 2000
    ..To study the effect of rectal distension on jejunal and ileal motility aiming at the assessment of the possible role of rectal distension induced by constipation on the transport of the material in the gut...
  38. ncbi request reprint Role of rectosigmoid junction in fecal continence: an experimental study
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Front Biosci 4:B9-13. 1999
    ..We suggest that fecal continence occurs at 2 levels: an involuntary one at the RSJ and a voluntary one at the rectal neck...
  39. ncbi request reprint Urethral sphincters response to cavernosus muscles stimulation with identification of cavernoso-urethral reflex
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Arch Androl 51:335-43. 2005
    ..The cavernoso-urethral reflex can act a diagnostic tool in the investigations of patients with ejaculatory disorders...
  40. ncbi request reprint Esophageal and gastric motile response to rectal distension with identification of a recto-esophagogastric reflex
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    Int J Surg Investig 1:373-9. 2000
    ..To investigate the effect of rectal distension with a balloon simulating fecal mass, on the motile activity of the esophagus and stomach...
  41. ncbi request reprint Effect of sigmoid colon distension on the rectosigmoid junction. Description of the rectosigmoid junction tightening reflex and its clinical implications
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Eur Surg Res 32:310-4. 2000
    ..However, the RSJ status during stool accumulation in the SC has been scarcely addressed in the literature. The current study investigated this point...
  42. ncbi request reprint Electrocavernosogram in erectile dysfunction: a diagnostic tool
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Arch Androl 50:317-25. 2004
    ..We suggest that electrocavernosography has the potential to function as an investigative tool in diagnosing the type of ED provided further studies are performed to verify the described findings...
  43. ncbi request reprint Overactive corpus cavernosum: a novel cause of erectile dysfunction
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Andrologia 36:378-83. 2004
    ..This condition of 'overactive CC' should be considered in the diagnosis of ED. However, further studies in the pathogenesis of the condition are warranted...
  44. ncbi request reprint Rectal pacing in patients with constipation due to rectal inertia: technique and results
    A Shafik
    Experimental Research, Cairo University, Egypt
    Int J Colorectal Dis 15:100-4. 2000
    ..Three had spontaneous defecation after a few months of rectal pacing. No complications were encountered, and the method was tolerated and acceptable. Further studies on a large group of patients are required...
  45. doi request reprint A study of the effect of straining on the cavernosus muscles: identification of 'straining-cavernosus reflex' and its clinical significance
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Andrologia 40:23-8. 2008
    ..Meanwhile, the elevated intravaginal pressure presumably supports the rectovaginal septum against the concomitant high intrarectal pressure...
  46. ncbi request reprint Mechanism of ejection during ejaculation: identification of a urethrocavernosus reflex
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Cairo University, Egypt
    Arch Androl 44:77-83. 2000
    ..The latter presumably propels the semen from the posterior to the pendulous urethra. It is suggested that the urethrocavernosus reflex be included in current andrologic investigations for patients with ejaculatory disorders...
  47. ncbi request reprint Interstitial cells of Cajal in erectile dysfunction
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Arch Androl 52:255-62. 2006
    ..ICC distribution was different in the various types of ED. It is suggested that this distribution interferes with SW discharge and the control of SMC activity with a resulting ED...
  48. ncbi request reprint Electromotor activity of the cecum and ascending colon: the concept of 'individual pacemakers'
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Eur Surg Res 36:308-12. 2004
    ..This hypothesis was investigated in the current study...
  49. ncbi request reprint Effect of levator ani muscle contraction on urethrovesical and anorectal pressures and role of the muscle in urination and defecation
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Urology 58:193-7. 2001
    ..We therefore propose that the LAM is a muscle of evacuation and that LAM dysfunction could lead to defecation and urination disorders...
  50. ncbi request reprint Identification of a vaginal pacemaker: An immunohistochemical and morphometric study
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    J Obstet Gynaecol 27:485-8. 2007
    ..Studies have shown that the greatest collection of ICCs occurred in the upper part of the posterior vaginal wall. The vaginal electric waves are suggested to originate from this 'centre' and spread caudally...
