Edmond A Ryan

Summary

Affiliation: University of Alberta
Country: Canada

Publications

  1. pmc Diagnosing gestational diabetes
    E A Ryan
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, 362 Clinical Wing, Heritage Medical Research Building, Alberta Diabetes Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
    Diabetologia 54:480-6. 2011
  2. ncbi request reprint Glucose control during labor and delivery
    Edmond A Ryan
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism and Alberta Diabetes Institute, 362 Heritage Medical Research Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2S2, Canada
    Curr Diab Rep 14:450. 2014
  3. ncbi request reprint Successful islet transplantation: continued insulin reserve provides long-term glycemic control
    Edmond A Ryan
    Department of Medicine, Clinical Islet Transplant Program, University of Alberta and Capital Health Authority, 2000 College Plaza, 8215 112th Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2C8
    Diabetes 51:2148-57. 2002
  4. ncbi request reprint Hormones and insulin resistance during pregnancy
    Edmond A Ryan
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Heritage Medical Research Centre, University of Alberta, T6G 2S2, Edmonton, Canada
    Lancet 362:1777-8. 2003
  5. ncbi request reprint Five-year follow-up after clinical islet transplantation
    Edmond A Ryan
    Department of Medicine, Clinical Islet Transplant Program, 2000 College Plaza, 8215 112th St, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2C8
    Diabetes 54:2060-9. 2005
  6. ncbi request reprint Beta-score: an assessment of beta-cell function after islet transplantation
    Edmond A Ryan
    Heritage Medical Research Centre, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2S2
    Diabetes Care 28:343-7. 2005
  7. ncbi request reprint A patient with severe, recurrent hypoglycemia and glycemic lability who underwent islet transplantation
    Edmond A Ryan
    Clinical Islet Transplant Program, AB Canada
    Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 2:349-53; quiz 354. 2006
  8. ncbi request reprint Short-term intensive insulin therapy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes
    Edmond A Ryan
    Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Diabetes Care 27:1028-32. 2004
  9. ncbi request reprint Risks and side effects of islet transplantation
    Edmond A Ryan
    Clinical Islet Transplant Program, 2000 College Plaza, 8215 112th Street, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2C8, Canada
    Curr Diab Rep 4:304-9. 2004
  10. ncbi request reprint Use of continuous glucose monitoring system in the management of severe hypoglycemia
    Edmond A Ryan
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Alberta Diabetes Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Diabetes Technol Ther 11:635-9. 2009

Detail Information

Publications57

  1. pmc Diagnosing gestational diabetes
    E A Ryan
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, 362 Clinical Wing, Heritage Medical Research Building, Alberta Diabetes Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
    Diabetologia 54:480-6. 2011
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint Glucose control during labor and delivery
    Edmond A Ryan
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism and Alberta Diabetes Institute, 362 Heritage Medical Research Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2S2, Canada
    Curr Diab Rep 14:450. 2014
    ..0-6.0 mmol/L can be used safely and results in a low rate of neonatal hypoglycemia using an iterative glucose insulin infusion protocol for women with pregestational diabetes and when needed for women with gestational diabetes...
  3. ncbi request reprint Successful islet transplantation: continued insulin reserve provides long-term glycemic control
    Edmond A Ryan
    Department of Medicine, Clinical Islet Transplant Program, University of Alberta and Capital Health Authority, 2000 College Plaza, 8215 112th Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2C8
    Diabetes 51:2148-57. 2002
    ..Islet transplantation is a reasonable option in those with severe problems with glycemic lability or hypoglycemia...
  4. ncbi request reprint Hormones and insulin resistance during pregnancy
    Edmond A Ryan
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Heritage Medical Research Centre, University of Alberta, T6G 2S2, Edmonton, Canada
    Lancet 362:1777-8. 2003
  5. ncbi request reprint Five-year follow-up after clinical islet transplantation
    Edmond A Ryan
    Department of Medicine, Clinical Islet Transplant Program, 2000 College Plaza, 8215 112th St, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2C8
    Diabetes 54:2060-9. 2005
    ..The results, though promising, still point to the need for further progress in the availability of transplantable islets, improving islet engraftment, preserving islet function, and reducing toxic immunosuppression...
