P R Donald

Summary

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint The influence of dose and N-acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2) genotype and phenotype on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of isoniazid
    P R Donald
    Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 63:633-9. 2007
  2. ncbi request reprint Ethionamide cross- and co-resistance in children with isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis
    H S Schaaf
    Desmond Tutu Tuberculosis Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:1355-9. 2009
  3. ncbi request reprint The influence of human N-acetyltransferase genotype on the early bactericidal activity of isoniazid
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 39:1425-30. 2004
  4. pmc Isoniazid pharmacokinetics in children treated for respiratory tuberculosis
    H S Schaaf
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, South Africa
    Arch Dis Child 90:614-8. 2005
  5. ncbi request reprint Minimal inhibitory concentration of isoniazid in isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from children
    H S Schaaf
    Desmond Tutu Tuberculosis Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, P O Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 26:203-5. 2007
  6. pmc Early bactericidal activity of high-dose rifampin in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis evidenced by positive sputum smears
    A H Diacon
    Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:2994-6. 2007
  7. doi request reprint Time to detection of the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in MGIT 960 for determining the early bactericidal activity of antituberculosis agents
    A H Diacon
    Department of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, and MRC Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, DST NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 29:1561-5. 2010
  8. doi request reprint Pyridoxal-5-phosphate plasma concentrations in children receiving tuberculosis chemotherapy including isoniazid
    K Cilliers
    Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Acta Paediatr 99:705-10. 2010
  9. doi request reprint The clinical relevance of Mycobacterial pharmacogenetics
    R M Warren
    DST NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research MRC Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 89:199-202. 2009
  10. ncbi request reprint The natural history of childhood intra-thoracic tuberculosis: a critical review of literature from the pre-chemotherapy era
    B J Marais
    Centre for TB Research and Education, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 8:392-402. 2004

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications33

  1. ncbi request reprint The influence of dose and N-acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2) genotype and phenotype on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of isoniazid
    P R Donald
    Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 63:633-9. 2007
    ..2 to 10-12 mg/kg body weight...
  2. ncbi request reprint Ethionamide cross- and co-resistance in children with isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis
    H S Schaaf
    Desmond Tutu Tuberculosis Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:1355-9. 2009
    ..Ethionamide (ETH) is a structural analogue of isoniazid (INH). Both are pro-drugs requiring activation by separate and common enzyme pathways, which could lead to co- and/or cross-resistance...
  3. ncbi request reprint The influence of human N-acetyltransferase genotype on the early bactericidal activity of isoniazid
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 39:1425-30. 2004
    ..The EBA appeared to reach a maximum at a 2-h isoniazid concentration of 2-3 microg/mL. These data confirm a significant effect of NAT2 genotype on the EBA of isoniazid over a range of doses...
  4. pmc Isoniazid pharmacokinetics in children treated for respiratory tuberculosis
    H S Schaaf
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, South Africa
    Arch Dis Child 90:614-8. 2005
    ..To define the pharmacokinetics of isoniazid (INH) in children with tuberculosis in relation to the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genotype...
  5. ncbi request reprint Minimal inhibitory concentration of isoniazid in isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from children
    H S Schaaf
    Desmond Tutu Tuberculosis Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, P O Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 26:203-5. 2007
    ..Thus, the minimal inhibitory concentration of isoniazid for more than 80% of the isoniazid-resistant strains isolated from children in this study was relatively low and could be exceeded by high-dose (15-20 mg/kg) isoniazid regimens...
  6. pmc Early bactericidal activity of high-dose rifampin in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis evidenced by positive sputum smears
    A H Diacon
    Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:2994-6. 2007
    ..The observed mean 2-day activity was almost double that reported at the standard dose. Further studies are warranted to establish whether higher rifampin doses might assist in shortening tuberculosis treatment...