  51. ncbi request reprint Response of the labia majora and minora to clitoral stimulation
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Int J Gynaecol Obstet 86:401-2. 2004
  52. ncbi request reprint Response of the internal reproductive organs to clitoral stimulation: the clitorouterine reflex
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Int J Impot Res 17:121-6. 2005
    ..GC buffeting seems to evoke reflex and initiate uterine responses. Reflex may prove of diagnostic significance in sexual disorders...
  53. doi request reprint An experimental study on the effect of different types of textiles on conception
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    J Obstet Gynaecol 28:213-6. 2008
    ..It is suggested that the electrostatic potentials detected on the skin create an 'electrostatic field' that inhibits the ovarian function. However, the effect proved to be reversible...
  54. ncbi request reprint Uninhibited sigmoid colon syndrome (sigmoid hyperreflexia): description of a new clinicopathological entity
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    Int Surg 85:133-6. 2000
    ..To present 10 patients who complained of passage of frequent loose stools which was found to be due to sigmoid colon hyperreflexia, a condition that, to our knowledge, has not been described before...
  55. ncbi request reprint A study on the etiology of uterine pressure rise on semen deposition in the vagina or uterus
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 33:174-7. 2006
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the uterine pressure rise is effected by the sperm or the substances contained in the seminal plasma, and to test the response of the vagina and uterus to abnormal semen deposition...
  56. ncbi request reprint Transverse folds of rectum: anatomic study and clinical implications
    A Shafik
    Professor and Chairman, Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. shafisci2link.com.eg
    Clin Anat 14:196-203. 2001
    ..Further studies are needed to investigate the role of the TFR in clinical practice...
  57. ncbi request reprint Rectal cooling test in the differentiation between constipation due to rectal inertia and anismus
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Tech Coloproctol 11:39-43. 2007
    ..Therefore, we studied the hypothesis that the rectal cooling test (RCT) can effectively be used to differentiate between those two forms of constipation...
  58. ncbi request reprint Injured external anal sphincter in erectile dysfunction
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Andrologia 33:35-41. 2001
    ..Repair of the external anal sphincter provided a cure for faecal incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Anorectal disorders are believed to affect erectile function, a relationship that needs further investigation...
  59. ncbi request reprint Study of the effect of colonic mass movements on the rectosigmoid junction with evidence of colo-rectosigmoid junction reflex
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    J Invest Surg 13:343-8. 2000
    ..This reflex seems to regulate the passage of stools from the colon to the rectum. Further studies are required to investigate its role in the diagnosis of defecation disorders...
  60. ncbi request reprint Electromyographic study of ejaculatory mechanism
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Int J Androl 32:212-7. 2009
    ..Changes in LET or evoked response would indicate a defect in the reflex pathway. The GCVR might act as an investigative tool in diagnosing erectile dysfunction, provided further studies are performed in this respect...
  61. ncbi request reprint Molecular andrology as related to sperm DNA fragmentation/sperm chromatin biotechnology
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Arch Androl 52:299-310. 2006
    ..Thus, these techniques are recommended for basic research rather than for routine andrology laboratories...
  62. ncbi request reprint Sacral magnetic stimulation in paradoxical puborectalis syndrome
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    Dig Surg 17:268-73. 2000
    ..Based on these results, we studied the effect of sacral MS on defecation in patients with paradoxical puborectalis syndrome (PPS)...
  63. ncbi request reprint A new concept of the anatomy of the anal sphincter mechanism and the physiology of defecation: mass contraction of the pelvic floor muscles
    A Shafik
    Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 9:28-32. 1998
    ..However, besides this mass contraction, a voluntary 'selective' individual muscle activity exists by which each individual muscle acts independently of the others...
