Rowan T Chlebowski

Summary

Publications

  1. pmc Changing concepts: Menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor, UCLA Medical Center, 1124 W Carson St, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 104:517-27. 2012
  2. doi request reprint Adherence to endocrine therapy in breast cancer adjuvant and prevention settings
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, 1124 W Carson Street, Bldg J3, Torrance, CA 90502
    Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 7:378-87. 2014
  3. doi request reprint Nutrition and physical activity influence on breast cancer incidence and outcome
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, 1124 W Carson Street, Building J 3, Torrance, CA 90502, USA Electronic address
    Breast 22:S30-7. 2013
  4. pmc Estrogen alone and joint symptoms in the Women's Health Initiative randomized trial
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Menopause 20:600-8. 2013
  5. pmc Estrogen plus progestin and breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, 90502, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 105:526-35. 2013
  6. pmc Diabetes, metformin, and breast cancer in postmenopausal women
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Clin Oncol 30:2844-52. 2012
  7. pmc Genetic variants in the MRPS30 region and postmenopausal breast cancer risk
    Ying Huang
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Divisions of Public Health Sciences, and Vaccine and Infectious Diseases, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, Seattle, WA 98109 1024, USA
    Genome Med 3:42. 2011
  8. pmc Estrogen and progesterone-related gene variants and colorectal cancer risk in women
    Jennifer H Lin
    Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    BMC Med Genet 12:78. 2011
  9. pmc Vitamin D and breast cancer: interpreting current evidence
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, 11243 West Carson Street, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Breast Cancer Res 13:217. 2011
  10. pmc Estrogen alone in postmenopausal women and breast cancer detection by means of mammography and breast biopsy
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, University of California Los Angeles, 1124 W Carson St, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Clin Oncol 28:2690-7. 2010

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications49

  1. pmc Changing concepts: Menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor, UCLA Medical Center, 1124 W Carson St, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 104:517-27. 2012
    ..Currently, the different effects of estrogen plus progestin vs estrogen alone on breast cancer are not completely understood...
  2. doi request reprint Adherence to endocrine therapy in breast cancer adjuvant and prevention settings
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, 1124 W Carson Street, Bldg J3, Torrance, CA 90502
    Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 7:378-87. 2014
    ..Cancer Prev Res; 7(4); 378-87. ©2014 AACR. ..
  3. doi request reprint Nutrition and physical activity influence on breast cancer incidence and outcome
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, 1124 W Carson Street, Building J 3, Torrance, CA 90502, USA Electronic address
    Breast 22:S30-7. 2013
    ..To provide a current perspective on nutrition and physical activity influence on breast cancer...
  4. pmc Estrogen alone and joint symptoms in the Women's Health Initiative randomized trial
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Menopause 20:600-8. 2013
    ..Against this background, estrogen-alone effects on joint symptoms were examined in post hoc analyses in the Women's Health Initiative randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial...
  5. pmc Estrogen plus progestin and breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, 90502, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 105:526-35. 2013
    ..To address differences, a cohort of WHI observational study participants with characteristics similar to the WHI clinical trial was studied...
  6. pmc Diabetes, metformin, and breast cancer in postmenopausal women
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Clin Oncol 30:2844-52. 2012
    ..Therefore, we assessed associations among diabetes, metformin use, and breast cancer in postmenopausal women participating in Women's Health Initiative clinical trials...
  7. pmc Genetic variants in the MRPS30 region and postmenopausal breast cancer risk
    Ying Huang
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Divisions of Public Health Sciences, and Vaccine and Infectious Diseases, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, Seattle, WA 98109 1024, USA
    Genome Med 3:42. 2011
    ..Genotype by environment interactions may contribute further to such explanation, and may help to refine the genomic regions of interest...
  8. pmc Estrogen and progesterone-related gene variants and colorectal cancer risk in women
    Jennifer H Lin
    Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    BMC Med Genet 12:78. 2011
    ..Inherited variation in the sex-hormone genes may be one mechanism by which sex hormones affect colorectal cancer, although data are limited...
  9. pmc Vitamin D and breast cancer: interpreting current evidence
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, 11243 West Carson Street, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Breast Cancer Res 13:217. 2011
    ..Current evidence supports the pursuit of several research questions but not routine 25-hydroxyvitamin D monitoring and vitamin D supplementation to reduce breast cancer incidence or improve breast cancer outcome...
