Thomas B Clarkson

Summary

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Timing hypothesis for postmenopausal hormone therapy: its origin, current status, and future
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Center for Comparative Medicine and Research, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Menopause 20:342-53. 2013
  2. pmc Effects of bazedoxifene alone and with conjugated equine estrogens on coronary and peripheral artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal monkeys
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Department of Pathology Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Menopause 20:274-81. 2013
  3. pmc The effect of diet and cardiovascular risk on ovarian aging in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)
    Susan E Appt
    Department of Pathology Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Menopause 17:741-8. 2010
  4. ncbi request reprint Effects of soybean glyceollins and estradiol in postmenopausal female monkeys
    Charles E Wood
    Department of Pathology Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Nutr Cancer 56:74-81. 2006
  5. pmc Endometrial profile of bazedoxifene acetate alone and in combination with conjugated equine estrogens in a primate model
    Kelly F Ethun
    Wake Forest University Primate Center, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Menopause 20:777-84. 2013
  6. pmc Effects of bazedoxifene acetate with and without conjugated equine estrogens on the breast of postmenopausal monkeys
    Kelly F Ethun
    Wake Forest University Primate Center and the Department of Pathology Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Menopause 19:1242-52. 2012
  7. ncbi request reprint Low dose estrogens inhibit coronary artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal monkeys
    Susan E Appt
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, United States
    Maturitas 55:187-94. 2006
  8. pmc Plasma lipid-dependent and -independent effects of dietary soy protein and social status on atherogenesis in premenopausal monkeys: implications for postmenopausal atherosclerosis burden
    Sara E Walker
    Wake Forest University Primate Center, Section on Comparative, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Menopause 15:950-7. 2008
  9. ncbi request reprint Effects of tibolone and conventional hormone replacement therapies on arterial and hepatic cholesterol accumulation and on circulating endothelin-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin in surgically menopausal monkeys
    Thomas C Register
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Menopause 9:411-21. 2002
  10. ncbi request reprint Comparison of tibolone and conjugated equine estrogens effects on carotid artery atherosclerosis of postmenopausal monkeys
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Stroke 33:2700-3. 2002

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications48

  1. ncbi request reprint Timing hypothesis for postmenopausal hormone therapy: its origin, current status, and future
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Center for Comparative Medicine and Research, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Menopause 20:342-53. 2013
    ....
  2. pmc Effects of bazedoxifene alone and with conjugated equine estrogens on coronary and peripheral artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal monkeys
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Department of Pathology Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Menopause 20:274-81. 2013
    ....
  3. pmc The effect of diet and cardiovascular risk on ovarian aging in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)
    Susan E Appt
    Department of Pathology Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Menopause 17:741-8. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the relationships among dietary protein source, cardiovascular risk, reproductive hormones, and ovarian aging...
  4. ncbi request reprint Effects of soybean glyceollins and estradiol in postmenopausal female monkeys
    Charles E Wood
    Department of Pathology Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Nutr Cancer 56:74-81. 2006
    ..05 for both) but not in the GLY group. These preliminary findings suggest that soybean glyceollins are natural compounds with potential estrogen-modulating properties in the breast...
  5. pmc Endometrial profile of bazedoxifene acetate alone and in combination with conjugated equine estrogens in a primate model
    Kelly F Ethun
    Wake Forest University Primate Center, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Menopause 20:777-84. 2013
    ..The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the endometrial profile of bazedoxifene acetate (BZA), a third-generation SERM, alone and in combination with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) in a postmenopausal primate model...
  6. pmc Effects of bazedoxifene acetate with and without conjugated equine estrogens on the breast of postmenopausal monkeys
    Kelly F Ethun
    Wake Forest University Primate Center and the Department of Pathology Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Menopause 19:1242-52. 2012
    ....
  7. ncbi request reprint Low dose estrogens inhibit coronary artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal monkeys
    Susan E Appt
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, United States
    Maturitas 55:187-94. 2006
    ..To determine if low dose conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) result in a reduction of coronary artery atherosclerosis progression, and to relate these findings to previous studies using the traditional dose...