  6. ncbi request reprint Beta-score: an assessment of beta-cell function after islet transplantation
    Edmond A Ryan
    Heritage Medical Research Centre, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2S2
    Diabetes Care 28:343-7. 2005
    ..For the current study, a composite beta-score was developed that provides an integrated measure of beta-cell function success after islet transplantation...
  7. ncbi request reprint A patient with severe, recurrent hypoglycemia and glycemic lability who underwent islet transplantation
    Edmond A Ryan
    Clinical Islet Transplant Program, AB Canada
    Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 2:349-53; quiz 354. 2006
    ..On presentation, her HYPO score was 584 and her lability index was 868 mmol/l(2)/h per week...
  8. ncbi request reprint Short-term intensive insulin therapy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes
    Edmond A Ryan
    Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Diabetes Care 27:1028-32. 2004
    ..0 mmol/l) who would have a long-term benefit, in terms of glycemic control, from a brief course of insulin therapy...
  9. ncbi request reprint Risks and side effects of islet transplantation
    Edmond A Ryan
    Clinical Islet Transplant Program, 2000 College Plaza, 8215 112th Street, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2C8, Canada
    Curr Diab Rep 4:304-9. 2004
    ..For most, improvement in glucose control with resolution of glycemic lability and hypoglycemia has been a net benefit...
  10. ncbi request reprint Use of continuous glucose monitoring system in the management of severe hypoglycemia
    Edmond A Ryan
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Alberta Diabetes Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Diabetes Technol Ther 11:635-9. 2009
    ..We used a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in patients with severe hypoglycemia to assess if we could decrease hypoglycemia as measured by the modified HYPO-Score...
  11. ncbi request reprint Current indications for pancreas or islet transplant
    Edmond A Ryan
    Department of Medicine, Clinical Islet Transplant Program, University of Alberta and Capital Health, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Diabetes Obes Metab 8:1-7. 2006
    ..In the setting of well-controlled diabetes and intact renal function, it is difficult to justify pancreas or islet transplant alone given the risks of immunosuppression...
  12. ncbi request reprint Accuracy of glucose meter use in gestational diabetes
    E A Ryan
    Diabetes Outpatient Clinic, Royal Alexandra Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Diabetes Technol Ther 3:91-7. 2001
    ..Given the need for precision in the setting of pregnancy particularly in making the decision of whether to start or withhold insulin therapy, caregivers need to be cognizant of these inaccuracies...
  13. ncbi request reprint Use of alternative medicines in diabetes mellitus
    E A Ryan
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Muttart Diabetes Research, and Training Centre and Perinatal Research Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Diabet Med 18:242-5. 2001
    ..This study surveyed diabetic and control subjects about their use of all prescribed medication, over-the-counter supplements, and alternative medications...
  14. ncbi request reprint Clinical outcomes and insulin secretion after islet transplantation with the Edmonton protocol
    E A Ryan
    Department of Medicine, Surgical Medical Research Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    Diabetes 50:710-9. 2001
    ..An elevation of creatinine appears to be a contraindication to this immunosuppressive regimen. For the subjects who had labile type 1 diabetes that was difficult to control, the risk-to-benefit ratio is in favor of islet transplantation...
  15. ncbi request reprint Assessment of the severity of hypoglycemia and glycemic lability in type 1 diabetic subjects undergoing islet transplantation
    Edmond A Ryan
    Department of Medicine, Clinical Islet Transplant Program, University of Alberta and Capital Health Authority, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Diabetes 53:955-62. 2004
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint Islet isolation and transplantation outcomes of pancreas preserved with University of Wisconsin solution versus two-layer method using preoxygenated perfluorocarbon
    Tatsuya Kin
    Clinical Islet Transplant Program, University of Alberta and Capital Health, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Transplantation 82:1286-90. 2006
    ..However, the effect of TLM has not been evaluated in large-scale study. In addition, a direct benefit of TLM on islet transplantation outcome has not been addressed in the setting of any randomized controlled trials...
  17. ncbi request reprint Long-term graft function after allogeneic islet transplantation
    Jonathan R T Lakey
    Clinical Islet Transplant Program, University of Alberta and Capital Health Authority, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Cell Transplant 16:441-6. 2007
    ..In contrast, sustained insulin secretion with nearly normal HbA1c at 13 years follow-up was observed in another patient, providing hope for improving long-term graft outcomes for islet transplant recipient...
