Patrick Kwan

Summary

Affiliation: The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Country: China

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Association between ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism and drug-resistant epilepsy in Han Chinese
    Patrick Kwan
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    Epilepsy Behav 11:112-7. 2007
  2. doi request reprint Multidrug resistance in epilepsy and polymorphisms in the voltage-gated sodium channel genes SCN1A, SCN2A, and SCN3A: correlation among phenotype, genotype, and mRNA expression
    Patrick Kwan
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 18:989-98. 2008
  3. doi request reprint Gene-wide tagging study of the association between ABCC2, ABCC5 and ABCG2 genetic polymorphisms and multidrug resistance in epilepsy
    Patrick Kwan
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    Pharmacogenomics 12:319-25. 2011
  4. doi request reprint Association between temporal lobe P-glycoprotein expression and seizure recurrence after surgery for pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy
    Patrick Kwan
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    Neurobiol Dis 39:192-7. 2010
  5. doi request reprint Efficacy and safety of pregabalin versus lamotrigine in patients with newly diagnosed partial seizures: a phase 3, double-blind, randomised, parallel-group trial
    Patrick Kwan
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    Lancet Neurol 10:881-90. 2011
  6. pmc A systematic evaluation of payback of publicly funded health and health services research in Hong Kong
    Patrick Kwan
    Research Office, Health, Welfare and Food Bureau, Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong, China
    BMC Health Serv Res 7:121. 2007
  7. ncbi request reprint Emerging drugs for epilepsy
    Patrick Kwan
    The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 12:407-22. 2007
  8. doi request reprint Efficacy and safety of levetiracetam as adjunctive therapy in adult patients with uncontrolled partial epilepsy: the Asia SKATE II Study
    Patrick Kwan
    The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    Epilepsy Behav 18:100-5. 2010
  9. ncbi request reprint Headache in patients with epilepsy: a prospective incidence study
    Patrick Kwan
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    Epilepsia 49:1099-102. 2008
  10. doi request reprint Association of subjective anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance with quality-of-life ratings in adults with epilepsy
    Patrick Kwan
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    Epilepsia 50:1059-66. 2009

Detail Information

Publications54

  1. ncbi request reprint Association between ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism and drug-resistant epilepsy in Han Chinese
    Patrick Kwan
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    Epilepsy Behav 11:112-7. 2007
    ..5, 95% confidence interval=1.4-4.6, P=0.0009). Our results contrast with those of studies of Caucasians, and highlight the complexity of the possible role of this polymorphism in AED response in different ethnic populations...
  2. doi request reprint Multidrug resistance in epilepsy and polymorphisms in the voltage-gated sodium channel genes SCN1A, SCN2A, and SCN3A: correlation among phenotype, genotype, and mRNA expression
    Patrick Kwan
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 18:989-98. 2008
    ..We investigated the association of AED responsiveness with genetic polymorphisms and correlated any association with mRNA expression of the neuronal sodium channels...
  3. doi request reprint Gene-wide tagging study of the association between ABCC2, ABCC5 and ABCG2 genetic polymorphisms and multidrug resistance in epilepsy
    Patrick Kwan
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    Pharmacogenomics 12:319-25. 2011
    ..To determine the association between polymorphisms of the multidrug transporter genes ABCC2, ABCC5 and ABCG2, and drug resistance in epilepsy by genotyping comprehensive sets of tagging SNPs...
  4. doi request reprint Association between temporal lobe P-glycoprotein expression and seizure recurrence after surgery for pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy
    Patrick Kwan
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    Neurobiol Dis 39:192-7. 2010
    ..002 and 0.006, respectively). The results suggest that P-glycoprotein expression in temporal lobe may be associated with seizure recurrence after surgery for pharmacoresistant TLE...
  5. doi request reprint Efficacy and safety of pregabalin versus lamotrigine in patients with newly diagnosed partial seizures: a phase 3, double-blind, randomised, parallel-group trial
    Patrick Kwan
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    Lancet Neurol 10:881-90. 2011
    ..We studied the efficacy and safety of pregabalin as monotherapy, using a design that complied with European regulatory requirements and International League Against Epilepsy guidelines...
