Carsten Carlberg


Affiliation: University of Eastern Finland
Location: Kuopio, Finland


  1. Saavalainen K, Pasonen Seppänen S, Dunlop T, Tammi R, Tammi M, Carlberg C. The human hyaluronan synthase 2 gene is a primary retinoic acid and epidermal growth factor responding gene. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:14636-44 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the human Has2 gene is a potent primary EGF and all-trans-RA responding gene with a complex regulation. ..
  2. Kansanen E, Bonacci G, Schopfer F, Kuosmanen S, Tong K, Leinonen H, et al. Electrophilic nitro-fatty acids activate NRF2 by a KEAP1 cysteine 151-independent mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:14019-27 pubmed publisher
    ..OA-NO(2) can therefore be categorized as a Cys(151)-independent Nrf2 activator, which in turn can influence the pattern of gene expression and therapeutic actions of nitroalkenes. ..
  3. Carlberg C, Hooft van Huijsduijnen R, Staple J, DeLamarter J, Becker Andre M. RZRs, a new family of retinoid-related orphan receptors that function as both monomers and homodimers. Mol Endocrinol. 1994;8:757-70 pubmed
    ..On monomeric as well as dimeric binding sites, RZRs show constitutive transactivational activity that can be enhanced by unidentified components of fetal calf serum. ..
  4. Quack M, Frank C, Carlberg C. Differential nuclear receptor signalling from DR4-type response elements. J Cell Biochem. 2002;86:601-12 pubmed
  5. Frank C, Makkonen H, Dunlop T, Matilainen M, Väisänen S, Carlberg C. Identification of pregnane X receptor binding sites in the regulatory regions of genes involved in bile acid homeostasis. J Mol Biol. 2005;346:505-19 pubmed
    ..This observation increases the understanding of the physiological role of PXR in the homeostasis of bile acids in humans. ..
  6. Malinen M, Saramaki A, Ropponen A, Degenhardt T, Väisänen S, Carlberg C. Distinct HDACs regulate the transcriptional response of human cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes to Trichostatin A and 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:121-32 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the attenuation of the response to TSA by NCoR1 or that to 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 by HDACs can be overcome by their combined application achieving maximal induction of anti-proliferative target genes. ..
  7. Gynther P, Toropainen S, Matilainen J, Seuter S, Carlberg C, Väisänen S. Mechanism of 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)-dependent repression of interleukin-12B. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1813:810-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that these repressive epigenetic changes eventually cause down-regulation of IL-12 expression. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 11th European Symposium on Calcium. ..
  8. Carlberg C, Saurat J. Vitamin D-retinoid association: molecular basis and clinical applications. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 1996;1:82-6 pubmed
    ..Preliminary observations suggest that psoriasis, cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, and actinic keratoses might be potential targets for VD-retinoid associations. ..
  9. Frank C, Molnár F, Matilainen M, Lempiäinen H, Carlberg C. Agonist-dependent and agonist-independent transactivations of the human constitutive androstane receptor are modulated by specific amino acid pairs. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:33558-66 pubmed
    ..The constitutive activity of other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily could be explained by a homologous hydrophobic interaction between large, non-polar amino acids of helices 11 and 12. ..

More Information

Publications140 found, 100 shown here

  1. Saavalainen K, Tammi M, Bowen T, Schmitz M, Carlberg C. Integration of the activation of the human hyaluronan synthase 2 gene promoter by common cofactors of the transcription factors retinoic acid receptor and nuclear factor kappaB. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:11530-9 pubmed
    ..These findings partially explain the induction of HAS2 mRNA by all-trans-RA and TNF-alpha and provide an example how the action of different transcription factor families can use the same cofactors. ..
  2. Degenhardt T, Saramaki A, Malinen M, Rieck M, Väisänen S, Huotari A, et al. Three members of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase gene family are direct targets of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta. J Mol Biol. 2007;372:341-55 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, PDK2, PDK3 and PDK4 are primary PPARbeta/delta target genes in humans underlining the importance of the receptor in the control of metabolism. ..
