S P Otto

Summary

Affiliation: University of British Columbia
Country: Canada

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Mutation and selection within the individual
    S P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Genetica 102:507-24. 1998
  2. ncbi request reprint Detecting the form of selection from DNA sequence data
    S P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z4
    Trends Genet 16:526-9. 2000
  3. ncbi request reprint Resolving the paradox of sex and recombination
    Sarah P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Nat Rev Genet 3:252-61. 2002
  4. ncbi request reprint Sexual selection can resolve sex-linked sexual antagonism
    Arianne Y K Albert
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Science 310:119-21. 2005
  5. ncbi request reprint Why have sex? The population genetics of sex and recombination
    S P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Blvd, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T1Z4
    Biochem Soc Trans 34:519-22. 2006
  6. ncbi request reprint Deleterious mutations, variable epistatic interactions, and the evolution of recombination
    S P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Theor Popul Biol 51:134-47. 1997
  7. doi request reprint The impact of epistatic selection on the genomic traces of selection
    Sarah P Otto
    Department of Zoology and Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Mol Ecol 18:4985-7. 2009
  8. pmc The advantages of segregation and the evolution of sex
    Sarah P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Genetics 164:1099-118. 2003
  9. ncbi request reprint Species interactions and the evolution of sex
    Sarah P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Science 304:1018-20. 2004
  10. pmc Two steps forward, one step back: the pleiotropic effects of favoured alleles
    Sarah P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Proc Biol Sci 271:705-14. 2004

Detail Information

Publications68

  1. ncbi request reprint Mutation and selection within the individual
    S P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Genetica 102:507-24. 1998
    ..When selection at the cell and individual levels act in a cooperative manner, increased rather than decreased opportunity for germline selection will be favored by evolution...
  2. ncbi request reprint Detecting the form of selection from DNA sequence data
    S P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z4
    Trends Genet 16:526-9. 2000
    ..Theoretical advances improve our ability to distinguish signals left by different evolutionary processes. In particular, a new test might better detect the footprint of selection having favored the spread of a beneficial allele...
  3. ncbi request reprint Resolving the paradox of sex and recombination
    Sarah P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Nat Rev Genet 3:252-61. 2002
    ..New studies indicate that this discrepancy might result from the fact that previous models have ignored important complexities that face natural populations, such as genetic drift and the spatial structure of populations...
  4. ncbi request reprint Sexual selection can resolve sex-linked sexual antagonism
    Arianne Y K Albert
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Science 310:119-21. 2005
    ..In contrast, with a Z-linked trait (males ZZ, females ZW), females more often evolve mating preferences for mates carrying alleles beneficial to sons (that is, flashy displays)...
  5. ncbi request reprint Why have sex? The population genetics of sex and recombination
    S P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Blvd, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T1Z4
    Biochem Soc Trans 34:519-22. 2006
    ..Here, we review various hypotheses for why sex and recombination are so prevalent and discuss theoretical results indicating which of these hypotheses is most promising...
  6. ncbi request reprint Deleterious mutations, variable epistatic interactions, and the evolution of recombination
    S P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Theor Popul Biol 51:134-47. 1997
    ..We conclude that, even with negative epistasis, increased recombination may only be favored when linkage is tight, especially if, as seems likely, epistatic interactions are highly variable among loci...
  7. doi request reprint The impact of epistatic selection on the genomic traces of selection
    Sarah P Otto
    Department of Zoology and Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Mol Ecol 18:4985-7. 2009
    ....
  8. pmc The advantages of segregation and the evolution of sex
    Sarah P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Genetics 164:1099-118. 2003
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint Species interactions and the evolution of sex
    Sarah P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Science 304:1018-20. 2004
    ..Our results show that species interactions typically select against sex. We conclude that, although the Red Queen favors sex under certain circumstances, it alone does not account for the ubiquity of sex...