  64. ncbi request reprint The role of the levator ani muscle in evacuation, sexual performance and pelvic floor disorders
    A Shafik
    Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 11:361-76. 2000
    ..During ejaculation LAM contraction facilitates semen ejection. Levator subluxation and sagging leads to levator dysfunction syndrome, which may present as pudendal canal syndrome...
  65. ncbi request reprint Rectal pacing: pacing parameters required for rectal evacuation of normal and constipated subjects
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    J Surg Res 88:181-5. 2000
    ..For this article we investigated the pacing parameters necessary for rectal evacuation in rectal inertia patients...
  66. ncbi request reprint Videodefecography: a study of the rectal motile pattern
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Surg Radiol Anat 25:139-44. 2003
    ..Two types of contraction waves were observed: "complete" which produced rectal evacuation, and "incomplete" which failed to effect evacuation. Physiologic intussusception or rectocele were seen in a few subjects...
  67. ncbi request reprint Is myoelectric activity transmittable from one muscle to another: an experimental study
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Int J Surg Investig 2:165-70. 2000
    ..We have demonstrated that this activity was due to smooth muscle fibers detected in the levator ani muscle (LAM) which presumably develop in adaptation to variations in the intraabdominal pressure and visceral weight action...
  68. ncbi request reprint Study on the origin of the external anal, urethral, vaginal and prostatic sphincters
    A Shafik
    Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 8:126-9. 1997
    ..However, proof of PS and VS continuity with PRM could not be supplied by the study...
  69. ncbi request reprint Identification of c-kit-positive cells in the uterus
    A Shafik
    Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Int J Gynaecol Obstet 87:254-5. 2004
  70. ncbi request reprint Role of tunica albuginea in erection: is it a dynamic or a static role?
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Arch Androl 52:81-6. 2006
    ..3 cmH2O, respectively. There was no significant difference between covered and non-covered corpora or between test and control animals. In conclusion, the TA seems to act as a cover to the corporal tissue. Its absence did not change ICP...
  71. ncbi request reprint Vaginal and uterine pressure response to semen deposition into the vagina and uterus: human study
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 33:107-9. 2006
    ..We investigated the hypothesis that semen deposition in the vagina or uterus effects changes in their pressure...
  72. ncbi request reprint Neuronal innervation of urethral and anal sphincters: surgical anatomy and clinical implications
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 12:387-98. 2000
    ..Supported by a knowledge of anatomy, we can make firm recommendations on which to base safe surgical techniques that avoid damage to urethral and anal sphincteric innervation...
  73. ncbi request reprint Effect of vaginal distention on vesicourethral function with identification of the vagino-vesicourethral reflex
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    J Urol 165:887-9. 2001
    ..Reflex disorders may explain urinary leakage during coitus in some neuropathic conditions...
  74. ncbi request reprint Sacral magnetic stimulation in puborectalis paradoxical syndrome
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Acta Chir Iugosl 49:27-32. 2002
    ..Based on these results, we studied the effect of sacral MS on defecation in patients with puborectalis paradoxical syndrome (PPS)...
  75. ncbi request reprint Magnetic stimulation of the cavernous nerve for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in humans
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    Int J Impot Res 12:137-41; discussion 141-2. 2000
    ..In conclusion, MS of the cavernous nerve is effective in inducing penile rigidity. It is a simple, easy and non-invasive method which has no adverse effects. It might prove to be suitable for application in patients with ED...
  76. ncbi request reprint Histologic study of the tunica albuginea of the penis and mode of cavernosus muscles' insertion in it
    A Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Arch Androl 52:1-8. 2006
    ..Considering the type of cavernosus muscles insertion into the TA, it appears that the fibrous belt exerts more CC compression than the other 2 types of insertion...
  77. ncbi request reprint Stress, urge, and mixed types of partial fecal incontinence: pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and treatment
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Am Surg 73:6-9. 2007
    ..Each type has its own etiology and symptoms, and requires individual treatment. Biofeedback succeeded in treating the majority of SFI and UFI patients. Surgical correction of the anal sphincter was performed after biofeedback failure...