  3. Campbell M, Carlberg C, Koeffler H. A Role for the PPARgamma in Cancer Therapy. PPAR Res. 2008;2008:314974 pubmed publisher
  4. Nayeri S, Mathiasen I, Binderup L, Carlberg C. High-affinity nuclear receptor binding of 20-epi analogues of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 correlates well with gene activation. J Cell Biochem. 1996;62:325-33 pubmed
    ..The functional receptor affinity of the eight analogues was found to be directly proportional to their potency in VDR-RXR-mediated gene activity. ..
  5. Herdick M, Steinmeyer A, Carlberg C. Carboxylic ester antagonists of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) show cell-specific actions. Chem Biol. 2000;7:885-94 pubmed
    ..In addition, the VDR/RXR ratio was found as the major discriminating factor for understanding cell-specific effects of VDR antagonists. ..
  6. Carlberg C. The antiproliferative effect of vitamin D3 analogues. Dermatology. 1996;192:195-7 pubmed
  7. Polly P, Carlberg C, Eisman J, Morrison N. Identification of a vitamin D3 response element in the fibronectin gene that is bound by a vitamin D3 receptor homodimer. J Cell Biochem. 1996;60:322-33 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the FN VDRE is the first homodimer-type VDRE that is not overlaid by a DR3-type structure. ..
  8. Rakhshandehroo M, Sanderson L, Matilainen M, Stienstra R, Carlberg C, de Groot P, et al. Comprehensive analysis of PPARalpha-dependent regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism by expression profiling. PPAR Res. 2007;2007:26839 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study illustrates the power of transcriptional profiling to uncover novel PPARalpha-regulated genes and pathways in liver. ..
  9. Kahlen J, Carlberg C. Allosteric interaction of the 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor and the retinoid X receptor on DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997;25:4307-13 pubmed
    ..Taken together, transactivation by VDR-RXR heterodimers can be triggered individually by all components of the protein-DNA complex, but full potency appears to be reached through allosteric interaction. ..
  10. Toell A, Gonzalez M, Ruf D, Steinmeyer A, Ishizuka S, Carlberg C. Different molecular mechanisms of vitamin D(3) receptor antagonists. Mol Pharmacol. 2001;59:1478-85 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the two 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) analogs act in part via different molecular mechanisms, which allows us to speculate that ZK159222 is a more complete antagonist and TEI-9647 a more selective antagonist. ..
  11. Wiesenberg I, Chiesi M, Missbach M, Spanka C, Pignat W, Carlberg C. Specific activation of the nuclear receptors PPARgamma and RORA by the antidiabetic thiazolidinedione BRL 49653 and the antiarthritic thiazolidinedione derivative CGP 52608. Mol Pharmacol. 1998;53:1131-8 pubmed
    ..Both compounds are prototypes of interesting novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis. ..
  12. Becker Andre M, Wiesenberg I, Schaeren Wiemers N, Andre E, Missbach M, Saurat J, et al. Pineal gland hormone melatonin binds and activates an orphan of the nuclear receptor superfamily. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:28531-4 pubmed
    ..A nuclear signaling pathway for melatonin may contribute to some of the diverse and profound effects of this hormone, for example, in the context of circadian rhythmicity. ..
  13. Carlberg C, Seuter S. A genomic perspective on vitamin D signaling. Anticancer Res. 2009;29:3485-93 pubmed
    ..Important cancer regulatory modules with VDREs should have a major impact on understanding the role and potential therapeutic value of VDR in cancer. ..
  14. Steinhilber D, Brungs M, Werz O, Wiesenberg I, Danielsson C, Kahlen J, et al. The nuclear receptor for melatonin represses 5-lipoxygenase gene expression in human B lymphocytes. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:7037-40 pubmed
    ..This indicates that 5-lipoxygenase is the first natural RZR alpha responding gene. Furthermore, our results open up a new perspective in understanding the involvement of melatonin in inflammatory and immunological reactions. ..