  10. pmc Two steps forward, one step back: the pleiotropic effects of favoured alleles
    Sarah P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Proc Biol Sci 271:705-14. 2004
    ..These results help to shape our understanding of the evolutionary inertia caused by pleiotropy...
  11. doi request reprint The evolutionary enigma of sex
    Sarah P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Am Nat 174:S1-S14. 2009
    ..These recent efforts have clarified the conditions that are most likely to explain why sex is so common, as exemplified by the articles in this symposium issue of the American Naturalist...
  12. pmc Evolution of recombination due to random drift
    N H Barton
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Genetics 169:2353-70. 2005
    ..Selection for a modifier that increases recombination is highest when linkage among loci is tight, when beneficial alleles rise from low to high frequency, and when the population size is small...
  13. pmc Frequency-dependent selection and the evolution of assortative mating
    Sarah P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Genetics 179:2091-112. 2008
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint The evolutionary consequences of polyploidy
    Sarah P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Cell 131:452-62. 2007
    ..This Review examines the short-term effects of polyploidization on cell size, body size, genomic stability, and gene expression and the long-term effects on rates of evolution...
  15. ncbi request reprint The evolution of gene duplicates
    Sarah P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Adv Genet 46:451-83. 2002
    ..Consideration of each of the short-term and long-term processes affecting duplicated genes illustrates the subtle ways in which selection has acted to shape genomic structure...
  16. ncbi request reprint Selection for recombination in small populations
    S P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Evolution 55:1921-31. 2001
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Polyploid incidence and evolution
    S P Otto
    Department of Zoology and Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4 Canada
    Annu Rev Genet 34:401-437. 2000
    ....
  18. pmc Detecting the undetected: estimating the total number of loci underlying a quantitative trait
    S P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Genetics 156:2093-107. 2000
    ..We therefore suggest that the QTL-based estimator be used to assess how many loci may have been missed in QTL studies...
  19. pmc The evolution of recombination: removing the limits to natural selection
    S P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Genetics 147:879-906. 1997
    ..We conclude that selection for recombination will be substantial only if there is tight linkage within the genome or if many loci are subject to directional selection as during periods of rapid evolutionary change...
  20. pmc The probability of fixation in populations of changing size
    S P Otto
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Genetics 146:723-33. 1997
    ..The fixation flux measures the rate of adaptive evolution of a population and, as we shall see, depends strongly on changes that occur in population size...
  21. ncbi request reprint Compensating for our load of mutations: freezing the meltdown of small populations
    A Poon
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Evolution 54:1467-79. 2000
    ....
  22. pmc Selection for recombination in structured populations
    Guillaume Martin
    Zoology Department, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, V6T 1Z4 British Columbia, Canada
    Genetics 172:593-609. 2006
    ..Overall, our results show that the stochastic theories of the evolution of sex apply to a much broader range of conditions than previously expected...
  23. pmc The evolution of recombination in a heterogeneous environment
    T Lenormand
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Genetics 156:423-38. 2000
    ..In each case, predicting whether recombination is favored requires knowledge of both the type of environmental heterogeneity and epistasis, as none of these factors alone is sufficient to predict the outcome...
  24. ncbi request reprint Interference among deleterious mutations favours sex and recombination in finite populations
    Peter D Keightley
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Nature 443:89-92. 2006
    ..The mechanism supported by our results offers a robust and broadly applicable explanation for the evolutionary advantage of recombination and can explain the spread of costly sex...
  25. pmc The role of pleiotropy in the maintenance of sex in yeast
    Jessica A Hill
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Genetics 175:1419-27. 2007
    ..These results demonstrate that, at least under certain circumstances, selection acting on asexual fitness can help to maintain sexual function...
  26. ncbi request reprint The evolution of genomic base composition in bacteria
    Eric Haywood-Farmer
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Evolution 57:1783-92. 2003
    ..Our results have implications for models of sequence evolution, including those used for phylogenetic reconstruction and for inferring unusual changes in GC content...
