George F Gao


Affiliation: Institute of Microbiology
Country: China


  1. Yang X, Qi J, Peng R, Dai L, Gould E, Gao G, et al. Molecular Basis of a Protective/Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody Targeting Envelope Proteins of both Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus and Louping Ill Virus. J Virol. 2019;93: pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this site represents a promising target for TBFV antiviral development. Further, these structures provide important information for understanding TBFV antigenicity. ..
  2. Wong G, He S, Leung A, Cao W, Bi Y, Zhang Z, et al. Naturally Occurring Single Mutations in Ebola Virus Observably Impact Infectivity. J Virol. 2019;93: pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that these single mutations can impact EBOV virulence in animals and have implications for the rational design of efficacious antiviral therapies against these infections. ..
  3. Bi Y, Xie Q, Zhang S, Li Y, Xiao H, Jin T, et al. Assessment of the internal genes of influenza A (H7N9) virus contributing to high pathogenicity in mice. J Virol. 2015;89:2-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that the PB2, M, and NP genes play important roles in viral infection in mice and, together with HA and NA, contribute to the high infectivity of the H7N9 virus in humans. ..
  4. Quan C, Shi W, Yang Y, Yang Y, Liu X, Xu W, et al. New Threats from H7N9 Influenza Virus: Spread and Evolution of High- and Low-Pathogenicity Variants with High Genomic Diversity in Wave Five. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, more strategies are needed against the further spread and damage of H7N9 in the world. ..
  5. Qi W, Jia W, Liu D, Li J, Bi Y, Xie S, et al. Emergence and Adaptation of a Novel Highly Pathogenic H7N9 Influenza Virus in Birds and Humans from a 2013 Human-Infecting Low-Pathogenic Ancestor. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings offer important insight into the origin, adaptation, pathogenicity, and transmissibility of these viruses to both poultry and mammals. ..
  6. Zhu Y, Wu Y, Chai Y, Qi J, Peng R, Feng W, et al. The Postfusion Structure of the Heartland Virus Gc Glycoprotein Supports Taxonomic Separation of the Bunyaviral Families Phenuiviridae and Hantaviridae. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..Our results expand the knowledge of bunyavirus fusion proteins and help us to understand bunyavirus characterizations. This study provides useful information to improve protection against and therapies for bunyavirus infections. ..
  7. Huang H, Li S, Zhang Y, Han X, Jia B, Liu H, et al. CD8+ T Cell Immune Response in Immunocompetent Mice during Zika Virus Infection. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
  8. Peng R, Zhang S, Cui Y, Shi Y, Gao G, Qi J. Structures of human-infecting Thogotovirus fusogens support a common ancestor with insect baculovirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E8905-E8912 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings increase our understanding of the divergent evolution processes of various orthomyxoviruses and indicate potential targets for developing antiviral therapeutics by intercepting virus entry. ..
  9. Chen D, Tan S, Zhang H, Wang H, He W, Shi R, et al. The FG Loop of PD-1 Serves as a "Hotspot" for Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies in Tumor Immune Checkpoint Therapy. iScience. 2019;14:113-124 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the binding of GY-5 and GY-14 to PD-1 was not affected by glycosylation. These findings broaden our understanding of the mechanism of anti-PD-1 mAbs and provide insight into the development of agents targeting PD-1. ..

More Information


  1. Wang Y, Hu Y, Cao J, Bi Y, Lv N, Liu F, et al. Antibiotic resistance gene reservoir in live poultry markets. J Infect. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated that the Chinese LPMs is a repository for ARGs, posing a high risk for ARG dissemination from food animals to humans under such a trade system, which has not been addressed before. ..
  2. Wang X, Yuan K, Zhang W, Li S, Gao G, Lu L. Regulation of Circadian Genes by the MAPK Pathway: Implications for Rapid Antidepressant Action. Neurosci Bull. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..This pathway holds much promise for the development of novel, rapid-onset-of-action therapeutics for MDD. ..
  3. Yang Y, Wong G, Yang L, Tan S, Li J, Bai B, et al. Comparison between human infections caused by highly and low pathogenic H7N9 avian influenza viruses in Wave Five: Clinical and virological findings. J Infect. 2019;78:241-248 pubmed publisher
  4. Lu X, Xiao H, Li S, Pang X, Song J, Liu S, et al. Double Lock of a Human Neutralizing and Protective Monoclonal Antibody Targeting the Yellow Fever Virus Envelope. Cell Rep. 2019;26:438-446.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings will be instrumental for immunogen or inhibitor design. ..