  15. Kahlen J, Carlberg C. Identification of a vitamin D receptor homodimer-type response element in the rat calcitriol 24-hydroxylase gene promoter. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;202:1366-72 pubmed
    ..Its structure and function are very similar to those of the homodimer-type response element of the human osteocalcin promoter. ..
  16. Quack M, Mørk Hansen C, Binderup E, Kissmeyer A, Carlberg C. Metabolism of the vitamin D3 analogue EB1089 alters receptor complex formation and reduces promoter selectivity. Br J Pharmacol. 1998;125:607-14 pubmed
    ..However, the compounds showed to be interesting tools for understanding the selective biological profile of EB1089. ..
  17. Moehren U, Dressel U, Reeb C, Väisänen S, Dunlop T, Carlberg C, et al. The highly conserved region of the co-repressor Sin3A functionally interacts with the co-repressor Alien. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:2995-3004 pubmed
    ..Our results therefore indicate a novel functional role of the Sin3 HCR and give novel insights into Alien-mediated gene repression. ..
  18. Carlberg C, Seuter S, Heikkinen S. The first genome-wide view of vitamin D receptor locations and their mechanistic implications. Anticancer Res. 2012;32:271-82 pubmed
    ..This review provides a detailed comparison of the insights obtained from both ChIP-Seq studies. ..
  19. Quack M, Szafranski K, Rouvinen J, Carlberg C. The role of the T-box for the function of the vitamin D receptor on different types of response elements. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:5372-8 pubmed
    ..The monitored differences between the two VDR-containing protein-DNA complexes helps in an understanding of the differential action of the nuclear hormone VD and its therapeutically important analogues. ..
  20. van der Meer D, Degenhardt T, Väisänen S, de Groot P, Heinaniemi M, de Vries S, et al. Profiling of promoter occupancy by PPARalpha in human hepatoma cells via ChIP-chip analysis. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:2839-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our analysis leads to important new insights into the mechanisms and impact of transcriptional regulation by PPARalpha in human liver and highlight the importance of cross-talk with other transcription factors. ..
  21. Nayeri S, Carlberg C. Functional conformations of the nuclear 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor. Biochem J. 1997;327 ( Pt 2):561-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, limited protease digestion is a powerful method for studying functional VDR conformations and seems to be very appropriate for screening VD analogues. ..
  22. Dunlop T, Väisänen S, Frank C, Carlberg C. The genes of the coactivator TIF2 and the corepressor SMRT are primary 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 targets. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;89-90:257-60 pubmed
    ..We suggest that some or all of these DR3-type VDREs are responsible for the observed responsiveness of TIF2 and SMRT to 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3). ..
  23. Sorg B, Klan N, Seuter S, Dishart D, Radmark O, Habenicht A, et al. Analysis of the 5-lipoxygenase promoter and characterization of a vitamin D receptor binding site. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1761:686-97 pubmed
  24. Carlberg C, Saurat J, Siegenthaler G. 9-cis-retinoic acid is a natural antagonist for the retinoic acid receptor response pathway. Biochem J. 1993;295 ( Pt 2):343-6 pubmed
    ..This suggests that 9-cis-RA may be a natural antagonist of all-trans-RA for binding to RAR complexes. The levels of 9-cis-RA may determine by which pathway the transcription of retinoid-responsive genes is modulated. ..
  25. Pendás Franco N, Garcia J, Pena C, Valle N, Pálmer H, Heinaniemi M, et al. DICKKOPF-4 is induced by TCF/beta-catenin and upregulated in human colon cancer, promotes tumour cell invasion and angiogenesis and is repressed by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Oncogene. 2008;27:4467-77 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, DKK-4 is upregulated in colon cancer and is associated with the acquisition of malignant properties by neoplastic cells. DKK-4 downregulation is a novel effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 that may contribute to its anticancer action. ..
  26. Bury Y, Steinmeyer A, Carlberg C. Structure activity relationship of carboxylic ester antagonists of the vitamin D(3) receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 2000;58:1067-74 pubmed
  27. Gonzalez M, Carlberg C. Cross-repression, a functional consequence of the physical interaction of non-liganded nuclear receptors and POU domain transcription factors. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:18501-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together this study suggests that cross-repression should occur in all tissues in which POU domain factors and non-liganded NRs meet each other. ..