  27. pmc Segregation and the evolution of sex under overdominant selection
    Elie S Dolgin
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Genetics 164:1119-28. 2003
    ..The conditions promoting increased levels of sex depend on the selection pressure against the homozygotes, the extent of sex and inbreeding in the population, and the dominance of the invading modifier allele...
  28. doi request reprint Mutating away from your enemies: the evolution of mutation rate in a host-parasite system
    L K M'Gonigle
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, B C, Canada
    Theor Popul Biol 75:301-11. 2009
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint The consequences of dioecy for seed dispersal: modeling the seed-shadow handicap
    J C Heilbuth
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Evolution 55:880-8. 2001
    ..These results suggest that the maintenance of dioecy in the presence of hermaphroditic competitors requires a substantial increase in relative fitness and/or a large dispersal advantage of dioecious seeds...
  30. pmc The distribution of beneficial mutant effects under strong selection
    Rowan D H Barrett
    Zoology Department, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Genetics 174:2071-9. 2006
    ....
  31. pmc Mitotic recombination counteracts the benefits of genetic segregation
    Mohammad A Mandegar
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z4
    Proc Biol Sci 274:1301-7. 2007
    ..We conclude that asexual populations can gain most of the benefit of segregation through MR while avoiding the costs associated with sexual reproduction...
  32. ncbi request reprint Probabilistic models of chromosome number evolution and the inference of polyploidy
    Itay Mayrose
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Syst Biol 59:132-44. 2010
    ....
  33. pmc The role of advantageous mutations in enhancing the evolution of a recombination modifier
    Matthew Hartfield
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Genetics 184:1153-64. 2010
    ..However, the strength of selection on a modifier is less than the summed strengths had there been deleterious mutations only and advantageous mutations only...
  34. doi request reprint Evolution by fisherian sexual selection in diploids
    Philip B Greenspoon
    University of British Columbia, Department of Zoology, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V6T 1Z4
    Evolution 63:1076-83. 2009
    ..We show that this is the case when the combined forces of natural and sexual selection induce underdominance at the trait locus...
  35. doi request reprint Variation in the strength of male mate choice allows long-term coexistence of sperm-dependent asexuals and their sexual hosts
    Jonathan A Mee
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Evolution 64:2808-19. 2010
    ..Our model shows that stable coexistence of gynogens and their sexual hosts can occur when there is variation among males in the degree of preference for mating with sexual females and when pickier males pay a higher cost of preference...
  36. doi request reprint Ploidy and the causes of genomic evolution
    Aleeza C Gerstein
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada
    J Hered 100:571-81. 2009
    ..We review these experimental evolution studies and present new data on differences in maximal growth rate for cells of different ploidy levels...
  37. ncbi request reprint Comment on "Ongoing adaptive evolution of ASPM, a brain size determinant in Homo sapiens" and "Microcephalin, a gene regulating brain size, continues to evolve adaptively in humans"
    Mathias Currat
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Science 313:172; author reply 172. 2006
    ..We show that models of human history that include both population growth and spatial structure can generate the observed patterns without selection...
  38. doi request reprint Estimating trait-dependent speciation and extinction rates from incompletely resolved phylogenies
    Richard G FitzJohn
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4 Canada
    Syst Biol 58:595-611. 2009
    ..Our methods allow for the direct estimation of the effect of a trait on speciation and extinction rates using incompletely resolved phylogenies...
  39. ncbi request reprint The role of local species abundance in the evolution of pollinator attraction in flowering plants
    Risa D Sargent
    Department of Zoology, 6270 University Boulevard, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Am Nat 167:67-80. 2006
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Liberating genetic variance through sex
    Andrew D Peters
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 Canada
    Bioessays 25:533-7. 2003
    ..Interpreted in light of evolutionary theory, these studies rule out positive in these experiments epistasis as a major source of genetic associations. Further studies are needed, however, to tease apart other possible sources...
