Kai Ming Chow

Summary

Affiliation: The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Country: China

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Fracture risk after thiazide-associated hyponatraemia
    K M Chow
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    Intern Med J 42:760-4. 2012
  2. doi request reprint Polycystic kidney disease presenting with hypertension and hypokalemia
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, SAR, China
    Am J Kidney Dis 59:270-2. 2012
  3. ncbi request reprint Impact of social factors on patients on peritoneal dialysis
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 20:2504-10. 2005
  4. ncbi request reprint Body mass index as a predictive factor for long-term renal transplant outcomes in Asians
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Clin Transplant 20:582-9. 2006
  5. ncbi request reprint Adherence to peritoneal dialysis training schedule
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, SAR, China
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 22:545-51. 2007
  6. ncbi request reprint Revascularization for post-transplant renal artery stenosis
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    Nephrology (Carlton) 12:406-12. 2007
  7. ncbi request reprint Predictive value of dialysate cell counts in peritonitis complicating peritoneal dialysis
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 1:768-73. 2006
  8. ncbi request reprint Influence of peritoneal dialysis training nurses' experience on peritonitis rates
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2:647-52. 2007
  9. ncbi request reprint Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis peritonitis: broth inoculation culture versus water lysis method
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China
    Nephron Clin Pract 105:c121-5. 2007
  10. ncbi request reprint Sevelamer treatment strategy in peritoneal dialysis patients: conventional dose does not make best use of resources
    K M Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    J Nephrol 20:674-82. 2007

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications157 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi request reprint Fracture risk after thiazide-associated hyponatraemia
    K M Chow
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    Intern Med J 42:760-4. 2012
    ..We examine the chance of developing fracture in patients with and without hyponatraemia after taking thiazide diuretics...
  2. doi request reprint Polycystic kidney disease presenting with hypertension and hypokalemia
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, SAR, China
    Am J Kidney Dis 59:270-2. 2012
    ..The availability of a direct renin inhibitor may redirect research toward finding a remedy for this troublesome disease...
  3. ncbi request reprint Impact of social factors on patients on peritoneal dialysis
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 20:2504-10. 2005
    ..Clinical outcomes among patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) might not be linked to medical factors alone. We studied the clinical impact of various social factors among patients on PD...
  4. ncbi request reprint Body mass index as a predictive factor for long-term renal transplant outcomes in Asians
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Clin Transplant 20:582-9. 2006
    ..However, few data exist for Asian population; clinicians have to rely upon indirect evidence by extrapolating the results from Caucasians to Asian recipients...
  5. ncbi request reprint Adherence to peritoneal dialysis training schedule
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, SAR, China
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 22:545-51. 2007
    ..We studied the clinical impact of failing to adhere to a peritoneal dialysis training programme among incident dialysis patients...
  6. ncbi request reprint Revascularization for post-transplant renal artery stenosis
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    Nephrology (Carlton) 12:406-12. 2007
    ..Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has now been increasingly accepted as a primary treatment option for transplant renal artery stenosis...
  7. ncbi request reprint Predictive value of dialysate cell counts in peritonitis complicating peritoneal dialysis
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 1:768-73. 2006
    ..These results call attention to the value of validating prognostic factors of peritonitis complicating peritoneal dialysis...
  8. ncbi request reprint Influence of peritoneal dialysis training nurses' experience on peritonitis rates
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2:647-52. 2007
    ..This study examined the clinical impact of peritoneal dialysis (PD) training nurses regarding Gram-positive peritonitis among incident dialysis patients...
  9. ncbi request reprint Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis peritonitis: broth inoculation culture versus water lysis method
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China
    Nephron Clin Pract 105:c121-5. 2007
    ..We compare the clinical performance of two culture methods to diagnose the causative microorganisms as suggested by the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis and the United Kingdom Health Protection Agency...
  10. ncbi request reprint Sevelamer treatment strategy in peritoneal dialysis patients: conventional dose does not make best use of resources
    K M Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    J Nephrol 20:674-82. 2007
    ..The significant incremental expense in the use of conventional sevelamer dose prompted us to evaluate the role of prescribing a lower dose of sevelamer...