  28. Toropainen S, Väisänen S, Heikkinen S, Carlberg C. The down-regulation of the human MYC gene by the nuclear hormone 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is associated with cycling of corepressors and histone deacetylases. J Mol Biol. 2010;400:284-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data suggest that dynamically composed protein complexes that dock via VDR to the two VDREs may explain the repression of the MYC gene. ..
  29. Carlberg C, Mathiasen I, Saurat J, Binderup L. The 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD) analogues MC903, EB1089 and KH1060 activate the VD receptor: homodimers show higher ligand sensitivity than heterodimers with retinoid X receptors. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1994;51:137-42 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the ligand concentration is an additional regulatory level in the discrimination between signalling pathways involving homo- and heterodimeric hormone receptors. ..
  30. Carlberg C. RXR-independent action of the receptors for thyroid hormone, retinoid acid and vitamin D on inverted palindromes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;195:1345-53 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that functional response elements can consist of direct repeats, palindromes and inverted palindromes. A sterical link between the optimal spacers of direct repeats and inverted palindromes is suggested. ..
  31. Mørk Hansen C, Danielsson C, Carlberg C. The potent anti-proliferative effect of 20-epi analogues of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 in human breast-cancer MCF-7 cells is related to promoter selectivity. Int J Cancer. 1996;67:739-42 pubmed
    ..We found that this VD response element is more appropriate than classical VD response elements to correlate anti-proliferative effects of VD analogues with their gene-regulatory properties. ..
  32. Danielsson C, Torma H, Vahlquist A, Carlberg C. Positive and negative interaction of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and the retinoid CD437 in the induction of human melanoma cell apoptosis. Int J Cancer. 1999;81:467-70 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that a combined treatment of melanoma with VD and selected retinoids is promising but should be adapted to individual types of tumor. ..
  33. Quack M, Carlberg C. Selective recognition of vitamin D receptor conformations mediates promoter selectivity of vitamin D analogs. Mol Pharmacol. 1999;55:1077-87 pubmed
    ..This indicates that promoter selectivity of VDR ligands is based on their property to selectively increase affinity for VDREs and very sensitively stabilize VDR conformations in VDR-RXR-VDRE complexes. ..
  34. Toell A, Degenhardt S, Grabensee B, Carlberg C. Inhibitory effect of uremic solutions on protein-DNA-complex formation of the vitamin D receptor and other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. J Cell Biochem. 1999;74:386-94 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that VDR is a target of substances in uremic solutions in vitro, but also to some extent other nuclear receptors (i.e., other endocrine signaling systems) may be affected by renal failure. ..
  35. Berendji D, Kolb Bachofen V, Zipfel P, Skerka C, Carlberg C, Kröncke K. Zinc finger transcription factors as molecular targets for nitric oxide-mediated immunosuppression: inhibition of IL-2 gene expression in murine lymphocytes. Mol Med. 1999;5:721-30 pubmed
    ..The exact understanding of the molecular mechanism leading to NO-mediated, fully reversible suppression of immune reactions may lead to use of this naturally occurring tool as an aid in inflammatory diseases. ..
  36. Väisänen S, PERAKYLA M, Kärkkäinen J, Uskokovic M, Carlberg C. Structural evaluation of the agonistic action of a vitamin D analog with two side chains binding to the nuclear vitamin D receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 2003;63:1230-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Gemini is an important model compound that allows further insight into the molecular actions of the VDR but is, in parallel, also a promising precursor for the design of even more potent 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 analogs. ..
  37. Saramaki A, Banwell C, Campbell M, Carlberg C. Regulation of the human p21(waf1/cip1) gene promoter via multiple binding sites for p53 and the vitamin D3 receptor. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:543-54 pubmed
    ..Taken together, we demonstrated that the human p21((waf1/cip1)) gene is a primary 1alpha,25(OH)2D3-responding gene with at least three VDR binding promoter regions, in two of which also p53 co-localizes. ..