  6. pmc A systematic evaluation of payback of publicly funded health and health services research in Hong Kong
    Patrick Kwan
    Research Office, Health, Welfare and Food Bureau, Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong, China
    BMC Health Serv Res 7:121. 2007
    ..We evaluated the fund's outcomes and explored factors associated with the translation of research findings to changes in health policy and provider behaviour...
  7. ncbi request reprint Emerging drugs for epilepsy
    Patrick Kwan
    The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 12:407-22. 2007
    ..The ultimate goal is to develop novel agents that can prevent the occurrence of seizures and the progression of epilepsy in at risk individuals...
  8. doi request reprint Efficacy and safety of levetiracetam as adjunctive therapy in adult patients with uncontrolled partial epilepsy: the Asia SKATE II Study
    Patrick Kwan
    The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    Epilepsy Behav 18:100-5. 2010
    ..4%, and 17.7% became seizure free during the treatment period. Levetiracetam was well tolerated and efficacious as adjunctive therapy for partial epilepsy in clinical practice among Asian populations...
  9. ncbi request reprint Headache in patients with epilepsy: a prospective incidence study
    Patrick Kwan
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    Epilepsia 49:1099-102. 2008
    ..A formal headache diagnosis was not made in any of the patients prior to the survey. Although the incidence of headache in epilepsy patients appeared to be low, it was underdiagnosed and associated with substantial negative impact...
  10. doi request reprint Association of subjective anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance with quality-of-life ratings in adults with epilepsy
    Patrick Kwan
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    Epilepsia 50:1059-66. 2009
    ..To determine the relative contributions of subjective anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, and seizure-related variables to quality-of-life scores in adults with epilepsy, and the interrelationships among these factors...
  11. doi request reprint Effects of valproate or lamotrigine monotherapy on the reproductive endocrine and insulin-related metabolic profile in Chinese adults with epilepsy: a prospective randomized study
    Patrick Kwan
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Division of Neurology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Epilepsy Behav 14:610-6. 2009
    ..Greater attention should be paid to investigate the potential impact of valproate on reproductive function in men...
  12. doi request reprint Refractory seizures: try additional antiepileptic drugs (after two have failed) or go directly to early surgery evaluation?
    Patrick Kwan
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    Epilepsia 50:57-62. 2009
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint Refractory epilepsy: mechanisms and solutions
    Patrick Kwan
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong
    Expert Rev Neurother 6:397-406. 2006
    ....
  14. doi request reprint Definition of drug resistant epilepsy: consensus proposal by the ad hoc Task Force of the ILAE Commission on Therapeutic Strategies
    Patrick Kwan
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    Epilepsia 51:1069-77. 2010
    ..The rationale behind the definition and the principles governing its proper use are discussed, and examples to illustrate its application in clinical practice are provided...
  15. doi request reprint Gene-wide tagging study of association between ABCB1 polymorphisms and multidrug resistance in epilepsy in Han Chinese
    Patrick Kwan
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Pharmacogenomics 10:723-32. 2009
    ..To further study the potential association, we genotyped a broad set of tagging SNPs, and explored whether any associations were affected by other host factors. We correlated any association with cerebral mRNA expression of ABCB1...
  16. ncbi request reprint Potential role of drug transporters in the pathogenesis of medically intractable epilepsy
    Patrick Kwan
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong
    Epilepsia 46:224-35. 2005
    ..Further studies to delineate the exact role, if any, of P-gp and other efflux transporters in drug-resistant epilepsy are warranted...
  17. doi request reprint Failure to detect association between polymorphisms of the sodium channel gene SCN1A and febrile seizures in Chinese patients with epilepsy
    Chunbo Zhang
    School of Pharmacy, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    Epilepsia 51:1878-81. 2010
    ..The results do not suggest that SCN1A SNPs are susceptibility factors for FS in Han Chinese...