  18. ncbi request reprint Strategic opportunities in clinical islet transplantation
    A M James Shapiro
    Clinical Islet Transplant Program, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    Transplantation 79:1304-7. 2005
    ..Future opportunities to expand the donor pool using living donor islet transplantation are within reach, and will be enhanced considerably with both donor and recipient adjunctive treatment using islet-specific growth-factors...
  19. ncbi request reprint Assessment of glycemic control after islet transplantation using the continuous glucose monitor in insulin-independent versus insulin-requiring type 1 diabetes subjects
    Breay W Paty
    Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Diabetes Technol Ther 8:165-73. 2006
    ....
  20. doi request reprint High prevalence of ovarian cysts in premenopausal women receiving sirolimus and tacrolimus after clinical islet transplantation
    Eman Alfadhli
    Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
    Transpl Int 22:622-5. 2009
    ..The risk of ovarian cysts should be discussed with female islet transplant candidates and pelvic ultrasounds performed routinely post-transplant...
  21. ncbi request reprint Islet graft assessment in the Edmonton Protocol: implications for predicting long-term clinical outcome
    Cale N Street
    Surgical Medical Research Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    Diabetes 53:3107-14. 2004
    ..In summary, careful assessment of islet graft composition is needed in a clinical transplantation program to accurately estimate islet purity and assess the contribution of other cell types present, such as islet progenitor cells...
  22. ncbi request reprint Cross-sectional and prospective association between proinsulin secretion and graft function after clinical islet transplantation
    Charlotte G McDonald
    Clinical Islet Transplant Program, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Transplantation 78:934-7. 2004
    ..TP and PF levels were reduced in transplant recipients compared with controls but increased over time if insulin independence was lost...
  23. ncbi request reprint Changes in liver enzymes after clinical islet transplantation
    Ehab Rafael
    Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Transplantation 76:1280-4. 2003
    ..The aim of this study was to characterize the pattern of elevation in liver enzymes observed after ITx and to investigate any correlation between these elevations and graft characteristics or graft functional outcome...
  24. ncbi request reprint Proteinuria developing after clinical islet transplantation resolves with sirolimus withdrawal and increased tacrolimus dosing
    Peter A Senior
    Clinical Islet Transplant Program, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Am J Transplant 5:2318-23. 2005
    ..Sirolimus should be used cautiously with close monitoring for proteinuria or renal dysfunction...
  25. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of hepatic steatosis after islet transplantation and its relation to graft function
    Ravi Bhargava
    Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, 2A2 42 Walter C Mackenzie Health Sciences Centre, University of Alberta, 8440 112 Street, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2B7, Canada
    Diabetes 53:1311-7. 2004
    ..001). MRI-detected steatosis is a common finding; the steatosis appears to be due to a paracrine action of insulin secreted from intrahepatic islets. Hepatic steatosis may be associated with insulin resistance or graft dysfunction...
  26. ncbi request reprint Coronary artery disease is common in nonuremic, asymptomatic type 1 diabetic islet transplant candidates
    Peter A Senior
    Clinical Islet Transplant Program, University of Alberta, 8215 112th St, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2C8
    Diabetes Care 28:866-72. 2005
    ..The prevalence of CAD was determined by coronary angiography and the performance of noninvasive cardiac investigation evaluated in type 1 diabetic islet transplant (ITX) candidates with preserved renal function...
  27. ncbi request reprint Sirolimus-induced ulceration of the small bowel in islet transplant recipients: report of two cases
    Michele Molinari
    Department of Surgery, Clinical Islet Transplant Program, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Am J Transplant 5:2799-804. 2005
    ..Our experience highlights an uncommon but potentially serious adverse effect of high-dose SRL in islet recipients...
  28. ncbi request reprint International trial of the Edmonton protocol for islet transplantation
    A M James Shapiro
    Clinical Islet Transplant Program, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
    N Engl J Med 355:1318-30. 2006
    ..We conducted an international, multicenter trial to explore the feasibility and reproducibility of islet transplantation with the use of a single common protocol (the Edmonton protocol)...
  29. ncbi request reprint Percutaneous transhepatic pancreatic islet cell transplantation in type 1 diabetes mellitus: radiologic aspects
    Richard J T Owen
    Departments of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital, 8440 112th Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2B7
    Radiology 229:165-70. 2003
    ..To report our experience with percutaneous transhepatic pancreatic islet cell transplantation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus...