  8. pmc Plasma lipid-dependent and -independent effects of dietary soy protein and social status on atherogenesis in premenopausal monkeys: implications for postmenopausal atherosclerosis burden
    Sara E Walker
    Wake Forest University Primate Center, Section on Comparative, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Menopause 15:950-7. 2008
    ..The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary soy protein isolate (SPI) and social status on atherogenesis and arterial gene expression in a premenopausal monkey model...
  9. ncbi request reprint Effects of tibolone and conventional hormone replacement therapies on arterial and hepatic cholesterol accumulation and on circulating endothelin-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin in surgically menopausal monkeys
    Thomas C Register
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Menopause 9:411-21. 2002
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Comparison of tibolone and conjugated equine estrogens effects on carotid artery atherosclerosis of postmenopausal monkeys
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Stroke 33:2700-3. 2002
    ....
  11. doi request reprint Comparative effects of oral conjugated equine estrogens and micronized 17beta-estradiol on breast proliferation: a retrospective analysis
    Charles E Wood
    Departments of 1Pathology Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Menopause 15:890-8. 2008
    ..To evaluate the effects of oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) and micronized 17beta-estradiol (E2) on breast proliferation in a postmenopausal primate model...
  12. ncbi request reprint Effects of soy isoflavones and conjugated equine estrogens on inflammatory markers in atherosclerotic, ovariectomized monkeys
    Thomas C Register
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:1734-40. 2005
    ..The sites of IF inhibitory effects on sVCAM-1 production are not known, but likely candidates include the liver and/or the cardiovascular system...
  13. doi request reprint Differential effects of estradiol on carotid artery inflammation when administered early versus late after surgical menopause
    Areepan Sophonsritsuk
    Section on Comparative Medicine, Department of Pathology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Menopause 20:540-7. 2013
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the effects of estrogen therapy (ET) on carotid artery inflammation when initiated early and late relative to surgical menopause...
  14. pmc Soy-tibolone combination - effect on lipids in postmenopausal monkeys and women
    Susan E Appt
    Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Maturitas 60:216-22. 2008
    ..To determine whether co-administration of soy during tibolone treatment would prevent tibolone-induced dyslipoproteinemia in postmenopausal monkeys and women...
  15. ncbi request reprint Effects of tibolone and conjugated equine estrogens with or without medroxyprogesterone acetate on body composition and fasting carbohydrate measures in surgically postmenopausal monkeys
    Melanie K Shadoan
    Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1032, USA
    Metabolism 52:1085-91. 2003
    ..03), except CEE (P =.12). In conclusion, HRT with CEE + MPA or tibolone results in greater BW, abdominal soft tissue, and insulin resistance (CEE + MPA and HiTib) compared to control-treated monkeys...
  16. ncbi request reprint Effects of high-dose soy isoflavones and equol on reproductive tissues in female cynomolgus monkeys
    Charles E Wood
    Department of Pathology Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Biol Reprod 75:477-86. 2006
    ..1 for all). These findings indicate that high doses of dietary soy isoflavonoids have minimal uterotrophic or mammotrophic effects in an established primate model...
  17. pmc Premenopausal antim├╝llerian hormone concentration is associated with subsequent atherosclerosis
    Susan E Appt
    Wake Forest Primate Center and Department of Pathology Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Menopause 19:1353-9. 2012
    ..The aim of this study was to determine if premenopausal ovarian reserve is associated with susceptibility for atherosclerosis...
  18. ncbi request reprint Serum cholesterol efflux potential is an independent predictor of coronary artery atherosclerosis
    Tomi S Mikkola
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Department of Pathology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Atherosclerosis 170:31-8. 2003
    ..6 and 10.7% of the variability (P<0.0001), respectively. Thus, the potential of serum to promote cholesterol efflux from Fu5AH cells may represent a useful independent measure for improving the assessment of CAA risk...
  19. ncbi request reprint Comparative effects of tibolone and conjugated equine estrogens with and without medroxyprogesterone acetate on the reproductive tract of female cynomolgus monkeys
    J Mark Cline
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Menopause 9:242-52. 2002
    ..To measure the effects of 2 years' treatment with tibolone on the reproductive tract of female monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in comparison with conventional hormone replacement therapy...
  20. ncbi request reprint Controversies about HRT--lessons from monkey models
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Maturitas 51:64-74. 2005
    ..The results of monkey studies suggest little or no effects of estrogen only treatment; whereas, estrogen+progestin clearly increases breast cancer risk...