  5. Zhang Y, Zhang H, Ma W, Liu K, Zhao M, Zhao Y, et al. Evaluation of Zika Virus-specific T-cell Responses in Immunoprivileged Organs of Infected Ifnar1-/- Mice. J Vis Exp. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may also help to clarify the contribution of T cells induced by the immunization against ZIKV. ..
  6. Huang K, Rijal P, Jiang H, Wang B, Schimanski L, Dong T, et al. Structure-function analysis of neutralizing antibodies to H7N9 influenza from naturally infected humans. Nat Microbiol. 2019;4:306-315 pubmed publisher
    ..However, only 3 of the 17 neutralizing antibodies retained activity for the Yangtze River Delta lineage viruses isolated in 2016-2017 that have undergone antigenic change, which emphasizes the need for updated H7N9 vaccines. ..
  7. Niu S, Jahejo A, Jia F, Li X, Ning G, Zhang D, et al. Transcripts of antibacterial peptides in chicken erythrocytes infected with Marek's disease virus. BMC Vet Res. 2018;14:363 pubmed publisher
    ..i.). In addition, 35 MD5-related gene segments were detected in the erythrocytes at 14 d.p.i. by transcriptome sequencing. These results suggest that the AvBDs in chicken erythrocytes may participate in MDV-induced host immune responses. ..
  8. Li Y, Tan S, Zhang C, Chai Y, He M, Zhang C, et al. Limited Cross-Linking of 4-1BB by 4-1BB Ligand and the Agonist Monoclonal Antibody Utomilumab. Cell Rep. 2018;25:909-920.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide mechanistic insight into the binding of 4-1BB with its ligand and its agonist mAb, which may facilitate the future development of anti-4-1BB biologics for tumor immunotherapy. ..
  9. Wang M, Qi J, Liu Y, Vavricka C, Wu Y, Li Q, et al. Influenza A virus N5 neuraminidase has an extended 150-cavity. J Virol. 2011;85:8431-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we solved the N5 structure, the last unknown structure group 1 serotype with a unique Asn147 residue in its 150-loop, demonstrating that it has an extended 150-cavity that closes upon inhibitor binding. ..
  10. Wang H, Han M, Qi J, Hilgenfeld R, Luo T, Shi Y, et al. Crystal structure of the C-terminal fragment of NS1 protein from yellow fever virus. Sci China Life Sci. 2017;60:1403-1406 pubmed publisher
  11. Sun M, Liu J, Qi J, Tefsen B, Shi Y, Yan J, et al. N?-terminal acetylation for T cell recognition: molecular basis of MHC class I-restricted n?-acetylpeptide presentation. J Immunol. 2014;192:5509-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide the insight into the mode of N(?)-acetylpeptide-specific presentation by classical MHC class I molecules and shed light on the potential of acetylepitope-based immune intervene and vaccine development. ..
  12. Dai L, Wang Q, Song H, Gao G. Zika Virus Envelope Protein and Antibody Complexes. Subcell Biochem. 2018;88:147-168 pubmed publisher
    ..The concomitant molecular basis for these protective MAbs is also dissected. This chapter helps to comprehensively understand the interplay between ZIKV E protein and protective MAbs. ..
  13. Wang Q, Qi J, Yuan Y, Xuan Y, Han P, Wan Y, et al. Bat origins of MERS-CoV supported by bat coronavirus HKU4 usage of human receptor CD26. Cell Host Microbe. 2014;16:328-37 pubmed publisher
    ..HKU4-RBD, however, is less adapted to hCD26 than MERS-RBD, explaining its lower affinity for receptor binding. Our findings support a bat origin for MERS-CoV and indicate the need for surveillance of HKU4-related viruses in bats. ..
  14. Wong G, Liu W, Liu Y, Zhou B, Bi Y, Gao G. MERS, SARS, and Ebola: The Role of Super-Spreaders in Infectious Disease. Cell Host Microbe. 2015;18:398-401 pubmed publisher
    ..We summarize documented super-spreading in these outbreaks, explore contributing factors, and suggest studies to better understand super-spreading. ..
  15. Lu G, Wang Q, Gao G. Bat-to-human: spike features determining 'host jump' of coronaviruses SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and beyond. Trends Microbiol. 2015;23:468-78 pubmed publisher
  16. Shi Y, Dai L, Song H, Gao G. Structures of Zika Virus E & NS1: Relations with Virus Infection and Host Immune Responses. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018;1062:77-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies will be helpful to develop novel therapeutics and vaccines for protection and control of ZIKV infection. ..
  17. Wang L, Su S, Bi Y, Wong G, Gao G. Bat-Origin Coronaviruses Expand Their Host Range to Pigs. Trends Microbiol. 2018;26:466-470 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, novel bat-origin coronaviruses were found in pigs. The large number of mutations on the receptor-binding domain allowed the viruses to infect the new host, posing a potential threat to both agriculture and public health. ..
