Michael C Whitlock

Summary

Affiliation: University of British Columbia
Country: Canada

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Q(ST) in a hierarchically structured population
    Michael C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Blvd, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Mol Ecol Resour 12:481-3. 2012
  2. ncbi request reprint Combining probability from independent tests: the weighted Z-method is superior to Fisher's approach
    M C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    J Evol Biol 18:1368-73. 2005
  3. ncbi request reprint The costs and benefits of resource sharing: reciprocity requires resource heterogeneity
    M C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    J Evol Biol 20:1772-82. 2007
  4. pmc Fixation probability and time in subdivided populations
    Michael C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Genetics 164:767-79. 2003
  5. doi request reprint Evolutionary inference from QST
    Michael C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4
    Mol Ecol 17:1885-96. 2008
  6. ncbi request reprint Persistence of changes in the genetic covariance matrix after a bottleneck
    Michael C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Evolution 56:1968-75. 2002
  7. doi request reprint Purging the genome with sexual selection: reducing mutation load through selection on males
    Michael C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 Canada
    Evolution 63:569-82. 2009
  8. pmc Selection, load and inbreeding depression in a large metapopulation
    Michael C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Genetics 160:1191-202. 2002
  9. pmc Testing for spatially divergent selection: comparing QST to FST
    Michael C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Genetics 183:1055-63. 2009
  10. ncbi request reprint Fixation of new alleles and the extinction of small populations: drift load, beneficial alleles, and sexual selection
    M C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Evolution 54:1855-61. 2000

