Zeljko Reiner

Summary

Affiliation: University Hospital Center
Country: Croatia

Publications

  1. doi Physicians' perception, knowledge and awareness of cardiovascular risk factors and adherence to prevention guidelines: the PERCRO-DOC survey
    Zeljko Reiner
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Center Zagreb, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Kispaticeva 12, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
    Atherosclerosis 213:598-603. 2010
  2. ncbi Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency--an under-recognized cause of dyslipidaemia and liver dysfunction
    Zeljko Reiner
    University Hospital Center, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Kispaticeva 12, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia Electronic address
    Atherosclerosis 235:21-30. 2014
  3. ncbi Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with statins in the elderly
    Zeljko Reiner
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Kispaticeva 12, 10000, Zagreb, Croatia
    Curr Atheroscler Rep 16:420. 2014
  4. doi Treatment potential for dyslipidaemia management in patients with coronary heart disease across Europe: findings from the EUROASPIRE III survey
    Zeljko Reiner
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Kispaticeva 12, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia Electronic address
    Atherosclerosis 231:300-7. 2013
  5. doi Managing the residual cardiovascular disease risk associated with HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in statin-treated patients: a clinical update
    Z Reiner
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Center Zagreb, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Kispaticeva 12, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia Electronic address
    Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 23:799-807. 2013
  6. pmc Prevalence and types of persistent dyslipidemia in patients treated with statins
    Zeljko Reiner
    Zeljko Reiner, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Kispaticeva 12, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
    Croat Med J 54:339-45. 2013
  7. doi Statins in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease
    Zeljko Reiner
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Kispaticeva 12, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
    Nat Rev Cardiol 10:453-64. 2013
  8. ncbi [Is hypertriglyceridaemia a risk factor for coronary heart disease?]
    Zeljko Reiner
    Zavod za bolesti metabolizma, Klinika za unutrasnje bolesti Medicinskog fakulteta Sveucilista u Zagrebu, KBC Zagreb
    Lijec Vjesn 134:105-11. 2012
  9. pmc The perception and knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors among medical students
    Zeljko Reiner
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia
    Croat Med J 53:278-84. 2012
  10. ncbi Rice policosanol does not have any effects on blood coagulation factors in hypercholesterolemic patients
    Zeljko Reiner
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
    Coll Antropol 31:1061-4. 2007

Detail Information

Publications51

  1. doi Physicians' perception, knowledge and awareness of cardiovascular risk factors and adherence to prevention guidelines: the PERCRO-DOC survey
    Zeljko Reiner
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Center Zagreb, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Kispaticeva 12, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
    Atherosclerosis 213:598-603. 2010
    ..This study was designed to examine the physicians' knowledge and perception of CVD risk factors and perceived implementation of CVD prevention guidelines as well as barriers to their implementation...
  2. ncbi Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency--an under-recognized cause of dyslipidaemia and liver dysfunction
    Zeljko Reiner
    University Hospital Center, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Kispaticeva 12, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia Electronic address
    Atherosclerosis 235:21-30. 2014
    ..Finally, current management options are reviewed in light of the ongoing development of enzyme replacement therapy with sebelipase alfa (Synageva BioPharma Corp., Lexington, MA, USA), a recombinant human lysosomal acid lipase enzyme. ..
  3. ncbi Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with statins in the elderly
    Zeljko Reiner
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Kispaticeva 12, 10000, Zagreb, Croatia
    Curr Atheroscler Rep 16:420. 2014
    ....
  4. doi Treatment potential for dyslipidaemia management in patients with coronary heart disease across Europe: findings from the EUROASPIRE III survey
    Zeljko Reiner
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Kispaticeva 12, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia Electronic address
    Atherosclerosis 231:300-7. 2013
    ..The aim of this survey was to assess how dyslipidaemia is managed following a coronary event in different places in Europe...
  5. doi Managing the residual cardiovascular disease risk associated with HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in statin-treated patients: a clinical update
    Z Reiner
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Center Zagreb, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Kispaticeva 12, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia Electronic address
    Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 23:799-807. 2013
    ....