  11. pmc A lady with unresolved loin pain
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    J R Soc Med 101:85-6. 2008
    ....
  12. doi request reprint A lady with rapid onset of swollen parotid glands
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, SAR, China
    South Med J 101:428-31. 2008
    ..Despite the clinical observations that iodide mumps resolved with conservative management, it should be emphasized that recurrence is common if vulnerable patients are subjected to further iodinated contrast media...
  13. ncbi request reprint Impact of early nephrology referral on mortality and hospitalization in peritoneal dialysis patients
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, SAR, China
    Perit Dial Int 28:371-6. 2008
    ..However, we lack information on the benefit of early nephrologist referral in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD)...
  14. ncbi request reprint Lead nephropathy: early leads from descriptive studies
    K M Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong
    Intern Med J 36:678-82. 2006
    ..The pursuit towards understanding lead nephropathy is presented as a successful illustration of human occupational and public health...
  15. pmc Secular trends in the medical discharge summary in an acute medical hospital
    K M Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong, SAR, China
    Postgrad Med J 82:615-8. 2006
    ..Although recent research has reported an evolution in the level of medical care, little is known about secular trends in the medical discharge summary...
  16. ncbi request reprint A risk analysis of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, SAR, China
    Perit Dial Int 25:374-9. 2005
    ..We studied the clinical characteristics that influence the risk of dialysis-related peritonitis complication in incident Chinese patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)...
  17. ncbi request reprint Near-miss errors in laboratory blood test requests by interns
    K M Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong
    QJM 98:753-6. 2005
    ..Human errors have proven to be one of the most formidable patient care challenges in acute hospital setting...
  18. ncbi request reprint Pseudo-renal failure following total abdominal hysterectomy
    K M Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, SAR China
    J Nephrol 18:442-6. 2005
    ..Prompt recovery of the serum biochemistry is to be expected, in contradistinction to genuine renal failure or kidney insults...
  19. pmc Clinical studies of thiazide-induced hyponatremia
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China
    J Natl Med Assoc 96:1305-8. 2004
    ..6, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 5.1, P=0.004). Our results show that symptoms from thiazide-induced hyponatremia primarily reflect osmotic water shift into brain cells rather than extracellular fluid volume depletion...
  20. ncbi request reprint Malignant hypertension after adrenalectomy
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 19:2919-20. 2004
  21. ncbi request reprint Genetic polymorphism of vascular endothelial growth factor: impact on progression of IgA nephropathy
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Ren Fail 28:15-20. 2006
    ..Because certain VEGF polymorphisms are correlated with alterations in VEGF expression, we hypothesized that VEGF genetic polymorphisms may affect the renal survival and progression of primary IgA nephropathy...
  22. ncbi request reprint Antibody response to hepatitis B vaccine in end-stage renal disease patients
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, SAR, China
    Nephron Clin Pract 103:c89-93. 2006
    ....
  23. ncbi request reprint Recurrent acute pancreatitis after isoniazid
    K M Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, SAR, China
    Neth J Med 62:172-4. 2004
    ..Isoniazid-induced pancreatitis, if highly suspicious or confirmed with re-challenge test, mandates permanent avoidance of the drug...
  24. ncbi request reprint Destructive spondyloarthropathy
    K M Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Kidney Int 70:237. 2006
  25. ncbi request reprint Influence of climate on the incidence of thiazide-induced hyponatraemia
    K M Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China
    Int J Clin Pract 61:449-52. 2007
    ..The question arises whether hypotonic sweat loss mitigates the risk of excessive water drinking in hot summer...
  26. ncbi request reprint Factors associated with sudden death in peritoneal dialysis patients
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, SAR China
    Perit Dial Int 29:58-63. 2009
    ..Relatively little is known of the epidemiology and predictors of sudden death in peritoneal dialysis (PD) populations. We aimed to identify the risk factors of sudden death among PD subjects...