  10. pmc Estrogen alone in postmenopausal women and breast cancer detection by means of mammography and breast biopsy
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, University of California Los Angeles, 1124 W Carson St, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Clin Oncol 28:2690-7. 2010
    ..625 mg/d) or placebo...
  11. pmc Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of breast cancer
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 100:1581-91. 2008
    ..Although some observational studies have associated higher calcium intake and especially higher vitamin D intake and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with lower breast cancer risk, no randomized trial has evaluated these relationships...
  12. doi request reprint Estrogen plus progestin and breast cancer incidence and mortality in postmenopausal women
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, 1124 W Carson St, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    JAMA 304:1684-92. 2010
    ..7-8.6 years) and a mean follow-up of 7.9 (SD, 1.4) years, breast cancer incidence was increased among women who received combined hormone therapy. Breast cancer mortality among participants in the trial has not been previously reported...
  13. pmc Lung cancer among postmenopausal women treated with estrogen alone in the women's health initiative randomized trial
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 102:1413-21. 2010
    ..We conducted post hoc analyses in the WHI trial evaluating estrogen alone to determine whether use of conjugated equine estrogen without progestin had a similar adverse influence on lung cancer...
  14. ncbi request reprint Predicting risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women by hormone receptor status
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, 1124 West Carson Street, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 99:1695-705. 2007
    ..We evaluated and attempted to improve the performance of the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (i.e., the Gail model) for estimating invasive breast cancer risk by receptor status in postmenopausal women...
  15. pmc Oral bisphosphonate use and breast cancer incidence in postmenopausal women
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Clin Oncol 28:3582-90. 2010
    ..Emerging clinical evidence suggests intravenous bisphosphonates may inhibit breast cancer while oral bisphosphonates have received limited evaluation regarding breast cancer influence...
  16. pmc Oestrogen plus progestin and lung cancer in postmenopausal women (Women's Health Initiative trial): a post-hoc analysis of a randomised controlled trial
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Lancet 374:1243-51. 2009
    ..To assess whether such an association exists, we undertook a post-hoc analysis of lung cancers diagnosed in the trial over the entire follow-up period...
  17. doi request reprint Estrogen plus progestin and breast cancer detection by means of mammography and breast biopsy
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Arch Intern Med 168:370-7; quiz 345. 2008
    ..The effect of combined hormone therapy on breast cancer detection is not established...
  18. pmc 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, vitamin D intake and joint symptoms in postmenopausal women
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, United States
    Maturitas 68:73-8. 2011
    ..However, the results are mixed and few studies have evaluated associations between 25(OH) D concentrations and both total vitamin D intake and clinical joint symptoms...
  19. doi request reprint Breast cancer after use of estrogen plus progestin in postmenopausal women
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    N Engl J Med 360:573-87. 2009
    ..Subsequently, the incidence of breast cancer also dropped, suggesting a cause-and-effect relation between hormone treatment and breast cancer. However, the cause of this decrease remains controversial...
  20. doi request reprint Postmenopausal women with DCIS post-mastectomy: a potential role for aromatase inhibitors
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, CA 90502, USA
    Breast J 18:299-302. 2012
    ..Thus, aromatase inhibitors, and perhaps particularly exemestane, provide an option to address the risk of contralateral breast cancer in postmenopausal women with DCIS managed with mastectomy...
  21. pmc Vitamin D intake and lung cancer risk in the Women's Health Initiative
    Ting Yuan David Cheng
    Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA and Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA
    Am J Clin Nutr 98:1002-11. 2013
    ..Prior research suggests that vitamin D protects against lung cancer only among certain subgroups...
  22. ncbi request reprint Insulin, physical activity, and caloric intake in postmenopausal women: breast cancer implications
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Clin Oncol 22:4507-13. 2004
    ..However, there are few data on the relative contribution of physical activity, caloric intake, and BMI to fasting insulin levels...