  6. pmc Prevalence and types of persistent dyslipidemia in patients treated with statins
    Zeljko Reiner
    Zeljko Reiner, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Kispaticeva 12, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
    Croat Med J 54:339-45. 2013
    ....
  7. doi Statins in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease
    Zeljko Reiner
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Kispaticeva 12, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
    Nat Rev Cardiol 10:453-64. 2013
    ..In appropriately selected individuals, statins should also be used for primary prevention of ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack...
  8. ncbi [Is hypertriglyceridaemia a risk factor for coronary heart disease?]
    Zeljko Reiner
    Zavod za bolesti metabolizma, Klinika za unutrasnje bolesti Medicinskog fakulteta Sveucilista u Zagrebu, KBC Zagreb
    Lijec Vjesn 134:105-11. 2012
    ..If LDL cholesterol is elevated too, combination therapy is needed. Based upon recent studies in such patients a combination of a statin with fenofibrate and/or omega-3 fatty acids can be recommended...
  9. pmc The perception and knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors among medical students
    Zeljko Reiner
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia
    Croat Med J 53:278-84. 2012
    ..To assess perceptions, knowledge, and awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among medical students (freshmen and graduating students)...
  10. ncbi Rice policosanol does not have any effects on blood coagulation factors in hypercholesterolemic patients
    Zeljko Reiner
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
    Coll Antropol 31:1061-4. 2007
    ..Plasma fibrinogen, factors VII, VIII, XII and XIII were measured before and after the treatment. Rice policosanol treatment did not change significantly neither fibrinogen nor factors VII, VIII, XII and XIII...
  11. doi Public perceptions of cardiovascular risk factors in Croatia: the PERCRO survey
    Zeljko Reiner
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Center Zagreb, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Croatia
    Prev Med 51:494-6. 2010
    ..Since there are almost no data about the perceptions and attitudes of the general public concerning risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) this survey was performed...
  12. ncbi [Low HDL-cholesterol--an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases]
    Zeljko Reiner
    Zavod za bolesti metabolizma, Klinika za unutrasnje bolesti Medicinskog fakulteta Sveucilista u Zagrebu, Klinicki bolnicki centar Zagreb, Kispaticeva 12, 10000 Zagreb
    Lijec Vjesn 133:111-6. 2011
    ..Treatment options with fibrates, particularly fenofibrate, and niacin are discussed based upon published trials, as well as combination therapy with these medicines and other lipid-lowering drugs...
  13. doi ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: the Task Force for the management of dyslipidaemias of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS)
    Zeljko Reiner
    University Hospital Center Zagreb, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Salata 2, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
    Eur Heart J 32:1769-818. 2011
    ..g. general practitioners (GPs) and cardiologists] interested in CVD prevention, but also specialists from lipid clinics or metabolic units who are dealing with dyslipidaemias that are more difficult to classify and treat...
  14. ncbi Treatment and secondary prevention of ischemic coronary events in Croatia (TASPIC-CRO study)
    Zeljko Reiner
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Croatia
    Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 13:646-54. 2006
    ....
  15. ncbi Relation of atherosclerotic changes in retinal arteries to the extent of coronary artery disease
    Eugenia Tedeschi-Reiner
    Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Sestre Milosrdnice, Zagreb, Croatia
    Am J Cardiol 96:1107-9. 2005
    ..The extent and severity of retinal vessel atherosclerosis correlated strongly with the extent and severity of CAD. Thus, atherosclerotic changes in the retinal arteries may be a predictor of the extent of CAD...
  16. ncbi Atherosclerosis of retinal arteries in men: role of serum lipoproteins and apoproteins
    Eugenia Tedeschi-Reiner
    Department of Internal Medicine, Zagreb University Hospital Center, Kispaticeva 12, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
    Croat Med J 45:333-7. 2004
    ....
  17. doi Combined therapy in the treatment of dyslipidemia
    Zeljko Reiner
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
    Fundam Clin Pharmacol 24:19-28. 2010
    ..However, it has to be stated that for most of these combination therapies data on cardiovascular outcomes are still lacking...
  18. ncbi Changes in butyrylcholinesterase activity and serum lipids after oxprenolol and glibenclamide treatments in non-diabetic rats
    Vlasta Bradamante
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Croatia
    Arzneimittelforschung 56:64-9. 2006
    ..These results showed that the increase in BuChE activity might be the first sign of altered triglyceride and lipoprotein metabolism...