  38. Abedin S, Banwell C, Colston K, Carlberg C, Campbell M. Epigenetic corruption of VDR signalling in malignancy. Anticancer Res. 2006;26:2557-66 pubmed
    ..This molecular lesion provides a novel chemotherapy target for acceptable doses of 1alpha25(OH)2D3 plus HDAC inhibitors. ..
  39. Carlberg C, Seuter S. Dynamics of nuclear receptor target gene regulation. Chromosoma. 2010;119:479-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we summarize recent findings on the dynamic regulation of nuclear receptor target genes in the chromatin context. ..
  40. Väisänen S, Matilainen J, Carlberg C. Dynamic nature of transcriptional regulation of nuclear receptor target genes in the context of chromatin organization. Dermatoendocrinol. 2011;3:125-9 pubmed publisher
  41. Schrader M, Nayeri S, Kahlen J, Muller K, Carlberg C. Natural vitamin D3 response elements formed by inverted palindromes: polarity-directed ligand sensitivity of vitamin D3 receptor-retinoid X receptor heterodimer-mediated transactivation. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:1154-61 pubmed
  42. Nayeri S, Kahlen J, Carlberg C. The high affinity ligand binding conformation of the nuclear 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor is functionally linked to the transactivation domain 2 (AF-2). Nucleic Acids Res. 1996;24:4513-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, functional assays supported the observation that high affinity ligand binding is directly linked to transactivation function. ..
  43. Quack M, Clarin A, Binderup E, Bjorkling F, Hansen C, Carlberg C. Structural variants of the vitamin D analogue EB1089 reduce its ligand sensitivity and promoter selectivity. J Cell Biochem. 1998;71:340-50 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the modifications of EB1089 resulted in a loss of VD response element selectivity, suggesting that this parameter is very critical for the biological profile of this VD analogue. ..
  44. Herdick M, Carlberg C. Agonist-triggered modulation of the activated and silent state of the vitamin D(3) receptor by interaction with co-repressors and co-activators. J Mol Biol. 2000;304:793-801 pubmed
  45. Lampen A, Carlberg C, Nau H. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta is a specific sensor for teratogenic valproic acid derivatives. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001;431:25-33 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, in contrast to PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma, PPAR-delta shows to be a specific sensor for teratogenic valproic acid-derivatives. ..
  46. Gonzalez M, Samenfeld P, PERAKYLA M, Carlberg C. Corepressor excess shifts the two-side chain vitamin D analog Gemini from an agonist to an inverse agonist of the vitamin D receptor. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:2028-38 pubmed
    ..Taken together, Gemini is the first described (conditional) inverse agonist to an endocrine nuclear receptor and may function as a sensor for the cell-specific coactivator/CoR ratio. ..
  47. Carlberg C. Ligand-mediated conformational changes of the VDR are required for gene transactivation. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;89-90:227-32 pubmed
    ..Gemini is the first described (conditional) inverse agonist to an endocrine nuclear receptor (NR) and may function as a sensor for cell-specific CoA/CoR ratios. ..
  48. Sinkkonen L, Malinen M, Saavalainen K, Väisänen S, Carlberg C. Regulation of the human cyclin C gene via multiple vitamin D3-responsive regions in its promoter. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:2440-51 pubmed
  49. Lempiäinen H, Molnár F, Macias Gonzalez M, PERAKYLA M, Carlberg C. Antagonist- and inverse agonist-driven interactions of the vitamin D receptor and the constitutive androstane receptor with corepressor protein. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:2258-72 pubmed
  50. Lee S, Crabb S, Janghra N, Carlberg C, Williams A, Cutress R, et al. Subcellular localisation of BAG-1 and its regulation of vitamin D receptor-mediated transactivation and involucrin expression in oral keratinocytes: implications for oral carcinogenesis. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:3222-38 pubmed
    ..By contrast to the cytoplasmic BAG-1 isoforms, BAG-1L may act to suppress tumorigenesis. ..