  21. ncbi request reprint Effects of tibolone on bone quality in ovariectomized monkeys
    Cynthia J Lees
    Department of Pathology, Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Menopause 12:613-8. 2005
    ..The purpose of this report is to examine the effects of two doses of tibolone on bone quality (bone biomarkers, bone density, and bone strength) in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys fed high-fat diets...
  22. pmc Experimental induction of reduced ovarian reserve in a nonhuman primate model (Macaca fascicularis)
    Susan E Appt
    Department of Pathology Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University Primate Center, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
    Comp Med 60:380-8. 2010
    ..These data indicate that VCD treatment markedly reduced primordial follicles while preserving larger estradiol- and testosterone-producing follicles and ovarian stroma, a condition that mimics ROR in women...
  23. ncbi request reprint Effects of tibolone and hormone replacement therapy on the breast of cynomolgus monkeys
    J Mark Cline
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Menopause 9:422-9. 2002
    ..To measure the effects of 2 years of treatment with tibolone on the breasts of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in comparison with conventional hormone replacement therapy...
  24. ncbi request reprint MPA and postmenopausal coronary artery atherosclerosis revisited
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Steroids 68:941-51. 2003
    ..In conclusion, it is evident that the current experimental, clinical, and observational data do not provide evidence that progestins attenuate estrogen's cardiovascular benefits...
  25. ncbi request reprint The applicability of hormonal effects on atherosclerosis in animals to heart disease in postmenopausal women
    Janice D Wagner
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Semin Reprod Med 23:149-56. 2005
    ..Future studies should be directed at studying hormone therapy in relevant ages of women (perimenopausal women) using the lowest effective doses of hormones and comparing oral and parenteral forms of delivery...
  26. pmc Replacement of dietary soy protein isolate with concentrates of soy 7S or 11S globulin has minimal or no effects on plasma lipoprotein profiles and biomarkers of coronary risk in monkeys
    Michael R Adams
    Department of Pathology Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Atherosclerosis 196:76-80. 2008
    ..Replacement of dietary soy protein isolate with concentrated 7S or 11S does not result in improvement of plasma lipoprotein profiles or cardiovascular biomarkers in monkeys...
  27. pmc Serum antim├╝llerian hormone predicts ovarian reserve in a monkey model
    Susan E Appt
    Wake Forest University Primate Center, Department of Pathology Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Menopause 16:597-601. 2009
    ..Here, we describe the relationship between AMH and ovarian reserve in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) estimated to be 12 to 15 years of age (approximately 36-45 y in women)...
  28. pmc Effects of a Western-type diet on plasma lipids and other cardiometabolic risk factors in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus)
    Matthew J Jorgensen
    Department of Pathology, Section on Comparative Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 52:448-53. 2013
    ..Our data indicate that the Western diet led to changes in various biomedical risk factors of green monkeys to become similar to those of humans in the United States. ..
  29. ncbi request reprint Soy, soy phytoestrogens and cardiovascular disease
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    J Nutr 132:566S-569S. 2002
    ..No definite experimental evidence exists currently to establish that the cardiovascular benefits of soy protein are accounted for by its isoflavones...
  30. ncbi request reprint Depressive behavior and coronary artery atherogenesis in adult female cynomolgus monkeys
    Carol A Shively
    Department of Pathology Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Psychosom Med 70:637-45. 2008
    ..Thus, in prospective studies of depression and CHD, CAA was likely present at baseline in most subjects who experienced cardiac events. Little is known about the relationship between depression and CAA...
  31. ncbi request reprint Lessons to be learned from animal studies on hormones and the breast
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Maturitas 49:79-89. 2004
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Social stress, visceral obesity, and coronary artery atherosclerosis in female primates
    Carol A Shively
    Department of Pathology, Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 17:1513-20. 2009
    ..Further studies are needed to understand the complex and multifactorial temporal relationship among relative visceral obesity, physiological stress responses, and CAA...