Detail Information

Publications36

  1. doi request reprint Q(ST) in a hierarchically structured population
    Michael C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Blvd, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Mol Ecol Resour 12:481-3. 2012
    ..Most previous comparisons of F(ST) and Q(ST) are carried out at a single spatial scale. We derive a hierarchical Q(ST) appropriate for study across varying levels of spatial structure...
  2. ncbi request reprint Combining probability from independent tests: the weighted Z-method is superior to Fisher's approach
    M C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    J Evol Biol 18:1368-73. 2005
    ..The results in this note show that, when combining P-values from multiple tests of the same hypothesis, the weighted Z-method should be preferred...
  3. ncbi request reprint The costs and benefits of resource sharing: reciprocity requires resource heterogeneity
    M C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    J Evol Biol 20:1772-82. 2007
    ..These constraints suggest that resource sharing should evolve much more frequently by kin selection than by reciprocity, a prediction that is well supported by observations in the natural world...
  4. pmc Fixation probability and time in subdivided populations
    Michael C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Genetics 164:767-79. 2003
    ..These results are verified by simulation for a broad range of population structures, including the island model, the stepping-stone model, and a model with extinction and recolonization...
  5. doi request reprint Evolutionary inference from QST
    Michael C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4
    Mol Ecol 17:1885-96. 2008
    ..Consequently, the distributions of Q(ST) and F(ST) are well approximated by the Lewontin-Krakauer prediction, even with realistic deviations from the island-model assumptions...
  6. ncbi request reprint Persistence of changes in the genetic covariance matrix after a bottleneck
    Michael C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Evolution 56:1968-75. 2002
    ..This change did not return the populations toward their original state before the population bottlenecks. We conclude that the genetic covariance matrix can change as a result of mild genetic drift over a short span of time...
  7. doi request reprint Purging the genome with sexual selection: reducing mutation load through selection on males
    Michael C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 Canada
    Evolution 63:569-82. 2009
    ..Several lines of enquiry are suggested to better fill large gaps in our understanding of sexual selection and its effect on genetic load...
  8. pmc Selection, load and inbreeding depression in a large metapopulation
    Michael C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Genetics 160:1191-202. 2002
    ..Population structure can play an important role in determining the mean fitness of populations at equilibrium between mutation and selection...
  9. pmc Testing for spatially divergent selection: comparing QST to FST
    Michael C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Genetics 183:1055-63. 2009
    ..The power and type I error rate of the new method are far superior to the traditional method of comparing Q(ST) and F(ST)...
  10. ncbi request reprint Fixation of new alleles and the extinction of small populations: drift load, beneficial alleles, and sexual selection
    M C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Evolution 54:1855-61. 2000
    ..Sexual selection can therefore reduce the risk of extinction of small populations...
  11. ncbi request reprint Factors affecting the genetic load in Drosophila: synergistic epistasis and correlations among fitness components
    M C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Evolution 54:1654-60. 2000
    ....
  12. doi request reprint G'ST and D do not replace FST
    Michael C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Mol Ecol 20:1083-91. 2011
    ..Markers with lower mutation rates will often be easier to interpret...
  13. ncbi request reprint Local drift load and the heterosis of interconnected populations
    M C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4
    Heredity (Edinb) 84:452-7. 2000
    ..Moreover, we show that heterosis in crosses between populations has a different genetic basis than inbreeding depression within populations and is much more likely to result from alleles of intermediate effect...
  14. pmc The changes in genetic and environmental variance with inbreeding in Drosophila melanogaster
    M C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Genetics 152:345-53. 1999
    ..The variance among lines in the residual variance provides some evidence for a genetic basis of developmental stability. Changes in the phenotypic variance of these traits are largely due to changes in the genetic variance...
  15. ncbi request reprint Indirect measures of gene flow and migration: FST not equal to 1/(4Nm + 1)
    M C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Heredity (Edinb) 82:117-25. 1999
    ..While studies of genetic structure per se are often worthwhile, and FST is an excellent measure of the extent of this population structure, it is rare that FST can be translated into an accurate estimate of Nm...
  16. pmc Probability of fixation in a heterogeneous environment
    Michael C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Genetics 171:1407-17. 2005
    ....
  17. doi request reprint The genetic architecture of adaptation under migration-selection balance
    Sam Yeaman
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Evolution 65:1897-911. 2011
    ..The common empirical finding of QTL of large effect is shown to be expected with migration in a heterogeneous landscape, and these QTL may often be composed of several tightly linked alleles of smaller effect...
  18. doi request reprint The impact of epistatic selection on the genomic traces of selection
    Sarah P Otto
    Department of Zoology and Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Mol Ecol 18:4985-7. 2009
    ....
  19. pmc The genetics of adaptation: the roles of pleiotropy, stabilizing selection and drift in shaping the distribution of bidirectional fixed mutational effects
    Cortland K Griswold
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Genetics 165:2181-92. 2003
    ..It is shown that QTL studies are biased against detecting chromosome regions that have deleterious pleiotropic effects on characters...
  20. ncbi request reprint Comment on "Ongoing adaptive evolution of ASPM, a brain size determinant in Homo sapiens" and "Microcephalin, a gene regulating brain size, continues to evolve adaptively in humans"
    Mathias Currat
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Science 313:172; author reply 172. 2006
    ..We show that models of human history that include both population growth and spatial structure can generate the observed patterns without selection...
  21. ncbi request reprint Effects of migration on the genetic covariance matrix
    Frederic Guillaume
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Evolution 61:2398-409. 2007
    ..g., at the interspecific level) is unlikely to substantially affect the evolution of G...
  22. ncbi request reprint A genetic interpretation of ecologically dependent isolation
    H D Rundle
    Department of Zoology and Centre for Biodiversity Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Evolution 55:198-201. 2001
    ..The model highlights the importance of determining the contribution of genetic and ecological mechanisms to hybrid fitness if inferences concerning speciation mechanisms are to be made...
  23. pmc The probability of fixation in populations of changing size
    S P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Genetics 146:723-33. 1997
    ..The fixation flux measures the rate of adaptive evolution of a population and, as we shall see, depends strongly on changes that occur in population size...
  24. pmc Dominance and overdominance of mildly deleterious induced mutations for fitness traits in Caenorhabditis elegans
    A D Peters
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    Genetics 165:589-99. 2003
    ..Further investigation of two of these lines partially confirmed this finding...
  25. doi request reprint No effect of environmental heterogeneity on the maintenance of genetic variation in wing shape in Drosophila melanogaster
    Sam Yeaman
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Blvd, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Evolution 64:3398-408. 2010
    ....
  26. pmc Heterosis increases the effective migration rate
    P K Ingvarsson
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Proc Biol Sci 267:1321-6. 2000
    ..Furthermore the heterosis effect will be highly variable throughout the genome, with the largest effect seen near selected genes and in regions of high gene density...
  27. ncbi request reprint Genetic recombination and adaptation to fluctuating environments: selection for geotaxis in Drosophila melanogaster
    D Bourguet
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4
    Heredity (Edinb) 91:78-84. 2003
    ..However, recombination did not accelerate adaptation during either directional or fluctuating selection for geotaxis...
  28. pmc Compensatory mutations are repeatable and clustered within proteins
    Brad H Davis
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z4
    Proc Biol Sci 276:1823-7. 2009
    ..These results suggest that compensatory evolution at the protein level is partially predictable and may be convergent...
  29. ncbi request reprint Male Drosophila melanogaster have higher mating success when adapted to their thermal environment
    E S Dolgin
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    J Evol Biol 19:1894-900. 2006
    ..These results are consistent with the notion that those mutations favoured by natural selection also tend to be favoured by sexual selection...
  30. pmc The effective size of a subdivided population
    M C Whitlock
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Genetics 146:427-41. 1997
    ..Contrary to the expectation from the standard island model, the usual effect of population subdivision is to decrease the effective size relative to a panmictic population living on the same resource...
  31. doi request reprint Local adaptation does not always predict high mating success
    L Correia
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    J Evol Biol 23:875-8. 2010
    ..Although one pair of lines showed the expected pattern, another pair showed the reverse pattern. More data are needed on this hypothesis, preferably with lines that have more strongly adapted to local environments...
  32. ncbi request reprint Ecology. Inbreeding and metapopulations
    Anthony R Ives
    Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Science 295:454-5. 2002
  33. pmc Environmental stress, inbreeding, and the nature of phenotypic and genetic variance in Drosophila melanogaster
    Kevin Fowler
    The Galton Laboratory, Department of Biology, University College London, 4 Stephenson Way, London NW1 2HE, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 269:677-83. 2002
    ..Drastic changes in the environment can cause changes in phenotypic and genetic variance, but not in a way reliably predicted by the notion of 'stress'...
  34. pmc Estimating effective population size and migration rates from genetic samples over space and time
    Jinliang Wang
    Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, London NW1 4RY, United Kingdom
    Genetics 163:429-46. 2003
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Perspective: Evolution and detection of genetic robustness
    J Arjan G M de Visser
    Department of Genetics, Wageningen University, Arboretumlaan 4, 6703 BD Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Evolution 57:1959-72. 2003
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint The incomplete natural history of mitochondria
    J William O Ballard
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Mol Ecol 13:729-44. 2004
    ..Here we limelight mitochondrial ecology, sexually antagonistic selection, life-history evolution including ageing and disease, and the evolution of mitochondrial inheritance...