  27. ncbi request reprint Neurotoxicity induced by beta-lactam antibiotics: from bench to bedside
    K M Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 24:649-53. 2005
    ..A better understanding of antibiotic-related neurotoxicity, as derived from animal models and human clinical experience, would be of value in facilitating more efficient and safer use of antimicrobial compounds...
  28. doi request reprint Tenckhoff catheter insertion by nephrologists: open dissection technique
    Kai Ming Chow
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, PR China
    Perit Dial Int 30:524-7. 2010
    ..The practice of Tenckhoff catheter insertion by nephrologists remains uncommon in most countries. ♢..
  29. ncbi request reprint Antibiotic lock solutions for the prevention of catheter-related bacteraemia in haemodialysis patients
    K M Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong
    Hong Kong Med J 16:269-74. 2010
    ..To investigate the effect of antibiotic lock solutions for preventing catheter-related bacteraemia in patients receiving haemodialysis...
  30. doi request reprint Extra-high-dose hepatitis B vaccination does not confer longer serological protection in peritoneal dialysis patients: a randomized controlled trial
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 25:2303-9. 2010
    ..The response to recombinant hepatitis B vaccine remains suboptimal among the dialysis population...
  31. ncbi request reprint Hypokalemia in Chinese peritoneal dialysis patients: prevalence and prognostic implication
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Am J Kidney Dis 46:128-35. 2005
    ..Abnormal potassium metabolism may contribute to the increased cardiac morbidity and mortality seen in dialysis patients. We studied the pattern of serum potassium levels in a cohort of Chinese peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients...
  32. ncbi request reprint Transforming growth factor-beta1 gene polymorphism in renal transplant recipients
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
    Ren Fail 27:671-5. 2005
    ..More recently, TGF-beta1 codon 10 gene polymorphism has been shown to be associated with circulating TGF-beta levels. We tested whether TGF-beta1 genotype polymorphism was predictive of renal allograft function decline...
  33. doi request reprint Glomerular and tubulointerstitial miR-638, miR-198 and miR-146a expression in lupus nephritis
    Jianxin Lu
    Departments of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong
    Nephrology (Carlton) 17:346-51. 2012
    ..We studied the intra-renal expression of miRNA targets that were reported to be differentially expressed in peripheral blood or urine between lupus nephritis (LN) patients and normal controls...
  34. ncbi request reprint Oral sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of metabolic acidosis in peritoneal dialysis patients: a randomized placebo-control trial
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    J Am Soc Nephrol 14:2119-26. 2003
    ..Although our trial has limited statistical power, we find that in PD patients with mild acidosis and Kt/V <2.1, oral sodium bicarbonate probably improve nutritional status and reduce the duration of hospitalization...
  35. ncbi request reprint The impact of increasing the daytime dialysis exchange frequency on peritoneal dialysis adequacy and nutritional status of Chinese anuric patients
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin
    Perit Dial Int 22:197-203. 2002
    ..To study the effect of increasing the daytime dialysis exchange frequency on dialysis adequacy and nutritional status of Chinese anuric patients...
  36. ncbi request reprint Effects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor on residual renal function in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. A randomized, controlled study
    Philip Kam Tao Li
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Ngan Shing Street, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Ann Intern Med 139:105-12. 2003
    ..However, few studies have evaluated therapeutic approaches for preserving residual renal function after the initiation of dialysis...
  37. doi request reprint Intrarenal expression of microRNAs in patients with IgA nephropathy
    Gang Wang
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    Lab Invest 90:98-103. 2010
    ..These miRNA species may be important in the pathogenesis and progression of IgA nephropathy...
  38. doi request reprint Expression of ACE and ACE2 in patients with hypertensive nephrosclerosis
    Gang Wang
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, SAR China
    Kidney Blood Press Res 34:141-9. 2011
    ..The interplay between intrarenal angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and type 2 ACE (ACE2) might play important roles in the pathogenesis of hypertensive nephrosclerosis (HTN), but human data are limited...