  78. pmc Percutaneous perineal electrostimulation induces erection: clinical significance in patients with spinal cord injury and erectile dysfunction
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    J Spinal Cord Med 31:40-3. 2008
    ..We investigated the hypothesis that percutaneous perineal stimulation evokes erection in patients with neurogenic erectile dysfunction...
  79. ncbi request reprint Role of the rectosigmoid pacemaker and electric activity in rectal motility: mechanism and clinical significance
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo
    Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 42:377-83. 2002
    ..We hypothesized that the RSP and electric waves are responsible for rectal motility. This hypothesis was investigated...
  80. ncbi request reprint Study of the cremasteric muscle during erection
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, 2 Talaat Harb Street, 11121 Cairo, Egypt
    Surg Radiol Anat 28:569-72. 2006
    ..Mechanism of testicular elevation during erection is not known. We investigated the hypothesis that erection evokes reflex cremasteric muscle (CM) contraction which effects testicular elevation...
  81. ncbi request reprint The "opening time" and "pelvic floor electromyographic lag time": two novel tools in the assessment of the anorectal evacuation time
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    J Invest Surg 19:307-11. 2006
    ..As there is no significant difference between opening time and pelvic floor muscles electromyographic lag time, it appears easier to apply the latter as it is simple, objective, and noninvasive...
  82. ncbi request reprint Functional activity of the rectum: A conduit organ or a storage organ or both?
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    World J Gastroenterol 12:4549-52. 2006
    ..To investigate whether the degree of rectal distension could define the rectum functions as a conduit or reservoir...
  83. ncbi request reprint Role of the rectosigmoidal junction in fecal continence: concept of the primary continent mechanism
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, 2 Talaat Harb Street, Cairo 11121, Egypt
    Arch Surg 141:23-6. 2006
    ..We investigated the hypothesis that a continent mechanism seems to exist at the rectosigmoidal junction (RSJ), preventing the direct passage of stools from the descending colon to the rectum...
  84. ncbi request reprint Electrophysiologic activity of the tunica albuginea and corpora cavernosa: possible role of tunica albuginea in the erectile mechanism
    Ahmed Shafik
    Faculty of Medicine Cairo University Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Cairo, Egypt
    J Sex Med 4:675-9. 2007
    ..It is claimed that the tunica albuginea (TA) shares in the erectile mechanism by compressing the emissary veins passing through it. However, the TA does not contain smooth muscle fibers...
  85. pmc Study of the response of the penile corporal tissue and cavernosus muscles to micturition
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    BMC Urol 8:4. 2008
    ..We investigated the hypothesis that the passage of urine through the urethra stimulates the corporal tissue and cavernosus muscles...
  86. ncbi request reprint Study of the effect of ileal distension on the motor activity of the jejunum, and of jejunal distension on the motor activity of the ileum
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    Hepatogastroenterology 54:2007-10. 2007
    ..We investigated the hypothesis that distension of either ileum or jejunum would affect the motile activity of the other...
  87. doi request reprint Contraction of gluteal maximus muscle on increase of intra-abdominal pressure: role in the fecal continence mechanism
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    Surg Innov 14:270-4. 2007
    ..quot; This reflex appears to assist anal closure through extended and laterally rotated femur induced by gluteus contraction...
  88. ncbi request reprint Electromyographic activity of the anterolateral abdominal wall muscles during rectal filling and evacuation
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    J Surg Res 143:364-7. 2007
    ..We investigated the hypothesis that the AAWMs exhibit increased electromyographic (EMG) activity on rectal distension, which presumably assists in rectal evacuation...
  89. ncbi request reprint The electromyographic activity of the external and internal urethral sphincters and urinary bladder on vaginal distension and its role in preventing vaginal soiling with urine during sexual intercourse
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Arch Gynecol Obstet 277:213-7. 2008
    ..We investigated the hypothesis that external (EUS) and internal (IUS) urethral sphincters and urinary bladder (UB) respond to penile thrusting (PT) of vagina in a way that prevents urinary leakage during coitus...