  51. Heinaniemi M, Carlberg C. Screening for PPAR Responsive Regulatory Modules in Cancer. PPAR Res. 2008;2008:749073 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent advances in genomic techniques combined with computational analysis of binding modules are discussed in the review with the example of our recent screen for PPREs on human chromosome 19. ..
  52. Lorente Cebrián S, Eriksson A, Dunlop T, Mejhert N, Dahlman I, Aström G, et al. Differential effects of 1?,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on MCP-1 and adiponectin production in human white adipocytes. Eur J Nutr. 2012;51:335-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects may explain the difficulties so far in determining the role of DHCC in insulin sensitivity and obesity in humans. ..
  53. Clegg R, Murchie A, Zechel A, Carlberg C, Diekmann S, Lilley D. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis of the structure of the four-way DNA junction. Biochemistry. 1992;31:4846-56 pubmed
    ..The mode of ion interaction at the strand exchange site of the junction is discussed. ..
  54. Carlberg C, Wiesenberg I. The orphan receptor family RZR/ROR, melatonin and 5-lipoxygenase: an unexpected relationship. J Pineal Res. 1995;18:171-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, nuclear melatonin signalling opens up a new perspective in understanding the actions of the pineal gland hormone. ..
  55. Lorper M, Clairmont A, Carlberg C, Sies H. Identification of two activating elements in the proximal promoter region of the human glutathione transferase-A1 and -A2 genes. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1998;359:122-7 pubmed
    ..The results show that in the proximal GST A1/A2 promoter the sites at position -41 or -86 are essential for the binding of activating transcription factor complexes. ..
  56. Kröncke K, Carlberg C. Inactivation of zinc finger transcription factors provides a mechanism for a gene regulatory role of nitric oxide. FASEB J. 2000;14:166-73 pubmed
    ..5 mM). These findings suggest that NO has a modulatory role on transcription factors depending on their sensitivity to NO-induced stress, thus providing a mechanism for a gene regulatory function of NO. ..
  57. Kronenberg S, Esser C, Carlberg C. An aryl hydrocarbon receptor conformation acts as the functional core of nuclear dioxin signaling. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:2286-91 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the results of this study provide important information on the ligand sensitivity of AhR and AhR-Arnt heterodimer conformations. ..
  58. Väisänen S, Dunlop T, Frank C, Carlberg C. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation to monitor 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-dependent chromatin activity on the human CYP24 promoter. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;89-90:277-9 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that ChIP is suitable for monitoring 1,25-D(3)-dependent changes of chromatin organization and can be used to reveal information about chromatin activity in living cells. ..
  59. Molnár F, Matilainen M, Carlberg C. Structural determinants of the agonist-independent association of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors with coactivators. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:26543-56 pubmed
    ..This leads to high basal activity of PPARs and provides an additional view on PPAR signaling. ..
  60. Molnár F, PERAKYLA M, Carlberg C. Vitamin D receptor agonists specifically modulate the volume of the ligand-binding pocket. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:10516-26 pubmed
    ..In summary, variations in the volume of agonists lead to adaptations in the volume of the LBP and alternative contacts of anchoring OH-groups. ..
  61. Venäläinen T, Molnár F, Oostenbrink C, Carlberg C, PERAKYLA M. Molecular mechanism of allosteric communication in the human PPARalpha-RXRalpha heterodimer. Proteins. 2010;78:873-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Proteins 2010. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. ..
  62. Carlberg C. The vitamin D(3) receptor in the context of the nuclear receptor superfamily : The central role of the retinoid X receptor. Endocrine. 1996;4:91-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover RXR is a partner in other hormone response systems, which supports the idea that the different nuclear hormone signaling pathways are functionally linked. ..
  63. Carlberg C. The impact of transcriptional cycling on gene regulation. Transcription. 2010;1:13-6 pubmed publisher
  64. Herdick M, Bury Y, Quack M, Uskokovic M, Polly P, Carlberg C. Response element and coactivator-mediated conformational change of the vitamin D(3) receptor permits sensitive interaction with agonists. Mol Pharmacol. 2000;57:1206-17 pubmed
    ..The quantification of these effects would be of central importance for the evaluation of the cell-specific efficacy of systemically applied 1alpha, 25(OH)(2)D(3) analogs. ..