  39. doi request reprint Gene expression of TWEAK/Fn14 and IP-10/CXCR3 in glomerulus and tubulointerstitium of patients with lupus nephritis
    Jianxin Lu
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Nephrology (Carlton) 16:426-32. 2011
    ..The role of the tumour necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK)/Fn14 and interferon-inducible protein (IP-10)/CXCR3 axis in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis were studied...
  40. ncbi request reprint Differential effects of transforming growth factor-beta on the synthesis of connective tissue growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor by peritoneal mesothelial cell
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Nephron Exp Nephrol 99:e95-e104. 2005
    ..Previous studies found that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) plays a conflicting role in peritoneal fibrosis. We hypothesise that TGF-beta acts on peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMC) via VEGF and CTGF as downstream mediators...
  41. doi request reprint Unexplained exudative pleural effusion in chronic peritoneal dialysis patients
    Bonnie Ching Ha Kwan
    Department of Medicine and Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Perit Dial Int 30:534-40. 2010
    ..Although the clinico-pathological entity of uremic pleuritis has long been recognized, its clinical significance remains poorly defined. ♢..
  42. ncbi request reprint Messenger RNA expression of target genes in the urinary sediment of patients with chronic kidney diseases
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong, China
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 20:105-13. 2005
    ..The degree of renal scarring in kidney biopsy is an important prognostic factor in patients with chronic kidney diseases. We hypothesize that gene expression in the urinary sediment reflects the degree of renal damage...
  43. ncbi request reprint Genetic polymorphism of VEGF: Impact on longitudinal change of peritoneal transport and survival of peritoneal dialysis patients
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Kidney Int 65:1947-55. 2004
    ..We hypothesis that VEGF genetic polymorphism may affect the longitudinal change of peritoneal transport and clinical outcome of peritoneal dialysis patients...
  44. doi request reprint Relationship between serum levels of tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and the survival of Chinese peritoneal dialysis patients
    Peter Yam Kau Poon
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Nephrology (Carlton) 17:466-71. 2012
    ..We examined the relation between serum soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) levels and the outcome of Chinese PD patients...
  45. doi request reprint The width of the basement membrane does not influence clinical presentation or outcome of thin glomerular basement membrane disease with persistent hematuria
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Kidney Int 78:1041-6. 2010
    ..Hence, lifelong follow-up is advised, as the clinical features and prognosis of these patients with persistent microscopic hematuria and marginally thin GBM are similar to traditional TBMD...
  46. ncbi request reprint Dialysis adequacy and transport test for characterization of peritoneal transport type in Chinese peritoneal dialysis patients receiving three daily exchanges
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Am J Kidney Dis 39:1287-99. 2002
    ..Although DATT may be less accurate for CAPD patients with three daily exchanges, it remains a specific method to identify low and high transporters...
  47. ncbi request reprint Comprehensive malnutrition inflammation score as a marker of nutritional status in Chinese peritoneal dialysis patients
    Jessie Ying Wing Chan
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Nephrology (Carlton) 12:130-4. 2007
    ..Malnutrition is common among peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. However, the ideal marker of nutritional status in PD patients remained controversial...
  48. ncbi request reprint New-onset hyperglycemia in nondiabetic chinese patients started on peritoneal dialysis
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Am J Kidney Dis 49:524-32. 2007
    ..Patients who have no history of glucose intolerance may develop hyperglycemia after the initiation of PD therapy. However, the prevalence and long-term implications of new-onset hyperglycemia in PD patients has not been studied...
  49. ncbi request reprint Conservative management of polymicrobial peritonitis complicating peritoneal dialysis--a series of 140 consecutive cases
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Am J Med 113:728-33. 2002
    ..Because polymicrobial peritonitis is believed to be caused by bowel perforation in peritoneal dialysis patients, surgical exploration is often recommended. However, there is recent evidence that antibiotic therapy may be a safe alternative...
  50. doi request reprint Recurrent and relapsing peritonitis: causative organisms and response to treatment
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Am J Kidney Dis 54:702-10. 2009
    ..The clinical behavior and optimal treatment of relapsing and recurrent peritonitis episodes in patients undergoing long-term peritoneal dialysis are poorly understood...