  33. ncbi request reprint Serum cholesterol efflux potential in postmenopausal monkeys treated with tibolone or conjugated estrogens
    Tomi S Mikkola
    Department of Pathology, Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Metabolism 51:523-30. 2002
    ..Because changes in cholesterol efflux potential of serum were seen only in Fu5AH cells, a cell line rich in SR-B1 receptors, this implies that the changes seen in this study were mediated largely by the SR-B1 pathway...
  34. ncbi request reprint Social stress, visceral obesity, and coronary artery atherosclerosis: product of a primate adaptation
    Carol A Shively
    Wake Forest University Primate Center, Department of Pathology, Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina NC 27157 1040, USA
    Am J Primatol 71:742-51. 2009
    ..Social stress may be engaging these same physiological systems, increasing the visceral deposition of fat and its sequelae, which increase CHD risk...
  35. ncbi request reprint Coronary heart disease of females: lessons learned from nonhuman primates
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Wake Forest University Primate Center, Department of Pathology, Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Am J Primatol 71:785-93. 2009
    ..These studies will hopefully clarify the role of estrogen and eliminate the need for the possibly harmful progestin effects through the use of a highly selective estrogen receptor modulator...
  36. ncbi request reprint Destruction of primordial ovarian follicles in adult cynomolgus macaques after exposure to 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide: a nonhuman primate model of the menopausal transition
    Susan E Appt
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Fertil Steril 86:1210-6. 2006
    ....
  37. pmc Effects of bazedoxifene, conjugated equine estrogens, and a tissue-selective estrogen complex containing both bazedoxifene and conjugated equine estrogens on cerebral artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal monkeys
    Thomas B Clarkson
    From the Departments of 1Pathology Comparative Medicine and 2Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC
    Menopause 21:8-14. 2014
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint The new conundrum: do estrogens have any cardiovascular benefits?
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Int J Fertil Womens Med 47:61-8. 2002
    ....
  39. ncbi request reprint Dietary soy and soy isoflavones have gender-specific effects on plasma lipids and isoflavones in golden Syrian f(1)b hybrid hamsters
    Robert M Blair
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    J Nutr 132:3585-91. 2002
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Raloxifene revisited
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Fertil Steril 77:445-7. 2002
  41. ncbi request reprint Estrogen replacement therapy, atherosclerosis, and vascular function
    Tomi S Mikkola
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Cardiovasc Res 53:605-19. 2002
    ..Future regimens may overcome that fear by the co-administration of a breast cancer preventive agent (i.e., selective estrogen receptor modulators, phytoestrogens) with low dose estrogen...
  42. ncbi request reprint Treatment with antibiotics reduces plasma equol concentration in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)
    Robert M Blair
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    J Nutr 133:2262-7. 2003
    ..In conclusion, treatment with antibiotics resulted in a marked reduction in plasma equol concentrations and altered plasma isoflavonoid patterns in cynomolgus monkeys...
  43. pmc 25(OH)D3 and cardiovascular risk factors in female nonhuman primates
    Matthew J Jorgensen
    Department of Pathology Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
    J Womens Health (Larchmt) 21:959-65. 2012
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Estrogen effects on arteries vary with stage of reproductive life and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis progression
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Menopause 14:373-84. 2007
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint Use of the progestin challenge test in nonhuman primates (Macaca fascicularis)
    Robert M Blair
    Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA
    Fertil Steril 77:387-91. 2002
    ..DESIGN; Randomized, 2x2, crossover study. SETTING; Nonhuman primates (Macaca fascicularis) in an academic research environment...
  46. ncbi request reprint The unique value of primate models in translational research. Nonhuman primate models of women's health: introduction and overview
    Carol A Shively
    Wake Forest University Primate Center, Department of Pathology, Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Am J Primatol 71:715-21. 2009
    ....
  47. pmc Effects of estradiol on transcriptional profiles in atherosclerotic iliac arteries in ovariectomized cynomolgus macaques
    Kathleen M Eyster
    From the 1Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine of the University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD and 2Department of Pathology Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC
    Menopause 21:143-52. 2014
    ..This study aimed to assess the in vivo effects of estradiol treatment on arterial gene expression in atherosclerotic postmenopausal female monkeys...
  48. ncbi request reprint A comparison of tibolone and hormone replacement therapy on coronary artery and myocardial function in ovariectomized atherosclerotic monkeys
    J Koudy Williams
    The Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Menopause 9:41-51. 2002
    ....