  19. ncbi Clinical study on the effect of simvastatin on paraoxonase activity
    Diana Muačević-Katanec
    Zagreb University Hospital Center, Croatia
    Arzneimittelforschung 57:647-53. 2007
    ..The antioxidant properties of simvastatin, which play an important role in HDL protection from oxidation, could be the mechanism inducing the increase in PON1 activity...
  20. ncbi A view at the future--a dynamical, protocol-based and computationally intensive approach in cardiovascular risk assessment
    Ljiljana Majnarić-Trtica
    Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, J J Strossmayer University Osijek, Croatia
    Coll Antropol 34:437-45. 2010
    ..We tested this possibility on an example of hyperhomocysteinemia which is a well-known complex cardiovascular risk factor...
  21. doi Differences in risk factors for coronary heart disease in patients from continental and Mediterranean regions of Croatia
    Mijo Bergovec
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Dubrava, Zagreb, Croatia
    Wien Klin Wochenschr 120:684-92. 2008
    ....
  22. ncbi Drug therapy of cardiovascular risk factors: guidelines versus reality in primary health care service
    Biserka Bergman Marković
    Biserka Bergman Markovic, General Practice Office, Albaharijeva 4, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
    Croat Med J 46:984-9. 2005
    ....
  23. doi Interaction of genetic risk factors confers increased risk for metabolic syndrome: the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ
    Tamara Bozina
    1 Department of Medical Chemistry, Biochemistry and Clinical Chemistry, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia
    Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 18:32-40. 2014
    ....
  24. ncbi Risk factors for microvascular atherosclerotic changes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Iveta Simić
    University of Zagreb, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Department of Internal Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia
    Coll Antropol 37:783-7. 2013
    ..Lipid-lowering treatment might have an impact on microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes, irrespectively of their serum lipid levels...
  25. ncbi Effects of lipoprotein lipase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene variants on metabolic syndrome traits
    Tamara Bozina
    University of Zagreb, School of Medicine, Department of Medical Chemistry, Biochemistry and Clinical Chemistry, Zagreb, Croatia
    Coll Antropol 37:801-8. 2013
    ..Since the interplay between PPARG and LPL gene and gender seems to be significant it could point to the personalized behavioural recommendations for prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases...
  26. ncbi Abnormal systolic blood pressure during treadmill test and brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilatation impairment
    Jure Mirat
    Department of Cardiology, General Hospital Sveti Duh, Zagreb, Croatia
    Coll Antropol 31:517-22. 2007
    ..In hypertensives with abnormal SBP(mtt) an additional impairment of FMD exists when compared to hypertensives with normal SBP(mtt). Abnormal SBP(mtt) should be taken into account in global cardiovascular risk assessment...
  27. ncbi A pilot Croatian survey of risk factor (CRO-SURF) management in patients with cardiovascular disease
    Ivan Pećin
    University of Zagreb, Zagreb University Hospital Center, Department of Internal Diseases, Zagreb, Croatia
    Coll Antropol 36:369-73. 2012
    ..It is a good and cost effective tool to collect data on CVD risk factors and their management. The results obtained by using it indicate that there is still a high prevalence of modifiable risk factors in Croatian patients with CHD...
  28. ncbi The burden of hyperlipidaemia and diabetes in cardiovascular diseases
    Marijan Merkler
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Center, Zagreb, Croatia
    Fundam Clin Pharmacol 21:1-3. 2007
    ..Therefore, planning and implementing programmes for prevention of CVD, particularly for controlling risk factors like hyperlipidaemia and diabetes should be accorded high priority...
  29. ncbi Comorbidity, multimorbidity and personalized psychosomatic medicine: epigenetics rolling on the horizon
    Miro Jakovljevic
    Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
    Psychiatr Danub 22:184-9. 2010
    ..The potential relevance of epigenetics for better understanding and more successful treatment of comorbidity and multimorbidity is described...
  30. doi Lipoprotein(a) predicts progression of carotid artery intima-media thickening in patients with type 2 diabetes: A four-year follow-up
    Jozo Boras
    Department of Cardiology, Vuk Vrhovac University Hospital, Zagreb, Croatia
    Wien Klin Wochenschr 122:159-64. 2010
    ....