  51. doi request reprint Relationship of intrarenal gene expression and the histological class of lupus nephritis -- a study on repeat renal biopsy
    Jianxin Lu
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics and the Department of Anatomical and Cellular Pathology, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong CUHK, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    J Rheumatol 39:1942-7. 2012
    ..To study the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK)/Fn14 and the interferon-inducible protein (IP-10)/CXCR3 axis in lupus nephritis (LN)...
  52. ncbi request reprint Messenger RNA expression of podocyte-associated molecules in urinary sediment of patients with lupus nephritis
    Gang Wang
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong
    J Rheumatol 34:2358-64. 2007
    ..To examine urinary expression of podocyte-associated molecules in patients with lupus nephritis (LN)...
  53. doi request reprint Expression of miR-146a and miR-155 in the urinary sediment of systemic lupus erythematosus
    Gang Wang
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Clin Rheumatol 31:435-40. 2012
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint Feasibility of resuming peritoneal dialysis after severe peritonitis and Tenckhoff catheter removal
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    J Am Soc Nephrol 13:1040-5. 2002
    ..An early assessment of peritoneal function after Tenckhoff catheter reinsertion may be valuable...
  55. ncbi request reprint Rosiglitazone reduces insulin requirement and C-reactive protein levels in type 2 diabetic patients receiving peritoneal dialysis
    Teresa Yuk Hwa Wong
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong
    Am J Kidney Dis 46:713-9. 2005
    ..Rosiglitazone (RSG), a thiazolidinedione, can improve insulin resistance, and its excretion does not rely on renal function. Moreover, it has an anti-inflammatory effect that might be beneficial in patients with renal failure...
  56. doi request reprint Relationship between glutathione S-transferase M1 polymorphism and clinical outcomes in Chinese peritoneal dialysis patients
    Peter Yam Kau Poon
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    J Nephrol 25:310-6. 2012
    ..The GST M1 (-) genotype causes deficiency of the enzyme when compared with the GST M1 (+) genotype. We investigated the effects of the GST M1 (-)/(+) polymorphism on the clinical outcomes of Chinese PD patients...
  57. doi request reprint Prognostic value of arterial pulse wave velocity in peritoneal dialysis patients
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, SAR, China
    Am J Nephrol 35:127-33. 2012
    ..We examined the prognostic value and factors that govern the longitudinal change of arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) in Chinese PD patients...
  58. doi request reprint Intra-renal and urinary mRNA expression of podocyte-associated molecules for the estimation of glomerular podocyte loss
    Gang Wang
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Ren Fail 32:372-9. 2010
    ..We study whether intra-renal and urinary messenger RNA expression of podocyte-associated molecules could be used to estimate glomerular podocyte number in patients with diabetic nephropathy...
  59. ncbi request reprint Independent effects of renal and peritoneal clearances on the mortality of peritoneal dialysis patients
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Perit Dial Int 24:58-64. 2004
    ..We studied whether peritoneal Kt/V has the same effect in CAPD patients with residual renal function...
  60. ncbi request reprint Messenger RNA expression of glomerular podocyte markers in the urinary sediment of acquired proteinuric diseases
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Clin Chim Acta 361:182-90. 2005
    ..We hypothesize that studying the gene expression profile of podocyte in urinary sediment may provide diagnostic and prognostic information on acquired proteinuric diseases...
  61. ncbi request reprint Are peritoneal dialysis patients with and without residual renal function equivalent for survival study? Insight from a retrospective review of the cause of death
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N T, Hong Kong, China
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 18:977-82. 2003
    ..It is possible that after a prolonged period on dialysis, anuric patients are qualitatively different from patients with residual renal function...
  62. ncbi request reprint Influence of climate on the incidence of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Perit Dial Int 23:580-6. 2003
    ..The use of peritoneal dialysis has expanded in many developing subtropical countries; however, the role of climatic factors in dialysis-related peritonitis has not been studied in detail...