  65. Carlberg C, Wittig B. A functional approach to the mapping of structural polymorphisms in superhelical DNA. Biochem Pharmacol. 1988;37:1847-8 pubmed
  66. Muller K, Rocken M, Carlberg C, Hauser C. The induction and functions of murine T-helper cell subsets. J Invest Dermatol. 1995;105:8S-13S pubmed
    ..In contrast to the widely accepted belief that only Th1 cells can mediate delayed hypersensitivity reactions, our results demonstrate that T cells with either lymphokine profile can cause tissue inflammation with leukocytic infiltrates. ..
  67. Carlberg C. The concept of multiple vitamin D signaling pathways. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 1996;1:10-4 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the identification of VD analogs that specifically trigger these pathways is the goal of our present and future investigations. ..
  68. Quack M, Carlberg C. The impact of functional vitamin D(3) receptor conformations on DNA-dependent vitamin D(3) signaling. Mol Pharmacol. 2000;57:375-84 pubmed
  69. Quack M, Carlberg C. Ligand-triggered stabilization of vitamin D receptor/retinoid X receptor heterodimer conformations on DR4-type response elements. J Mol Biol. 2000;296:743-56 pubmed
  70. Polly P, Herdick M, Moehren U, Baniahmad A, Heinzel T, Carlberg C. VDR-Alien: a novel, DNA-selective vitamin D(3) receptor-corepressor partnership. FASEB J. 2000;14:1455-63 pubmed
    ..Taken together, association of the VDR with corepressor proteins provides a further level of transcriptional regulation, which is emerging as a complex network of protein-protein interaction-mediated control. ..
  71. Bury Y, Ruf D, Hansen C, Kissmeyer A, Binderup L, Carlberg C. Molecular evaluation of vitamin D3 receptor agonists designed for topical treatment of skin diseases. J Invest Dermatol. 2001;116:785-92 pubmed
  72. Hansen C, Binderup L, Hamberg K, Carlberg C. Vitamin D and cancer: effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogs on growth control and tumorigenesis. Front Biosci. 2001;6:D820-48 pubmed
    ..The present review will focus on the results obtained in these studies and describe some of the synthetic analogs, which have shown to be of particular interest in relation to cancer. ..
  73. Bury Y, Herdick M, Uskokovic M, Carlberg C. Gene regulatory potential of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) analogues with two side chains. J Cell Biochem Suppl. 2001;Suppl 36:179-90 pubmed
    ..Gemini was highlighted as an interesting drug candidate which could not be optimized through obvious chemical modifications in its A-ring. J. Cell. Biochem. Suppl. 36: 179-190, 2001. ..
  74. Quack M, Carlberg C. Single thyroid hormone receptor monomers are competent for co-activator-mediated transactivation. Biochem J. 2001;360:387-93 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that single T(3)R monomers are fully competent for ligand-induced transactivation and that their role in gene regulation by thyroid hormone might have been underestimated. ..
  75. Frank C, Gonzalez M, Oinonen C, Dunlop T, Carlberg C. Characterization of DNA complexes formed by the nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:43299-310 pubmed
    ..This points to a physiological role for CAR monomers. Therefore, both CAR-RXR heterodimers and CAR monomers can contribute to the gene activating function of PBREMs in CAR target genes. ..
  76. Väisänen S, Dunlop T, Sinkkonen L, Frank C, Carlberg C. Spatio-temporal activation of chromatin on the human CYP24 gene promoter in the presence of 1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3. J Mol Biol. 2005;350:65-77 pubmed
  77. Kobayashi H, Kromminga A, Dunlop T, Tychsen B, Conrad F, Suzuki N, et al. A role of melatonin in neuroectodermal-mesodermal interactions: the hair follicle synthesizes melatonin and expresses functional melatonin receptors. FASEB J. 2005;19:1710-2 pubmed
    ..As a prototypic neuroectodermal-mesodermal interaction model, the HF can be exploited for dissecting the obscure role of melatonin in such interactions in peripheral tissues. ..