  41. pmc When looks can kill: the evolution of sexually dimorphic floral display and the extinction of dioecious plants
    Jana C Vamosi
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Z4
    Proc Biol Sci 269:1187-94. 2002
    ..It may also help explain why dioecious plants are less species-rich than related bisexual plants...
  42. doi request reprint A likelihood method for detecting trait-dependent shifts in the rate of molecular evolution
    Itay Mayrose
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Mol Biol Evol 28:759-70. 2011
    ....
  43. ncbi request reprint Masking and purging mutations following EMS treatment in haploid, diploid and tetraploid yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    B K Mable
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Genet Res 77:9-26. 2001
    ..Furthermore, ploidy level is itself a mutable trait in the presence of EMS, with both haploids and tetraploids often evolving towards diploidy (the ancestral state of S. cerevisiae) during the course of the experiment...
  44. doi request reprint Haploids adapt faster than diploids across a range of environments
    A C Gerstein
    Biodiversity Research Centre and Department of Zoology, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    J Evol Biol 24:531-40. 2011
    ..These results are consistent with theory that predicts haploids should evolve faster than diploids at large population sizes...
  45. ncbi request reprint A model of the evolution of dichogamy incorporating sex-ratio selection, anther-stigma interference, and inbreeding depression
    Risa D Sargent
    Department of Zoology, 6270 University Boulevard, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Evolution 60:934-44. 2006
    ..This result may help to explain otherwise puzzling phenomena such as why dichogamy is rarely complete in nature and why dichogamy tends to be associated with asynchronous flower presentation...
  46. pmc The evolution of plastic recombination
    Aneil F Agrawal
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Genetics 171:803-12. 2005
    ..In contrast, the evolution of plastic recombination in diploids is much more restricted. Selection on plasticity requires the ability to detect DNA damage or cis-trans effects as may occur through maternal effects on fitness...
  47. doi request reprint The red queen coupled with directional selection favours the evolution of sex
    E E Hodgson
    Department of Zoology and Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    J Evol Biol 25:797-802. 2012
    ....
  48. doi request reprint Can clone size serve as a proxy for clone age? An exploration using microsatellite divergence in Populus tremuloides
    D Ally
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Mol Ecol 17:4897-911. 2008
    ..In P. tremuloides, the per-locus per-year neutral somatic mutation rate across 14 microsatellite loci was estimated to lie between 6 x 10(-7) (lower bound) and 4 x 10(-5) (upper bound)...
  49. pmc Evidence that plant-like genes in Chlamydia species reflect an ancestral relationship between Chlamydiaceae, cyanobacteria, and the chloroplast
    Fiona S L Brinkman
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada, V5A 1S6
    Genome Res 12:1159-67. 2002
    ....
  50. pmc Genomic convergence toward diploidy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Aleeza C Gerstein
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    PLoS Genet 2:e145. 2006
    ..As the vegetative life cycle of S. cerevisiae is predominantly diploid, this experiment provides evidence that genome size evolution is constrained, with selection favouring the genomic content typical of the yeast's evolutionary past...
  51. ncbi request reprint Use of Ecotilling as an efficient SNP discovery tool to survey genetic variation in wild populations of Populus trichocarpa
    Erin J Gilchrist
    Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4
    Mol Ecol 15:1367-78. 2006
    ..34. This study reveals the potential of Ecotilling as a rapid genotype discovery method to explore and utilize the large pool of genetic variation in tree species...
  52. ncbi request reprint Estimating a binary character's effect on speciation and extinction
    Wayne P Maddison
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Syst Biol 56:701-10. 2007
    ..g., is the rate of speciation elevated for one character state over the other?). We demonstrate the application of the method using simulated data with known parameter values...
  53. ncbi request reprint Loss-of-heterozygosity facilitates passage through Haldane's sieve for Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoing adaptation
    A C Gerstein
    1 Biodiversity Research Centre, Department of Zoology, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z4 2
    Nat Commun 5:3819. 2014
    ..Our experiments demonstrate that recessive beneficial mutations can avoid Haldane's sieve in clonal organisms through rapid LOH and thus contribute to rapid evolutionary adaptation. ..