  18. ncbi request reprint Association between HLA-B*1502 allele and antiepileptic drug-induced cutaneous reactions in Han Chinese
    Celeste B L Man
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    Epilepsia 48:1015-8. 2007
    ..Identification of genetic polymorphisms predisposing to development of AED-induced SCR offers the possibility of avoiding these high-risk drugs in genetically susceptible individuals...
  19. doi request reprint Potential role for human P-glycoprotein in the transport of lacosamide
    Chunbo Zhang
    School of Pharmacy, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    Epilepsia 54:1154-60. 2013
    ..For most recently approved AEDs, whether they are transported by Pgp is unknown. We investigated whether a new AED, lacosamide (LCM), is a substrate of human Pgp...
  20. doi request reprint Prognosticating acute symptomatic seizures using two different seizure outcomes
    Howan Leung
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
    Epilepsia 51:1570-9. 2010
    ....
  21. ncbi request reprint Case-control association study of polymorphisms in the voltage-gated sodium channel genes SCN1A, SCN2A, SCN3A, SCN1B, and SCN2B and epilepsy
    Larry Baum
    School of Pharmacy, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Hum Genet 133:651-9. 2014
    ..10). SCN1A rs2298771 was associated in Indians (OR = 0.56, p = 0.005) and SCN2B rs602594 with idiopathic epilepsy (OR = 0.62, p = 0.002). Therefore, sodium channel polymorphisms are associated with epilepsy. ..
  22. doi request reprint HLA-B alleles associated with severe cutaneous reactions to antiepileptic drugs in Han Chinese
    Ying Kit Cheung
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    Epilepsia 54:1307-14. 2013
    ..We examined whether other HLA-B alleles are also involved and whether the association extends to other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)...
  23. doi request reprint Two-stage genome-wide association study identifies variants in CAMSAP1L1 as susceptibility loci for epilepsy in Chinese
    Youling Guo
    Department of Psychiatry and The State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    Hum Mol Genet 21:1184-9. 2012
    ..Our results suggest that common genetic variants may increase the susceptibility to epilepsy in Chinese...
  24. doi request reprint In vitro transport profile of carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, eslicarbazepine acetate, and their active metabolites by human P-glycoprotein
    Chunbo Zhang
    School of Pharmacy, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Epilepsia 52:1894-904. 2011
    ..For most AEDs, conflicting evidence precludes consensus on whether they are substrates of Pgp. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether analogs and metabolites of the AED carbamazepine are substrates of human Pgp...
  25. ncbi request reprint Phenobarbital for the treatment of epilepsy in the 21st century: a critical review
    Patrick Kwan
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong
    Epilepsia 45:1141-9. 2004
    ....
  26. doi request reprint In vitro concentration dependent transport of phenytoin and phenobarbital, but not ethosuximide, by human P-glycoprotein
    Chunbo Zhang
    School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China
    Life Sci 86:899-905. 2010
    ..We evaluated AEDs as P-gp substrates using cell monolayers...
  27. doi request reprint The potential role of CAMSAP1L1 in symptomatic epilepsy
    Shuai Zhang
    School of Pharmacy, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Neurosci Lett 556:146-51. 2013
    ..Greater neurite growth in response to brain insults might increase formation of ectopic neural circuits and thus the risk of epileptogenesis. ..
  28. ncbi request reprint Neurocognitive and psychological profiles of adult patients with epilepsy in Hong Kong
    Venus Tang
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Electronic address
    Epilepsy Behav 29:337-43. 2013
    ..Patients who reported more psychological symptoms tended to perform worse in neurocognitive tests. Identification and management of neuropsychological difficulties in PWEs are important and should be included in primary epilepsy care. ..
  29. doi request reprint The transport of antiepileptic drugs by P-glycoprotein
    Chunbo Zhang
    School of Pharmacy, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong
    Adv Drug Deliv Rev 64:930-42. 2012
    ..We discuss criteria for identifying the substrate status of AEDs and use structure-activity relationship (SAR) models to predict which AEDs act as P-gp substrates...