  30. ncbi request reprint Intrahepatic islet transplantation in type 1 diabetic patients does not restore hypoglycemic hormonal counterregulation or symptom recognition after insulin independence
    Breay W Paty
    Clinical Islet Transplant Program, University of Alberta, 2000 College Plaza, 8215 112th Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2C8
    Diabetes 51:3428-34. 2002
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint Human islet transplantation from pancreases with prolonged cold ischemia using additional preservation by the two-layer (UW solution/perfluorochemical) cold-storage method
    Toshiaki Tsujimura
    Surgical Medical Research Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Transplantation 74:1687-91. 2002
    ..In this study, we determined whether the additional preservation by the two-layer method could improve islet recovery from human pancreases with prolonged cold storage in UW...
  32. ncbi request reprint Islet transplantation in seven patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus using a glucocorticoid-free immunosuppressive regimen
    A M Shapiro
    Surgical Medical Research Institute and the Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    N Engl J Med 343:230-8. 2000
    ..Registry data on patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who undergo pancreatic islet transplantation indicate that only 8 percent are free of the need for insulin therapy at one year...
  33. ncbi request reprint Current status of islet cell transplantation
    Jose Oberholzer
    Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Adv Surg 37:253-82. 2003
  34. ncbi request reprint Magnetic resonance-defined perinephric edema after clinical islet transplantation: a benign finding associated with mild renal impairment
    Peter A Senior
    Clinical Islet Transplant Program, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Transplantation 78:945-8. 2004
    ..Although this novel observation does not seem to be of concern, further studies are required to examine the long-term impact of CIT and immunosuppression on renal function...
  35. ncbi request reprint Islet isolation and transplantation from an annular pancreas: a case report
    Tatsuya Kin
    Clinical Islet Transplant Program, University of Alberta and Capital Health Authority, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    JOP 6:274-6. 2005
    ..Annular pancreas is an uncommon congenital anomaly formed by a thin band of normal pancreatic tissue encircling the duodenum...
  36. ncbi request reprint Quality of life after islet transplant: impact of the number of islet infusions and metabolic outcome
    Christian Toso
    Clinical Islet Transplant Program, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Transplantation 84:664-6. 2007
    ..01). Fear of hypoglycemia correlated with the occurrence of hypoglycemia (r=0.47, P=0.01), and even more so with blood glucose stability (r=0.56, P=0.0007) and insulin requirement (r=0.69, P=0.000002)...
  37. ncbi request reprint Resistance exercise decreases the need for insulin in overweight women with gestational diabetes mellitus
    Gabrielle N Brankston
    Perinatal Research Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 190:188-93. 2004
    ..This study examines the effects of circuit-type resistance training on the need for insulin in women with gestational diabetes mellitus...
  38. ncbi request reprint Pretransplant HLA antibodies are associated with reduced graft survival after clinical islet transplantation
    P M Campbell
    Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Capital Health, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Am J Transplant 7:1242-8. 2007
    ....
  39. ncbi request reprint Changes in renal function after clinical islet transplantation: four-year observational study
    P A Senior
    Clinical Islet Transplant Program, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Canada
    Am J Transplant 7:91-8. 2007
    ..The risk of progressive nephrotoxicity with decline in eGFR should be discussed with prospective CIT candidates and the risk: benefit ratio carefully considered in individuals with pre-existing renal impairment...
  40. ncbi request reprint The standardization of pancreatic donors for islet isolations
    Doug O'Gorman
    Clinical Islet Transplant Program, Department of Transplant Services, University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Transplantation 80:801-6. 2005
    ..The aim of this study was to establish an algorithm by which the combination of the donor quality and pancreas quality was given a numerical score from 0 to 100 for use in determining the quality of a pancreas for islet isolation...
  41. ncbi request reprint High risk of sensitization after failed islet transplantation
    P M Campbell
    Department of Medicine, and Histocompatability Laboratory, University of Alberta, Capital Health, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Am J Transplant 7:2311-7. 2007
    ..This may negatively impact the ability of these individuals to undergo further islet, pancreas or kidney transplantation and should be discussed upfront during evaluation of candidates for islet transplantation...