  7. doi request reprint Time to detection of the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in MGIT 960 for determining the early bactericidal activity of antituberculosis agents
    A H Diacon
    Department of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, and MRC Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, DST NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 29:1561-5. 2010
    ..Automated TTD could augment, or, in future, replace, CFU counting to determine sputum bacillary load in EBA clinical trials pending a more formal evaluation of the correlation of the measurements...
  8. doi request reprint Pyridoxal-5-phosphate plasma concentrations in children receiving tuberculosis chemotherapy including isoniazid
    K Cilliers
    Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Acta Paediatr 99:705-10. 2010
    ..Little is known about pyridoxine nutriture of children treated with isoniazid (INH) regimens. This study documents plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) concentrations in children, HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected, receiving INH regimens...
  9. doi request reprint The clinical relevance of Mycobacterial pharmacogenetics
    R M Warren
    DST NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research MRC Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 89:199-202. 2009
    ..This hypothesis needs to be tested in well controlled clinical and pharmacokinetic studies...
  10. ncbi request reprint The natural history of childhood intra-thoracic tuberculosis: a critical review of literature from the pre-chemotherapy era
    B J Marais
    Centre for TB Research and Education, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 8:392-402. 2004
    ..Deciding which children to treat may be extremely difficult in high-prevalence, low-resource settings. The concept of relevant disease provides guidance for more effective public health intervention...
  11. doi request reprint Rifampicin-monoresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis disease among children in Cape Town, South Africa
    A Dramowski
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 16:76-81. 2012
    ..Tygerberg Children's Hospital (TCH) and Brooklyn Chest Hospital (BCH), South Africa...
  12. ncbi request reprint Early bactericidal activity of antituberculosis agents
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg, 7505, South Africa
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 1:141-55. 2003
    ..The greatest source of variation in EBA results appears to be that due to interpatient variation in disease characteristics and sputum sampling...
  13. ncbi request reprint Diversity of disease in childhood pulmonary tuberculosis
    B J Marais
    Centre for TB Research and Education, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Ann Trop Paediatr 25:79-86. 2005
    ..tuberculosis. Renewing our focus on the ontogeny of the immune response in children might provide valuable insights to direct future research regarding tuberculosis prevention, vaccine development and treatment...
  14. ncbi request reprint Monitoring the ingestion of anti-tuberculosis drugs by simple non-invasive methods
    F A Sirgel
    Medical Biochemistry, MRC Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Int J Pharm 307:182-7. 2006
    ..The qualitative procedures may therefore be valuable in clinical trials and in tuberculosis clinics to confirm drug ingestion...
  15. doi request reprint Early bactericidal activity of delamanid (OPC-67683) in smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients
    A H Diacon
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 15:949-54. 2011
    ..Delamanid (OPC-67683) is a novel mycolic acid biosynthesis inhibitor active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis at a low minimum inhibitory concentration...
  16. ncbi request reprint Baseline sputum time to detection predicts month two culture conversion and relapse in non-HIV-infected patients
    A C Hesseling
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 14:560-70. 2010
    ..Few biomarkers are available to identify tuberculosis (TB) patients at risk of delayed sputum conversion and relapse...
  17. doi request reprint Pyrazinamide pharmacokinetics and efficacy in adults and children
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, 7505 Tygerberg, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 92:1-8. 2012
    ..Children can receive the same mg/kg body weight PZA dosage as adults...
  18. pmc Outcome of HIV infected children with culture confirmed tuberculosis
    A C Hesseling
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Arch Dis Child 90:1171-4. 2005
    ..Tuberculosis (TB) is an important disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children living in regions where TB is endemic. There are limited data on the outcome of culture confirmed TB in HIV infected children...
  19. ncbi request reprint Management of tuberculosis in children and new treatment options
    B J Marais
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Infect Disord Drug Targets 11:144-56. 2011
    ..This review provides an overview of current treatment practices, presenting the authors personal perspectives on issues related to the treatment of childhood TB, together with a brief synopsis of potential future treatment options...