  30. doi request reprint Interrater reliability of the international consensus definition of drug-resistant epilepsy: a pilot study
    Xiao Ting Hao
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    Epilepsy Behav 22:388-90. 2011
    ..91 (P<0.001). The definition appeared to have a high degree of interrater reliability in this setting...
  31. ncbi request reprint Diagnostic value and safety of long-term video-EEG monitoring
    Andrew C F Hui
    Department of Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong
    Hong Kong Med J 13:228-30. 2007
    ..Major injuries and status epilepticus did not occur during monitoring. In our experience video-EEG is safe and provides important clinical information in over 80% of patients...
  32. ncbi request reprint Combination therapy in epilepsy: when and what to use
    Patrick Kwan
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    Drugs 66:1817-29. 2006
    ..Care should be taken to avoid excessive drug load, which is associated with increased toxicity. Bigger and better randomised, controlled studies are needed to determine the optimal time and way to combine AEDs...
  33. ncbi request reprint Simple partial status epilepticus in Chinese adults
    Andrew C F Hui
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    J Clin Neurosci 12:902-4. 2005
    ..6%), metabolic derangement (12.5%) and tumor (12.5%). At 30 days from the onset of seizures, 13(40.5%) patients had recovered fully and seven (21.9%) had died. Poor outcome was associated with the presence of an acute symptomatic injury...
  34. doi request reprint Mesial frontal epilepsy and ictal body turning along the horizontal body axis
    Howan Leung
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, 30 32 Ngan Shing St, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong SAR, The People s Republic of China
    Arch Neurol 65:71-7. 2008
    ..To evaluate the clinical utility of mesial frontal semiology...
  35. ncbi request reprint Drug treatment of epilepsy: when does it fail and how to optimize its use?
    Patrick Kwan
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Division of Neurology, Prince of Whales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, China
    CNS Spectr 9:110-9. 2004
    ..An orderly approach to each epilepsy syndrome will optimize the chance of perfect seizure control and help more patients achieve a fulfilling life...
  36. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology and management of epilepsy in Hong Kong: an overview
    Andrew C F Hui
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China
    Seizure 13:244-6. 2004
    ..In this article, we summarise some of the main problems faced by patients and the current treatment options available in an urban area of China...
  37. doi request reprint In vitro transport assays of rufinamide, pregabalin, and zonisamide by human P-glycoprotein
    Pui Shan Chan
    School of Pharmacy, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Epilepsy Res 108:359-66. 2014
    ..The Pgp transport status of many of the recently approved AEDs remains unknown. We investigated whether several new AEDs - zonisamide (ZNS), pregabalin (PGB), and rufinamide (RFM) - are human Pgp substrates...
  38. ncbi request reprint Intracranial electroencephalogram to evaluate refractory temporal and frontal lobe epilepsy
    Lisa Au
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong
    Hong Kong Med J 17:453-9. 2011
    ..We undertook a collaborative study in a multidisciplinary team to channel refractory epilepsy patients to test a hypothesis about placement of intracranial electroencephalography arrays...
  39. ncbi request reprint Clinical trials of antiepileptic medications in newly diagnosed patients with epilepsy
    Patrick Kwan
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, United Christian Hospital, Kwun Tong, Hong Kong
    Neurology 60:S2-12. 2003
    ....
  40. doi request reprint ELF1 is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus in Asian populations
    Jing Yang
    Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 21 Sassoon Road, Hong Kong, China
    Hum Mol Genet 20:601-7. 2011
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Topiramate for migraine prophylaxis among Chinese population
    Ho Lun Li
    Department of Medicine and Geriatrics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    Headache 47:616-9. 2007
    ..There was no difference in baseline headache frequency or intensity between responders and nonresponders...
  42. ncbi request reprint Refractory epilepsy: a progressive, intractable but preventable condition?
    Patrick Kwan
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Geriatrics, United Christian Hospital, Kwun Tong, Hong Kong, China
    Seizure 11:77-84. 2002
    ..This strategy has the potential to improve outcome by preventing the insidious progression to intractable 'refractoriness' and a downward spiraling quality of life...