  42. ncbi request reprint Effect of acarbose on insulin sensitivity in elderly patients with diabetes
    G S Meneilly
    Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Diabetes Care 23:1162-7. 2000
    ..To study the effect of acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, on insulin release and insulin sensitivity in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes...
  43. ncbi request reprint Clinical diagnosis of gestational diabetes
    Edmond A Ryan
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Heritage Medical Research Centre, Alberta Diabetes Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Clin Obstet Gynecol 56:774-87. 2013
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Assessment of diet quality in pregnant women using the Healthy Eating Index
    Mary E Pick
    Department of Medicine, Perinatal Research Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    J Am Diet Assoc 105:240-6. 2005
    ..The HEI was useful in providing a composite measure of dietary intake, but did not discern the need for vitamin and mineral supplements during pregnancy...
  45. ncbi request reprint Future trends in clinical islet transplantation
    P W Burridge
    Surgical Medical Research Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Transplant Proc 34:3347-8. 2002
  46. ncbi request reprint Prevention of bleeding after islet transplantation: lessons learned from a multivariate analysis of 132 cases at a single institution
    P Villiger
    Clinical Islet Transplant Program, University of Alberta
    Am J Transplant 5:2992-8. 2005
    ..02). We conclude that bleeding after percutaneous islet implantation is an avoidable complication provided the intraparenchymal liver tract is sealed effectively...
  47. ncbi request reprint Pancreatic islet transplantation in the treatment of diabetes mellitus
    A M Shapiro
    Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 15:241-64. 2001
    ..Recent advances in stem cell biology and xenotransplantation may soon provide this opportunity...
  48. doi request reprint Synthesis of specific fatty acids contributes to VLDL-triacylglycerol composition in humans with and without type 2 diabetes
    M S Wilke
    Alberta Institute for Human Nutrition, University of Alberta, 4 10 Agriculture Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB, Canada
    Diabetologia 52:1628-37. 2009
    ..It was hypothesised that levels of total and de novo synthesised fatty acids would increase with increased carbohydrate intake in diabetic participants...
  49. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of autoimmune diseases in islet transplant candidates with severe hypoglycaemia and glycaemic lability: previously undiagnosed coeliac and autoimmune thyroid disease is identified by screening
    M Walter
    Clinical Islet Transplant Program, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
    Diabet Med 24:161-5. 2007
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint Portal venous pressure changes after sequential clinical islet transplantation
    John J Casey
    Department of Surgical and Clinical Sciences Surgery, Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, Scotland
    Transplantation 74:913-5. 2002
    ..Complications associated with the injection of islets into the portal vein have been reported; therefore, in this study we sought to further characterize changes in portal venous pressure associated with islet infusion...
  51. ncbi request reprint The Canadian Trial of Carbohydrates in Diabetes (CCD), a 1-y controlled trial of low-glycemic-index dietary carbohydrate in type 2 diabetes: no effect on glycated hemoglobin but reduction in C-reactive protein
    Thomas M S Wolever
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, and the Department of Medicine, St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:114-25. 2008
    ..The optimal source and amount of dietary carbohydrate for managing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are unknown...
  52. ncbi request reprint Tumor necrosis factor alpha -238G>A genotype alters postprandial plasma levels of free fatty acids in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Bénédicte Fontaine-Bisson
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Metabolism 56:649-55. 2007
    ..19 +/- 1.24 vs 1.97 +/- 0.90, P = .6). Our findings suggest that the -238G>A and -308G>A polymorphisms of TNF-alpha alter circulating free fatty acids and insulin resistance in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
  53. ncbi request reprint Diabetes care: interventions in the community
    M Tami Shandro
    Diabetes Care 25:941; author reply 941-2. 2002
  54. ncbi request reprint Reduced fear of hypoglycemia in successful islet transplantation
    Jeffrey A Johnson
    Diabetes Care 27:624-5. 2004
  55. ncbi request reprint Genetic polymorphisms of tumor necrosis factor-alpha modify the association between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and fasting HDL-cholesterol and apo A-I concentrations
    Bénédicte Fontaine-Bisson
    Department of Nutritional Sciences and Nutrition, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 86:768-74. 2007
    ..Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine that can induce hyperlipidemia and is known to be modulated by dietary PUFAs...