  18. Wang F, Qi J, Bi Y, Zhang W, Wang M, Zhang B, et al. Adaptation of avian influenza A (H6N1) virus from avian to human receptor-binding preference. EMBO J. 2015;34:1661-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Further structural analysis revealed how the P186L substitution in the receptor-binding site of HA determines the receptor-binding preference change. We conclude that the human-infecting H6N1 evolved into a human receptor preference. ..
  19. Gao G. From "A"IV to "Z"IKV: Attacks from Emerging and Re-emerging Pathogens. Cell. 2018;172:1157-1159 pubmed publisher
    ..To fully understand viral pathogenesis and develop effective medical countermeasures, we must strengthen current surveillance and basic research efforts. ..
  20. Li Y, Xiao H, Huang C, Sun H, Li L, Su J, et al. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and experimental infections with different subtypes of influenza A viruses in Qinghai-Tibet plateau wild pika. Virol J. 2015;12:63 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these results suggest that wild pika has the potential to be a host for different subtypes of influenza A viruses. ..
  21. Wu Y, Wu Y, Tefsen B, Shi Y, Gao G. Bat-derived influenza-like viruses H17N10 and H18N11. Trends Microbiol. 2014;22:183-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, potential genomic reassortments of such influenza-like viruses with canonical influenza viruses cannot be excluded at this point and should be assessed. ..
  22. Peng R, Zhu T, Oladejo B, Musyoki A, Cui Y, Shi Y, et al. In vitro assembly of Ebola virus nucleocapsid-like complex expressed in E. coli. Protein Cell. 2016;7:888-898 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide a new model for characterizing the self-oligomerization of viral nucleoproteins and studying the dynamic assembly process of viral nucleocapsid in vitro. ..
  23. Tan S, Chen D, Liu K, He M, Song H, Shi Y, et al. Crystal clear: visualizing the intervention mechanism of the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction by two cancer therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Protein Cell. 2016;7:866-877 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that this structural information will benefit the design and improvement of therapeutic antibodies targeting PD-1 signaling. ..
  24. Haywood J, Qi J, Chen C, Lu G, Liu Y, Yan J, et al. Structural basis of collagen recognition by human osteoclast-associated receptor and design of osteoclastogenesis inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:1038-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide valuable structural insights into the mode of collagen recognition by OSCAR and into the use of synthetic peptide matrikines for osteoclastogenesis inhibition. ..
  25. Shang Z, Song H, Shi Y, Qi J, Gao G. Crystal Structure of the Capsid Protein from Zika Virus. J Mol Biol. 2018;430:948-962 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings will greatly enhance our understanding of ZIKV C protein, providing information for anti-ZIKV drug design targeting the C protein. ..
  26. Shi Y, Li S, Wu Q, Sun L, Zhang J, Pan N, et al. Vertical Transmission of the Zika Virus Causes Neurological Disorders in Mouse Offspring. Sci Rep. 2018;8:3541 pubmed publisher
    ..ZIKV also impaired adult neurogenesis in neonatal mice. Due to its intact immunity, our rodent model can be used to systematically evaluate the impact of ZIKV on embryonic and neonatal development and to explore potential therapies. ..
  27. Wang H, Shi Y, Song J, Qi J, Lu G, Yan J, et al. Ebola Viral Glycoprotein Bound to Its Endosomal Receptor Niemann-Pick C1. Cell. 2016;164:258-268 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data therefore provide structural insights into filovirus entry in the late endosome and the molecular basis for design of therapeutic inhibitors of viral entry. ..
  28. Dai L, Song J, Lu X, Deng Y, Musyoki A, Cheng H, et al. Structures of the Zika Virus Envelope Protein and Its Complex with a Flavivirus Broadly Protective Antibody. Cell Host Microbe. 2016;19:696-704 pubmed publisher
    ..2A10G6 binds to ZIKV-E with high affinity in vitro and neutralizes currently circulating ZIKV strains in vitro and in mice. The E protein fusion loop epitope represents a potential candidate for therapeutic antibodies against ZIKV. ..
  29. Bi Y, Chen Q, Wang Q, Chen J, Jin T, Wong G, et al. Genesis, Evolution and Prevalence of H5N6 Avian Influenza Viruses in China. Cell Host Microbe. 2016;20:810-821 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, genotype G1.2 virus, with internal genes from the chicken H9N2/H7N9 gene pool, was responsible for at least five human H5N6 infections. Our findings highlight H5N6 AIVs as potential threats to public health and agriculture. ..