  63. doi request reprint The gene expression of type 17 T-helper cell-related cytokines in the urinary sediment of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
    Bonnie Ching Ha Kwan
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong, China
    Rheumatology (Oxford) 48:1491-7. 2009
    ..We studied the role of type 17 Th cells (TH17) in the pathogenesis of SLE...
  64. pmc Coagulase negative staphylococcal peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients: review of 232 consecutive cases
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 3:91-7. 2008
    ..Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species is the most common cause of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis; however, the optimal treatment strategy of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species peritonitis remains controversial...
  65. ncbi request reprint Clinical biocompatibility of a neutral peritoneal dialysis solution with minimal glucose-degradation products--a 1-year randomized control trial
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 22:552-9. 2007
    ..We compared a newly formulated solution of neutral pH and low levels of GDP to a standard PD solution...
  66. ncbi request reprint A novel association between residual renal function and left ventricular hypertrophy in peritoneal dialysis patients
    Angela Yee Moon Wang
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, China
    Kidney Int 62:639-47. 2002
    ..This study evaluated the association between residual renal function (RRF) and the severity of LVH in endstage renal failure (ESRF) patients undergoing long-term continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)...
  67. ncbi request reprint Association of ENOS polymorphism with basal peritoneal membrane function in uremic patients
    Teresa Yuk Hwa Wong
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong
    Am J Kidney Dis 42:781-6. 2003
    ..Early evidence suggests that peritoneal permeability is affected by nitric oxide (NO) activity. Recently, a gene polymorphism of the endothelial NO synthase (ENOS) gene was identified that is associated with circulating nitrate levels...
  68. ncbi request reprint The clinical course of culture-negative peritonitis complicating peritoneal dialysis
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China People s Republic of China
    Am J Kidney Dis 42:567-74. 2003
    ..Culture-negative peritonitis is a serious complication in peritoneal dialysis patients...
  69. ncbi request reprint Assessment of protein nitrogen appearance in Chinese peritoneal dialysis patients-which method to use?
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, P R China
    Ren Fail 25:235-46. 2003
    ..The change of PNA over six months, denoted as APNA-Rand and APNA-Berg, were calculated. The results were compared by the Bland and Altman's method...
  70. pmc Relationship between CRP polymorphism and cardiovascular events in Chinese peritoneal dialysis patients
    Peter Yam Kau Poon
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N T, Hong Kong, China
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 7:304-9. 2012
    ..Functional studies showed that A allele promoter has higher transcriptional activity than the G allele. This study investigated the association between this SNP and the outcome of Chinese patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD)...
  71. ncbi request reprint The effect of immunosuppressive therapy on the messenger RNA expression of target genes in the urinary sediment of patients with active lupus nephritis
    Rebecca Wing Yan Chan
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, China
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 21:1534-40. 2006
    ..The pattern of gene expression was compared to clinical parameters of therapeutic response...
  72. ncbi request reprint The relationship between peritoneal transport characteristics and messenger RNA expression of aquaporin in the peritoneal dialysis effluent of CAPD patients
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    J Nephrol 18:197-203. 2005
    ..However, the functional relevance of aquaporin in mesothelial cells remains uncertain because endothelial cells are generally regarded as the major barrier of peritoneal transport...
  73. doi request reprint Automated peritoneal dialysis in Hong Kong: there are two distinct groups of patients
    Bonnie Ching Ha Kwan
    Department of Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    Nephrology (Carlton) 18:356-64. 2013
    ..To compare the clinical outcome between continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) in specific subgroups of patients...
  74. ncbi request reprint The role of vascular endothelial growth factor in peritoneal hyperpermeability during CAPD-related peritonitis
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin
    Perit Dial Int 22:265-7. 2002
  75. ncbi request reprint Peritoneal albumin excretion is a strong predictor of cardiovascular events in peritoneal dialysis patients: a prospective cohort study
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Perit Dial Int 25:445-52. 2005
    ..We hypothesize that peritoneal albumin excretion in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, which is conceptually analogous to microalbuminuria in non-uremic patients, can predict cardiovascular disease in new PD patients...