  31. ncbi Mental disorders, treatment response, mortality and serum cholesterol: a new holistic look at old data
    Miro Jakovljevic
    University Psychiatric Clinic Rebro, Clinical Hospital Centre Zagreb, Kispaticeva 12, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
    Psychiatr Danub 19:270-81. 2007
    ..Changes in serum cholesterol levels may have a direct impact on mental performance, behavior, treatment response, survival and expected lifetime duration...
  32. pmc Mitochondrial myopathy associated with a novel 5522G>A mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA(Trp) gene
    Ivo Baric
    Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
    Eur J Hum Genet 21:871-5. 2013
    ..The mutation was heteroplasmic with a mutational load between 88 and 99% in COX-negative fibres. This case contributes to the genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial diseases caused by mutations in mitochondrial tRNA genes. ..
  33. doi Diabetic dyslipidemia or 'diabetes lipidus'?
    Diana Muačević-Katanec
    Division for Metabolic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Center Zagreb and School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia
    Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 9:341-8. 2011
    ..As diabetes and the lipid metabolism disorder can be neither scrutinized nor treated separately, the authors query whether 'diabetes lipidus' would be a more appropriate term...
  34. ncbi Deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene in elderly patients with coronary heart disease
    Biserka Bergman Marković
    Department of Family Medicine, Andrija Stampar School of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
    Coll Antropol 31:179-83. 2007
    ..A weak, but increased risk of MI is associated with high frequency of DD genotype in the elderly. Strong correlation between ACE polymorphism and ACE plasma activities was demonstrated...
  35. ncbi Spontaneous perforation of the small intestine, a novel manifestation of classical homocystinuria in an adult with new cystathionine beta-synthetase gene mutations
    Diana Muačević-Katanec
    University of Zagreb, Zagreb University Hospital Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Division for Metabolic Diseases, Zagreb, Croatia
    Coll Antropol 35:181-5. 2011
    ..DNA analysis showed three detectable mutations in the cystathionine beta-synthetase gene, 1278T:c.833T>C, and two new mutations, V372G:c.1133T > G, and D520G:c.1558A > G in the aternatively spliced exon 15...
  36. doi Mutation detection in Croatian patients with familial hypercholesterolemia
    Ivan Pećin
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Croatia
    Ann Hum Genet 77:22-30. 2013
    ..HRM is a sensitive method for screening for mutations. While the causative mutation has been identified in 88% of these clinically defined FH patients, there appears to be a high degree of allelic heterogeneity in Croatian patients...
  37. ncbi Endogenous steroid sex hormones and atherosclerosis of retinal arteries in men
    Eugenia Tedeschi-Reiner
    Department of Opthalmology, University Hospital Sestre Milosrdnice, Zagreb, Croatia
    Med Sci Monit 15:CR211-6. 2009
    ..To our knowledge, there are no data on the effects of endogenous sex hormones on atherosclerosis of the retinal arteries in men, and the purpose of this study was to explore that association...
  38. ncbi Cytokines and growth factors in mostly atherosclerotic patients on hemodialysis determined by biochip array technology
    Jadranka Sertic
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Zagreb University School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia
    Clin Chem Lab Med 45:1347-52. 2007
    ....
  39. ncbi Butyrylcholinesterase activity and plasma lipids in dexamethasone treated rats
    Ana Lucić Vrdoljak
    Unit of Toxicology, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
    Acta Pharm 55:177-85. 2005
    ..Neither positive correlation between BuChE and triglycerides nor negative correlation between BuChE and HDL was found. Changes in lipid profile during DM treatment were not sex- and time-dependent...
  40. ncbi [Familial hypercholesterolemia - do we think enough about this severe disease?]
    Ivan Pećin
    Zavod za bolesti metabolizma, Klinika za unutarnje bolesti Medicinskog fakulteta, Klinicki bolnicki centar Zagreb
    Lijec Vjesn 135:145-9. 2013
    ..There is a need to increase the awareness of this disease in Croatia but also worldwide with one main goal: to early diagnose and prevent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality...