  30. Dai L, Wang Q, Qi J, Shi Y, Yan J, Gao G. Molecular basis of antibody-mediated neutralization and protection against flavivirus. IUBMB Life. 2016;68:783-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we summarize the known structures of flavivirus neutralizing or protective antibodies bound to their epitopes and describe the underlying molecular mechanisms. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(10):783-791, 2016. ..
  31. Liu F, Hu Y, Wang Q, Li H, Gao G, Liu C, et al. Comparative genomic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates. BMC Genomics. 2014;15:469 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides evidence strengthening the notion that the evolution of drug resistance among clinical M. tuberculosis isolates is clearly a complex and diversified process. ..
  32. Li X, Ma W, Wong G, Ma S, Li S, Bi Y, et al. A new threat to human reproduction system posed by Zika virus (ZIKV): From clinical investigations to experimental studies. Virus Res. 2018;254:10-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, it is important to determine whether genital ZIKV infection could have deleterious effects on the male and female reproductive systems. ..
  33. Lu Q, Lu G, Qi J, Wang H, Xuan Y, Wang Q, et al. PILRα and PILRβ have a siglec fold and provide the basis of binding to sialic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:8221-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our study provides significant implications for the PILR-SA interaction and paves the way for understanding PILR-related ligand binding. ..
  34. Wang Q, Wong G, Lu G, Yan J, Gao G. MERS-CoV spike protein: Targets for vaccines and therapeutics. Antiviral Res. 2016;133:165-77 pubmed publisher
  35. Qin Y, Li H, Jia L, Yan J, Gao G, Li X. Targeted disruption of Noc4l leads to preimplantation embryonic lethality in mice. Protein Cell. 2017;8:230-235 pubmed publisher
  36. Shi Y, Gao G. Structural Biology of the Zika Virus. Trends Biochem Sci. 2017;42:443-456 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the remarkable progress in structure-based ZIKV research and discuss the current challenges and future opportunities. ..
  37. Han X, Qi J, Song H, Wang Q, Zhang Y, Wu Y, et al. Structure of the S1 subunit C-terminal domain from bat-derived coronavirus HKU5 spike protein. Virology. 2017;507:101-109 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined with sequence variation in the HKU5-CTD receptor binding interface, we propose the necessity for surveilling the mutation in BatCoV HKU5 spike protein in case of bat-to-human interspecies transmission. ..
  38. Song H, Qi J, Xiao H, Bi Y, Zhang W, Xu Y, et al. Avian-to-Human Receptor-Binding Adaptation by Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin H4. Cell Rep. 2017;20:1201-1214 pubmed publisher
    ..This early-warning study calls for future extensive surveillance. ..
  39. Tan S, Lin N, Huang M, Wang Q, Tan Y, Li B, et al. CTL immunogenicity of Rv3615c antigen and diagnostic performances of an ESAT-6/CFP-10/Rv3615c antigen cocktail for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2017;107:5-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, inclusion of the Rv3615c antigen with multiple HLA restricted CTL epitopes would benefit the T-cell based diagnosis of MTB infection. ..
  40. Musyoki A, Shi Z, Xuan C, Lu G, Qi J, Gao F, et al. Structural and functional analysis of an anchorless fibronectin-binding protein FBPS from Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus suis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:13869-13874 pubmed
    ..Finally, we demonstrated that FBPS functions both as an adhesin, promoting S suis attachment to host cells, and as a bacterial factor, activating signaling pathways via β1 integrin receptors to induce chemokine production. ..
  41. Ma W, Li S, Ma S, Jia L, Zhang F, Zhang Y, et al. Zika Virus Causes Testis Damage and Leads to Male Infertility in Mice. Cell. 2016;167:1511-1524.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrates a correlation between ZIKV and testis infection/damage and suggests that ZIKV infection, under certain circumstances, can eventually lead to male infertility. ..
  42. Su S, Wong G, Shi W, Liu J, Lai A, Zhou J, et al. Epidemiology, Genetic Recombination, and Pathogenesis of Coronaviruses. Trends Microbiol. 2016;24:490-502 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review we aim to compare and contrast the different HCoVs with regard to epidemiology and pathogenesis, in addition to the virus evolution and recombination events which have, on occasion, resulted in outbreaks amongst humans. ..
  43. Shi Y, Kawana Tachikawa A, Gao F, Qi J, Liu C, Gao J, et al. Conserved Vδ1 Binding Geometry in a Setting of Locus-Disparate pHLA Recognition by δ/αβ T Cell Receptors (TCRs): Insight into Recognition of HIV Peptides by TCRs. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Further binding kinetics analysis revealed that the S19-2 and TU55 TCRs bind pHLA very tightly and in a long-lasting manner. Our results illustrate the mode of binding of a TCR using the Vδ1 segment to its ligand, virus-derived pHLA. ..