  78. Nayeri S, Danielsson C, Kahlen J, Schrader M, Mathiasen I, Binderup L, et al. The anti-proliferative effect of vitamin D3 analogues is not mediated by inhibition of the AP-1 pathway, but may be related to promoter selectivity. Oncogene. 1995;11:1853-8 pubmed
    ..It is possible that IP9-type response elements play an important role in or contribute to the control of cell proliferation, so that promoter-selectivity may explain the high anti-proliferative effect of EB1089. ..
  79. Schrader M, Muller K, Becker Andre M, Carlberg C. Response element selectivity for heterodimerization of vitamin D receptors with retinoic acid and retinoid X receptors. J Mol Endocrinol. 1994;12:327-39 pubmed
    ..A simple model explains a steric link between the optimal spacing of direct repeats and that of inverted palindromes. Taken together, the experimental data and the model provide further criteria for the screening of VD responsive genes. ..
  80. Carlberg C, Bendik I, Wyss A, Meier E, Sturzenbecker L, Grippo J, et al. Two nuclear signalling pathways for vitamin D. Nature. 1993;361:657-60 pubmed
    ..Thus, the RXR ligand and the nature of the response element determine whether a nuclear receptor is co-regulated by RXR. ..
  81. PERAKYLA M, Molnár F, Carlberg C. A structural basis for the species-specific antagonism of 26,23-lactones on vitamin D signaling. Chem Biol. 2004;11:1147-56 pubmed
    ..In contrast, N410 of the rat VDR stabilized, via backbone contacts, the interaction between helices 11 and 12. This results in TEI-9647 becoming a weak agonist in this organism. ..
  82. Reichrath J, Lehmann B, Carlberg C, Varani J, Zouboulis C. Vitamins as hormones. Horm Metab Res. 2007;39:71-84 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes existing knowledge on vitamins A and D, the major vitamin-hormones of the skin. ..
  83. Malinen M, Ryynänen J, Heinaniemi M, Väisänen S, Carlberg C. Cyclical regulation of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 gene in response to 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:502-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, 1?,25(OH)(2)D(3) regulates IGFBP3 transcription through short-term cyclical association of VDR, HDAC4 and HDAC6 to both VDRE-containing chromatin regions. ..
  84. Thorne J, Maguire O, Doig C, Battaglia S, Fehr L, Sucheston L, et al. Epigenetic control of a VDR-governed feed-forward loop that regulates p21(waf1/cip1) expression and function in non-malignant prostate cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:2045-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Dissection of this feed-forward loop in a non-malignant prostate cell system illuminates mechanisms of sensitivity and therefore possible resistance in prostate and other VDR responsive cancers. ..
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    ..In addition, the models developed are suitable for implementation in specific cases of NR-mediated signaling, to predict individual receptor functions and differential sensitivity toward physiological and pharmacological ligands. ..
  86. Kahlen J, Carlberg C. Functional characterization of a 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor binding site found in the rat atrial natriuretic factor promoter. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;218:882-6 pubmed
    ..48 nM VD. This characterizes the identified sequence as one of the most potent VD response elements. ..
  87. Danielsson C, Mathiasen I, James S, Nayeri S, Bretting C, Hansen C, et al. Sensitive induction of apoptosis in breast cancer cells by a novel 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 analogue shows relation to promoter selectivity. J Cell Biochem. 1997;66:552-62 pubmed
    ..CB1093 also displayed a high potency in vitro in the induction of apoptosis, a process that may be linked to a promoter selectivity for DR3-type VDREs. ..
  88. Pirianov G, Danielsson C, Carlberg C, James S, Colston K. Potentiation by vitamin D analogs of TNFalpha and ceramide-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells is associated with activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2. Cell Death Differ. 1999;6:890-901 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that TNFalpha and vitamin D analogs share a common pathway leading to apoptosis involving cPLA2 activation and/or ceramide generation. ..