  76. doi request reprint Relationship between beta1-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetic nephropathy
    Peter Yam Kau Poon
    Departments of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Nephrology (Carlton) 15:242-7. 2010
    ..The relationship between this polymorphism and the risk of cardiovascular disease was investigated in Chinese subjects with overt diabetic nephropathy...
  77. ncbi request reprint Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 polymorphism is associated with progressive renal dysfunction after acute rejection in renal transplant recipients
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Transplantation 74:1791-4. 2002
    ..Plasma PAI-1 concentrations are higher in subjects homozygous for the 4G allele than other genotypes (5G/5G and 4G/5G). Such genetic variation in fibrinolytic system may affect the long-term renal transplant outcome...
  78. ncbi request reprint Uraemic tumoural calcinosis
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 19:505-6. 2004
  79. doi request reprint Longitudinal changes of cardiothoracic ratio and vascular pedicle width as predictors of volume status during one year in Chinese peritoneal dialysis patients
    Ni Gao
    Department of Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China
    Kidney Blood Press Res 32:45-50. 2009
    ..Vascular pedicle width (VPW) and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) in routine chest radiograph are indicators of intravascular volume. Longitudinal changes of VPW and CTR may be important prognostic factors of PD patients...
  80. ncbi request reprint Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is better than automated peritoneal dialysis as first-line treatment in renal replacement therapy
    Philip Kam Tao Li
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, PR China
    Perit Dial Int 27:S153-7. 2007
    ....
  81. doi request reprint Association of interleukin-18 promoter polymorphism and atherosclerotic diseases in Chinese patients with diabetic nephropathy
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Nephrology (Carlton) 14:606-12. 2009
    ..The relationship between two IL-18 gene polymorphisms, namely C-607A and G-137C, and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetic nephropathy was examined...
  82. ncbi request reprint Association of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) T869C (Leu 10Pro) gene polymorphisms with type 2 diabetic nephropathy in Chinese
    Teresa Yuk Hwa Wong
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong
    Kidney Int 63:1831-5. 2003
    ..Recently, TGF-beta T869C (Leu 10Pro) gene polymorphism has been identified which may be associated with circulating TGF-beta levels...
  83. ncbi request reprint Increased subcutaneous insulin requirements in diabetic patients recently commenced on peritoneal dialysis
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 22:1697-702. 2007
    ..Since peritoneal dialysis (PD) solution contains glucose, the insulin requirement of these patients often increases after commenced on PD. However, the change in insulin requirement has not been studied systematically...
  84. ncbi request reprint Metabolic acidosis and malnutrition in dialysis patients
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Semin Dial 17:371-5. 2004
    ..Correction of mild acidosis in dialysis patients is effective in improving nutritional status and reducing the duration of hospitalization...
  85. doi request reprint Geriatric nutritional risk index as a screening tool for malnutrition in patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    J Ren Nutr 20:29-37. 2010
    ..Recently, the Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index (GNRI) was found to be a reliable tool for screening malnutrition in hemodialysis patients. However, the GNRI has not been validated in PD patients...
  86. ncbi request reprint Influence of emergency room fee on acute stroke presentation in a public hospital in Hong Kong
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR
    Neuroepidemiology 23:123-8. 2004
    ..While we demonstrated no delays in acute stroke presentation accrued from enactment of the emergency room fee, physicians should endeavor to further explore strategies of reducing the late presentation of acute stroke...
  87. doi request reprint Review article: New-onset diabetes after transplantation
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Division of Nephrology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    Nephrology (Carlton) 13:737-44. 2008
    ..Intuitively, strategies that aim to change the underlying biology of the disease process of NODAT are desirable; among them, lifestyle modification is currently the most promising in terms of real benefit with the least risk...
  88. ncbi request reprint Primary IgA nephropathy with low histologic grade and disease progression: is there a "point of no return"?
    Fernand Mac Moune Lai
    Department of Anatomical and Cellular Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    Am J Kidney Dis 39:401-6. 2002
    ....