  20. pmc Randomized pilot trial of eight weeks of bedaquiline (TMC207) treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: long-term outcome, tolerability, and effect on emergence of drug resistance
    A H Diacon
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:3271-6. 2012
    ..Bedaquiline may contribute to the management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis by effecting more rapid sputum culture negativity and by preventing acquired resistance to companion drugs...
  21. doi request reprint Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of antituberculosis agents in adults and children
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health and Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics and the MRC Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, DST NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch and Tygerberg Children s Hospital, PO Box 19063, 7505 Tygerberg, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 90:279-92. 2010
    ..Antituberculous chemotherapy should be started as soon as the diagnosis of TBM is considered...
  22. pmc Pharmacokinetics of isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide in children younger than two years of age with tuberculosis: evidence for implementation of revised World Health Organization recommendations
    S Thee
    Department of Paediatric Pneumology and Immunology, Charite, Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Germany
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:5560-7. 2011
    ..Our data provided supportive evidence for the implementation of the revised WHO guidelines for first-line anti-TB therapy in young children...
  23. ncbi request reprint Frequency and implications of pyrazinamide resistance in managing previously treated tuberculosis patients
    G E Louw
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 10:802-7. 2006
    ..To determine the extent of pyrazinamide (PZA) resistance in isolates from previously treated patients from the Western Cape, South Africa...
  24. ncbi request reprint A research agenda to promote the management of childhood tuberculosis within national tuberculosis programmes
    P R Donald
    Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town 7505, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 11:370-80. 2007
    ..Study the role of families as agents for DOTS, evaluate private sector participation in childhood TB management. --Document bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunisation complications and study management strategies...
  25. doi request reprint The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rifampicin in adults and children in relation to the dosage recommended for children
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health and Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 91:196-207. 2011
    ..It is noteworthy that many adult patients receiving currently recommended RMP dosages also do not reach the often recommended RMP 2 h serum concentration of 8 μg/mL...
  26. doi request reprint The chemotherapy of tuberculous meningitis in children and adults
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 90:375-92. 2010
    ..The penetration of RMP, ethambutol and streptomycin into cerebrospinal fluid is poor; higher dosages of RMP should be considered...
  27. doi request reprint Para-aminosalicylic acid plasma concentrations in children in comparison with adults after receiving a granular slow-release preparation
    A C Liwa
    Division of Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    J Trop Pediatr 59:90-4. 2013
    ..A 150 mg/kg PAS dosage given as one or two daily doses leads to plasma concentrations in children similar to those of adults receiving 4 g PAS twice daily...
  28. doi request reprint The chemotherapy of tuberculous lymphadenopathy in children
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 90:213-24. 2010
    ..Every effort should be made to confirm the diagnosis and possible relapses microbiologically...
  29. pmc Culture confirmed multidrug resistant tuberculosis: diagnostic delay, clinical features, and outcome
    H S Schaaf
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Children s Hospital, South Africa
    Arch Dis Child 88:1106-11. 2003
    ..To determine the delay in diagnosis of multidrug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB), the correlation between drug susceptibility patterns of adult-child contact pairs, the effectiveness of treatment, and the outcome in these children...
  30. ncbi request reprint Ethambutol dosage for the treatment of children: literature review and recommendations
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 10:1318-30. 2006
    ....
  31. doi request reprint Requirements for the clinical evaluation of new anti-tuberculosis agents in children
    P R Donald
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 17:794-9. 2013
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint The clinical epidemiology of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis: a critical review of literature from the pre-chemotherapy era
    B J Marais
    Centre for TB Research and Education and the Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Children s Hospital and the Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 8:278-85. 2004
    ..Infants and adolescents were the groups at highest risk for disease development and death following primary infection...
  33. doi request reprint The chemotherapy of osteo-articular tuberculosis with recommendations for treatment of children
    P R Donald
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Children s Hospital, 7505 Tygerberg, South Africa
    J Infect 62:411-39. 2011
    ..To review literature regarding osteo-articular tuberculosis (OATB) and make recommendations made for the chemotherapy of children...