  41. ncbi [Croatian guidelines for nutrition in the elderly, part II--clinical nutrition]
    Zeljko Krznaric
    Centar za klinicku prehranu i Zavod za gastroenterologiju i hepatologiju, Klinika za unutrasnje bolesti, KBC Zagreb, Kispaticeva 12, 10000 Zagreb
    Lijec Vjesn 133:299-307. 2011
    ....
  42. ncbi [A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the antilipemic efficacy and tolerability of food supplement policosanol in patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia]
    Eugenia Tedeschi-Reiner
    Klinika za unutrasnje bolesti Klinickog boirkog centra Zagreb Medicinskog fakulteta Sveufiligta u Zagrebu
    Lijec Vjesn 127:273-9. 2005
    ..It was well tolerated, with no drug-related effects on safety parameters such as serum aminotransferases, blood glucose, bilirubin, and CK, neither did it cause any clinical adverse reactions...
  43. ncbi [Concomitant use of statins and cytochrome P 450 inhibitors in Croatia]
    Zeljko Reiner
    Klinika za unutrasnje bolesti, Klinicki bolnicki centar Zagreb
    Lijec Vjesn 127:65-8. 2005
    ..This sex difference is, however, not statistically significant. Patients between 70 and 74 years of age taking statins are in Croatia at the highest risk of interactions because 8% of them take concomitantly cytochrome P 450 inhibitors...
  44. ncbi [Lipoprotein disorders in chronic kidney failure, nephrotic syndrome and dialysis]
    Petar Kes
    Zavod za dijalizu Klinickog bolnickog centra i Medicinskog fakulteta, Zagreb
    Lijec Vjesn 124:372-7. 2002
    ..The therapeutic approaches, which may be considered, include mainly dietary and life-style modifications, selective use of some technical components of dialysis systems, and the judicious prescriptions of lipid-lowering drugs...
  45. ncbi [The effects of plant sterols on hypercholesterolemia]
    Zeljko Reiner
    Klinika za unutrasnje bolesti KBC Zagreb
    Lijec Vjesn 129:276-81. 2007
    ..To achieve additional effects they can be combined with statin therapy, and this combination is also well tolerated and safe...
  46. ncbi European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: executive summary: Fourth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (Constituted by r
    Ian Graham
    Department of Cardiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Eur Heart J 28:2375-414. 2007
  47. ncbi [Should we begin with statin therapy in acute coronary syndrome?]
    Zeljko Reiner
    Klinika za unutrasnje bolesti Klinicki bolnicki centar Zagreb Kispatićeva 12 10000 Zagreb, Hrvatska
    Acta Med Croatica 58:147-50. 2004
    ..Based upon the current knowledge, it might be concluded that patients hospitalized for ACS should be given a statin and the treatment should be initiated as soon as possible...
  48. ncbi Statins in heart failure - a failure?
    Zeljko Reiner
    Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 18:397-401. 2008
  49. ncbi [Three-year-old boy--a homozygote for familiar hypercholesterolemia]
    Miroslav Dumic
    Klinika za pedijatriju Rebro, Medicinski fakultet i KBC Zagreb
    Lijec Vjesn 129:130-3. 2007
    ..The boy has been treated with simvastatin and atorvastatin, but without reaching the treatment goals. LDL apheresis is planned as the treatment of choice for homozygous children with FH...
  50. ncbi [Effect of erythropoietin therapy on serum lipoprotein levels in patients on hemodialysis]
    Petar Kes
    Zavod za nefrologiju i dijalizu, Klinika za unutarnje bolesti Klinicke bolnice Sestre milosrdnice, Zagreb
    Lijec Vjesn 124:146-50. 2002
    ..It could be concluded that long-term rHuEpo treatment is associated with an improvement in the lipid profile. These results suggest that the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in HD patients might be reduced with rHuEpo therapy...
  51. ncbi [Characteristics of hyperhomocysteinemia in dialysis patients]
    Vesna Lovcić
    Centar za dijalizu, Odjel za internu medicinu, Opća bolnica Bjelovar, Bjelovar, Hrvatska
    Acta Med Croatica 60:21-6. 2006
    ..The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia and its relationship with other cardiovascular risk factors in dialysis patients...