  23. doi request reprint Sexual dysfunction and aromatase inhibitor use in survivors of breast cancer
    Karen W Kwan
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Clin Breast Cancer 9:219-24. 2009
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint Coronary heart disease and stroke with aromatase inhibitor, tamoxifen, and menopausal hormone therapy use
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502 2004, USA
    Clin Breast Cancer 6:S58-64. 2006
    ..If remaining issues are to be addressed, more rigorous CHD and stroke assessment procedures are needed in future trials evaluating AIs...
  25. ncbi request reprint Vitamin D and breast cancer incidence and outcome
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, 1124 W Carson Street, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem 13:98-106. 2013
    ..However, a full-scale randomized trial evaluating the influence of vitamin D supplementation on breast cancer recurrence is likely not feasible...
  26. ncbi request reprint Adherence to endocrine therapy for breast cancer
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502 2064, USA
    Oncology 71:1-9. 2006
    ..Therefore, we reviewed the published literature regarding hormonal therapy adherence in clinical trial and practice settings...
  27. doi request reprint Adherence to oral endocrine therapy for breast cancer: a nursing perspective
    Christine Miaskowski
    Department of Physiological Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Clin J Oncol Nurs 12:213-21. 2008
    ..This article summarizes the issues surrounding adherence, paying specific attention to adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer, and outlines strategies to reduce nonadherence that nurses can incorporate into clinical practice...
  28. ncbi request reprint Ethnicity and breast cancer: factors influencing differences in incidence and outcome
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, 1124 W Carson St, Building J 3, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 97:439-48. 2005
    ..The influence of breast cancer risk factors on these differences has received little attention...
  29. doi request reprint Bisphosphonates and breast cancer incidence and recurrence
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Breast Dis 33:93-101. 2011
    ..Ongoing breast cancer adjuvant clinical trials are further evaluating bisphosphonates and, by their influence on contralateral cancers, may provide more evidence regarding the potential of bisphosphonates for breast cancer prevention...
  30. doi request reprint Optimizing aromatase inhibitor integration into initial treatment strategies in postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive early breast cancer
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Division of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, 1000 W Carson Street, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 112:25-34. 2008
    ..Available evidence supports a hypothesis that upfront adjuvant AI therapy is the most appropriate treatment strategy for postmenopausal patients with HR+ disease. Definitive evidence awaits results from ongoing randomized trials...
  31. ncbi request reprint Estrogen plus progestin and colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Department of Medicine, Harbor UCLA Research and Education Institute, Torrance, Calif 90502, USA
    N Engl J Med 350:991-1004. 2004
    ..We analyzed features of the colorectal cancers that developed and their relation to the characteristics of the participants...
  32. ncbi request reprint Alcohol and folate consumption and risk of benign proliferative epithelial disorders of the breast
    Yan Cui
    Office of Health Assessment and Epidemiology, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Int J Cancer 121:1346-51. 2007
    ..In conclusion, we observed that alcohol consumption and folate intake were not associated with altered risk of BPED, and that there was no effect modification between them in relation to the risk of BPED...
  33. ncbi request reprint HT and breast cancer risk
    Michelle L Geller
    Harbor UCLA Research and Education Institute, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Fertil Steril 80:5-9; quiz 54-5. 2003
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Bisphosphonates and breast cancer prevention
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, 1124 W Carson St Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem 12:144-50. 2012
    ..Such reports require cautious interpretation because confounding by indication is an issue: bisphosphonates are prescribed for women with low bone mineral density, and women with low bone density are at decreased breast cancer risk...
  35. ncbi request reprint Dietary fat reduction and breast cancer outcome: interim efficacy results from the Women's Intervention Nutrition Study
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Department of Medicine, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, 1124 West Carson St, Building J 3, Torrance, CA 90502 2064, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 98:1767-76. 2006
    ..We carried out a randomized, prospective, multicenter clinical trial to test the effect of a dietary intervention designed to reduce fat intake in women with resected, early-stage breast cancer receiving conventional cancer management...
  36. ncbi request reprint Menopausal hormone therapy after breast cancer
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Harbor UCLA Research and Education Institute, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Lancet 363:410-1. 2004
  37. pmc Utility of two cancer organization websites for a multiethnic, public hospital oncology population: comparative cross-sectional survey
    Katherine D Nguyen
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Med Internet Res 7:e28. 2005
    ..While information websites have been developed by major cancer organizations, their appropriateness for patients in multiethnic, multilingual public hospital settings has received limited attention...