  43. doi request reprint Psychobehavioral therapy for epilepsy
    Venus Tang
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hospital Authority, Hong Kong Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Electronic address
    Epilepsy Behav 32:147-55. 2014
    ..Assessor-blinded randomized controlled trials with sufficient power and carefully defined therapeutic components corresponding with objective and subjective outcome measures are recommended for future trial designs. ..
  44. doi request reprint Adjunctive brivaracetam for uncontrolled focal and generalized epilepsies: results of a phase III, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose trial
    Patrick Kwan
    Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China Departments of Medicine and Neurology, The University of Melbourne, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Epilepsia 55:38-46. 2014
    ..Efficacy was also assessed in patients with focal seizures as a secondary objective, and explored by descriptive analysis in patients with generalized seizures...
  45. doi request reprint Current position of phenobarbital in epilepsy and its future
    Martin J Brodie
    Epilepsy Unit, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    Epilepsia 53:40-6. 2012
    ..All these data predict a healthy future for phenobarbital, particularly in helping to close the treatment gap in low- and middle-income countries during its second century of clinical use...
  46. doi request reprint Effect of dosage failed of first antiepileptic drug on subsequent outcome
    Martin J Brodie
    Epilepsy Unit, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, United Kingdom Robertson Centre for Biostatistics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    Epilepsia 54:194-8. 2013
    ..We explored the effect of the doses at which the first and second AED regimens failed on subsequent outcomes in a population of adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy followed for up to 20 years...
  47. doi request reprint Anxiety symptoms in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy versus generalized epilepsy
    W K Tang
    Department of Psychiatry, Shatin Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N T, Hong Kong, China
    Seizure 21:457-60. 2012
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms between patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and generalized epilepsy (GE)...
  48. pmc Epilepsy in elderly people
    Martin J Brodie
    Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Western Infirmary, Glasgow G11 6NT
    BMJ 331:1317-22. 2005
  49. ncbi request reprint An epidemiological study of epilepsy in Hong Kong SAR, China
    Gardian C Y Fong
    University Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, China
    Seizure 17:457-64. 2008
    ..Population-based epidemiological data for epilepsy is not available. We performed the first population-based epidemiological survey of epilepsy in this locality...
  50. ncbi request reprint Differential expression of multidrug resistance genes in naïve rat brain
    Patrick Kwan
    Epilepsy Unit, University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Western Infirmary, G11 6NT, Scotland, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    Neurosci Lett 339:33-6. 2003
    ..These findings reveal a differential expression of mdr1 genes in normal rodent brain tissue and suggest that P-gp may afford a broader protection of the hippocampus than other brain structures...
  51. ncbi request reprint Phenobarbital: a drug for the 21st century?
    Martin J Brodie
    Epilepsy Behav 5:802-3. 2004
  52. ncbi request reprint Regional expression of multidrug resistance genes in genetically epilepsy-prone rat brain after a single audiogenic seizure
    Patrick Kwan
    Epilepsy Unit, University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, Scotland
    Epilepsia 43:1318-23. 2002
    ..We investigated the regional expression of mdr genes in genetically epilepsy-prone rat (GEPR) brain after a single audiogenic seizure...
  53. ncbi request reprint Staged approach to epilepsy management
    Martin J Brodie
    Epilepsy Unit, University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, Scotland
    Neurology 58:S2-8. 2002
    ..A staged approach to the pharmacologic management and, when appropriate, surgical work-up for each epilepsy syndrome will optimize the chance of perfect seizure control and help more patients achieve a fulfilling life...
  54. ncbi request reprint Overtreatment in epilepsy: how it occurs and how it can be avoided
    Emilio Perucca
    Institute of Neurology IRCCS, C Mondino Foundation, Pavia, ItalyDepartment of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
    CNS Drugs 19:897-908. 2005
    ..Even though the importance of complete seizure control cannot be overemphasised, no patient should be made to suffer more from the adverse effects of treatment than from the manifestations of the seizure disorder...