  54. pmc Ploidy reduction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Aleeza C Gerstein
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Biol Lett 4:91-4. 2008
    ..These results suggest the existence of a mitotic mechanism allowing the elimination of an entire set of chromosomes in S. cerevisiae, thereby reducing the ploidy level...
  55. doi request reprint The evolution of sex ratio adjustment in the presence of sexually antagonistic selection
    Gwylim S Blackburn
    Department of Zoology and Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Am Nat 176:264-75. 2010
    ..Our models indicate that the evolution of SRA in nature should be strongly influenced by the genetic architecture of the traits on which it is based and the form of selection affecting them...
  56. doi request reprint Recombination and hitchhiking of deleterious alleles
    Matthew Hartfield
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Evolution 65:2421-34. 2011
    ..We consider these results in light of human genetic data to infer how likely it is that such deleterious hitchhikers have occurred in our recent evolutionary past...
  57. pmc Contrasting patterns of transposable-element insertion polymorphism and nucleotide diversity in autotetraploid and allotetraploid Arabidopsis species
    Khaled M Hazzouri
    Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada
    Genetics 179:581-92. 2008
    ..arenosa than in related diploid taxa but a near complete population bottleneck associated with the origins of A. suecica...
  58. doi request reprint When do host-parasite interactions drive the evolution of non-random mating?
    Scott L Nuismer
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA
    Ecol Lett 11:937-46. 2008
    ..In some cases, particularly those where mating occurs within groups, we find that assortative mating evolves sufficiently to catalyze sympatric speciation in the interacting species...
  59. ncbi request reprint Host-parasite coevolution and selection on sex through the effects of segregation
    Aneil F Agrawal
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Harbord Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G5, Canada
    Am Nat 168:617-29. 2006
    ..In cases where segregation and recombination act in opposite directions, we found that the effects of segregation dominate as an evolutionary force acting on sex in diploids...
  60. pmc Effect of varying epistasis on the evolution of recombination
    Roger D Kouyos
    Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
    Genetics 173:589-97. 2006
    ..Thus to draw conclusions on the evolution of recombination from experimental data, it is necessary to consider the distribution of epistatic interactions together with the associated selection coefficients...
  61. pmc Host-parasite interactions and the evolution of gene expression
    Scott L Nuismer
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, USA
    PLoS Biol 3:e203. 2005
    ..Our model provides testable predictions that can help interpret accumulating data on expression levels for genes relevant to host-parasite interactions...
  62. pmc The evolution of condition-dependent sex in the face of high costs
    Lilach Hadany
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Genetics 176:1713-27. 2007
    ..This "abandon-ship" mechanism provides a plausible model for the evolution and maintenance of facultative sex...
  63. ncbi request reprint Genomes and evolution Population genetics and molecular evolution of whole genomes
    Andrew G Clark
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 12:631-3. 2002
  64. pmc The evolution of sex and recombination in response to abiotic or coevolutionary fluctuations in epistasis
    Sylvain Gandon
    Génétique et Evolution des Maladies Infectieuses, UMR CNRS IRD 2724, IRD, 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Genetics 175:1835-53. 2007
    ..We find that intermediate parasite migration rates maximize the degree of local adaptation of the parasite and lead to a higher ES recombination rate in the host...
  65. pmc Host-parasite interactions and the evolution of ploidy
    Scott L Nuismer
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, 83844, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:11036-9. 2004
    ..These results are consistent with the predominance of haploidy among parasitic protists...
  66. ncbi request reprint The first steps in adaptive evolution
    James J Bull
    Nat Genet 37:342-3. 2005
  67. ncbi request reprint A short history of recombination in yeast
    Clifford W Zeyl
    Department of Biology, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC 27109, USA
    Trends Ecol Evol 22:223-5. 2007
    ....
  68. ncbi request reprint Women editors: we need more female scientists
    Sarah P Otto
    Nature 441:812. 2006