  38. ncbi request reprint Early breast and prostate cancer and clinical outcomes (fracture)
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California, USA
    Oncology (Williston Park) 23:16-20. 2009
    ..Strategies for management of bone loss in breast and prostate cancer are outlined by guidelines from the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network...
  39. doi request reprint Translating trial data into patients benefits: making the right choice
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, 1124 West Carson Street, Building J 3, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Breast 17:S9-15. 2008
    ..Therefore, using an AI at the earliest opportunity provides patients with the best option to prevent the recurrence and excess adverse events associated with tamoxifen...
  40. doi request reprint Walking speed, physical activity, and breast cancer in postmenopausal women
    Karen Kwan
    aDepartment of Medicine, Kaiser Foundation Hospital Sunset, Los Angeles bLos Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California cFred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Public Health Sciences Division, Seattle, Washington dDepartment of Social and Prevention Medicine, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Buffalo, Buffalo eDepartment of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook fDepartment of Epidemiology and Public Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York gDepartment of Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia hDepartment of Geriatric Medicine, John A Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii iDepartment of Behavioral Science, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    Eur J Cancer Prev 23:49-52. 2014
    ..Our findings do not support use of timed walking speed as an objective surrogate for self-reported physical activity. ..
  41. doi request reprint Menopausal hormone therapy, hormone receptor status, and lung cancer in women
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Semin Oncol 36:566-71. 2009
    ..In addition, the findings, together with ongoing studies evaluating estrogen receptor status and function, support further efforts to develop lung cancer intervention strategies targeting estrogen receptor expression...
  42. ncbi request reprint Abnormal mammographic findings with short-interval follow-up recommendation
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Los Angeles BioMedical Research Institute and Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Clin Breast Cancer 6:235-9. 2005
    ..Given the potential psychologic impact of abnormal mammographic results, studies attempting to more accurately relate screening mammography findings to breast cancer risk are a priority...
  43. doi request reprint Clinical trial presentations, agency guidelines, and oncology practice: findings from the arimidex, tamoxifen, alone or in combination trial
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Division of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Clin Breast Cancer 8:343-6. 2008
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Bone health in women with early-stage breast cancer
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, 1124 W Carson St, Building J 3, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Clin Breast Cancer 5:S35-40. 2005
    ..Current information suggests bone loss associated with estrogen reduction in breast cancer survivors may represent a preventable and treatable condition. Ongoing clinical trials will definitively evaluate this hypothesis...
  45. doi request reprint Prospective evaluation of two recruitment strategies for a randomized controlled cancer prevention trial
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, USA
    Clin Trials 7:744-8. 2010
    ..To evaluate two recruitment strategies used during the full-scale randomized, placebo-controlled Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) at one clinical center...
  46. ncbi request reprint Research staff turnover and participant adherence in the Women's Health Initiative
    Marie Jackson
    Harbor UCLA Research and Education Institute, Torrance, California 90502 2064, USA
    Control Clin Trials 24:422-35. 2003
    ..Further prospective study exploring process evaluation of the provider side of controlled trial conduct is indicated...
  47. pmc Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (HPGDS): a high stability, Val187Ile isoenzyme common among African Americans and its relationship to risk for colorectal cancer
    Brigette L Tippin
    Division of Medical Genetics, Harbor UCLA Medical Center and Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Torrance, CA, USA
    Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 97:22-8. 2012
    ..Other approaches will be needed to establish a role for HPGDS in occurrence of human intestinal tumors, as indicated by a mouse model...
  48. ncbi request reprint Weight loss in breast cancer patient management
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Harbor University of California Los Angeles Research and Education Institute, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    J Clin Oncol 20:1128-43. 2002
    ..To systematically review and summarize evidence relevant to obesity and breast cancer clinical outcome, potential hormonal mediating mechanisms, and the current status of weight loss interventions for chronic disease management...
  49. ncbi request reprint Management of bloody nipple discharge
    Hernan I Vargas
    Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, 1000 W Carson Street, Box 25, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Curr Treat Options Oncol 3:157-61. 2002
    ..The early success reported with image-guided excision of papilloma and duct endoscopy promises a significant improvement in our diagnostic accuracy from minimally invasive emerging technology...