  90. ncbi request reprint Effect of urethral stimulation on vesical contractile activity
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Am J Med Sci 334:240-3. 2007
    ..We investigated the hypothesis that urethral stimulation effects vesical contraction...
  91. ncbi request reprint Effect of micturition on clitoris and cavernosus muscles: an electromyographic study
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 19:531-5. 2008
    ..The latter two actions occurring on micturition are suggested to be mediated through a reflex called "urethro-corporocavernosal reflex" and effect a mild degree of clitoral tumescence...
  92. ncbi request reprint The effect of vaginal distension on the female urinary bladder and urethral sphincters
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 86:1398-403. 2007
    ..We investigated the hypothesis that, upon vaginal distension, UB undergoes inhibited activity, while external and internal urethral sphincters (IUS) exhibit increased activity in order to guard against urine leakage during coitus...
  93. ncbi request reprint On the mechanism of colonic motility: the electric activation theory of colonic contraction
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Cairo University, Cairo
    J Surg Res 103:8-12. 2002
    ..Shafik and A. A. Shafik, 2000, Front. Biosci. 5, b5). In the current study, we investigated the mechanism of action of the two colonic muscle coats in the motility of the gut...
  94. pmc Effect of micturition on the external anal sphincter: identification of the urethro-anal reflex
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    J Spinal Cord Med 28:421-5. 2005
    ..We investigated the hypothesis that urine passage through the urethra effects EAS contraction to guard against possible flatus or stool leakage during micturition...
  95. ncbi request reprint Effect of urethral dilation on vesical motor activity: identification of the urethrovesical reflex and its role in voiding
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    J Urol 169:1017-9. 2003
    ..We investigated the hypothesis that mild urethral distention, which presumably occurs during the passage of urine through the urethra, stimulates stretch receptors in the urethral wall, leading reflexively to vesical contraction...
  96. ncbi request reprint Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with colonic pacing: evaluation of pacing parameters required for correction of the "tachyarrhythmia" of the IBS
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Hepatogastroenterology 51:1708-12. 2004
    ..In this communication we tried to define the adequate pacing parameters necessary for normalization of the tachyarrhythmic pattern of the electric waves in IBS...
  97. ncbi request reprint Electric activity of the colon in subjects with constipation due to total colonic inertia: an electrophysiologic study
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Arch Surg 138:1007-11; discussion 1011. 2003
    ..The APs are claimed to be responsible for colonic motor activity...
  98. ncbi request reprint Effect of straining on the lower esophageal sphincter: identification of the "straining-esophageal reflex" and its role in gastroesophageal competence mechanism
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
    J Invest Surg 17:191-6. 2004
    ..quot; This reflex seems to be evoked during increased intra-abdominal pressure and to effect LES contraction, thus, sharing with other factors in prevention of gastroesophageal reflux...
  99. ncbi request reprint On the pathogenesis of rectocele: the concept of the rectovaginal pressure gradient
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, 2 Talaat Harb Street, 11121 Cairo, Egypt
    Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 14:310-5; discussion 315. 2003
    ..A histopathologic study of the septum in rectocele seems necessary...
  100. ncbi request reprint Study of the effect of jejuno-ileal distension on the motor activity of the stomach with evidence of "entero-gastric inhibitory reflex"
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Hepatogastroenterology 50:1966-9. 2003
    ..The current study investigated the effect of ileal and jejunal distension on the gastric motility, aiming at elucidating the possible existence of a relationship and its role in the flow through the gut...
  101. ncbi request reprint Electric activity of the colon in irritable bowel syndrome: the 'tachyarrhythmic' electric pattern
    Ahmed Shafik
    Department of Surgery and Experimental Research, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 19:205-10. 2004
    ..Because the condition is related to motility disturbance, the hypothesis that a disorder of the colonic electromyographic activity is responsible for the colonic motile disorders in irritable bowel syndrome, was investigated...