  89. ncbi request reprint Maximizing the success of peritoneal dialysis in high transporters
    Philip Kam Tao Li
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, PR China
    Perit Dial Int 27:S148-52. 2007
    ..Based on recent advances and clinical studies, ways of maximizing the success of peritoneal dialysis treatment in high transporters are discussed, and management strategies are proposed...
  90. doi request reprint The relationship between bone morphogenic protein-7 and peritoneal transport characteristics
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N T, Hong Kong, China
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 23:2989-94. 2008
    ..In other biological systems, bone morphogenic protein-7 (BMP-7) is a key factor that controls this process. However, the role of BMP-7 in peritoneal physiology has not been studied...
  91. ncbi request reprint Prognostic role of serum ACE activity on outcome of type 2 diabetic patients on chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
    Teresa Yuk Hwa Wong
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong
    Am J Kidney Dis 39:1054-60. 2002
    ..Whether ACE inhibition will have a beneficial effect on the outcome of these patients needs further investigation...
  92. ncbi request reprint Good patient and technique survival in elderly patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
    Philip Kam Tao Li
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, PR China
    Perit Dial Int 27:S196-201. 2007
    ..A slightly longer training time is to be expected for elderly patients. Self-care CAPD for elderly patients who are capable of performing their own exchanges provides them with an independent home life...
  93. ncbi request reprint Carotid intima media thickness predicts cardiovascular diseases in Chinese predialysis patients with chronic kidney disease
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N T, Hong Kong, China
    J Am Soc Nephrol 18:1966-72. 2007
    ..Carotid IMT is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease in Chinese predialysis patients and may be usefully applied for risk stratification in this group of patients...
  94. doi request reprint Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene polymorphism and risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetic nephropathy
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China
    Am J Nephrol 28:715-22. 2008
    ..We examined the relationship between two PPAR-gamma gene polymorphisms, namely the P12A and C161T, and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetic nephropathy...
  95. ncbi request reprint Clinical course of peritonitis due to Pseudomonas species complicating peritoneal dialysis: a review of 104 cases
    C C Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Kidney Int 59:2309-15. 2001
    ..Peritonitis due to Pseudomonas species is a serious complication in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. The clinical course of peritonitis due to Pseudomonas complicating CAPD remains unclear...
  96. ncbi request reprint The clinical and epidemiological aspects of vascular mortality in chronic peritoneal dialysis patients
    Philip Kam Tao Li
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong
    Perit Dial Int 25:S80-3. 2005
    ..Actions are needed to tackle both the traditional and the nontraditional factors for cardiovascular disease in order to treat this problem causing the highest mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients...
  97. ncbi request reprint Good metabolic control using tacrolimus-based immunosuppressants in primary cadaveric renal transplantation in Chinese--a preliminary report
    Kai Ming Chow
    Department of Med cine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, SAR
    Clin Transplant 16:39-42. 2002
    ..The long-term implications and the underlying explanation for this ethnical difference require further investigations...
  98. pmc Effect of membrane permeability on inflammation and arterial stiffness: a randomized trial
    Philip Kam Tao Li
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 5:652-8. 2010
    ....
  99. ncbi request reprint The clinical course of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis caused by Corynebacterium species
    Cheuk Chun Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 20:2793-6. 2005
    ..However, the clinical course of Corynebacterium peritonitis complicating peritoneal dialysis remains unclear...
  100. ncbi request reprint Grading of acute and chronic renal lesions in Henoch-Schönlein purpura
    C C Szeto
    Department of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong
    Mod Pathol 14:635-40. 2001
    ..Despite some limitations related to the relatively small size, this series indicates that distinction of acute and chronic lesions of Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis is important for both the prognosis and management of patients...
  101. ncbi request reprint Extrapolation of reciprocal creatinine plot is not reliable in predicting the onset of dialysis in patients with progressive renal insufficiency
    C C Szeto
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
    J Intern Med 253:335-42. 2003
    ..Reciprocal creatinine plot is often used to monitor patients with progressive renal insufficiency and to predict the onset of dialysis, although the latter practice has not been validated...