N W Milgram

Summary

Affiliation: University of Toronto
Country: Canada

Publications

  1. ncbi Dietary enrichment counteracts age-associated cognitive dysfunction in canines
    N W Milgram
    Life Science Division, University of Toronto at Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Scarborough, Ont, Canada M1C 1A4
    Neurobiol Aging 23:737-45. 2002
  2. ncbi Cognitive experience and its effect on age-dependent cognitive decline in beagle dogs
    Norton W Milgram
    Department of Life Sciences, University of Toronto at Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail Road, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Neurochem Res 28:1677-82. 2003
  3. ncbi Neuroprotective effects of cognitive enrichment
    Norton W Milgram
    Department of Life Sciences, University of Toronto at Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Ageing Res Rev 5:354-69. 2006
  4. ncbi Learning ability in aged beagle dogs is preserved by behavioral enrichment and dietary fortification: a two-year longitudinal study
    N W Milgram
    University of Toronto, Division of Life Sciences, Scarborough, Ont, Canada M1C 1A4
    Neurobiol Aging 26:77-90. 2005
  5. ncbi Landmark discrimination learning in the dog: effects of age, an antioxidant fortified food, and cognitive strategy
    Norton W Milgram
    Life Science Division, University of Toronto at Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Scarborough, Ont, Canada M1C 1A4
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 26:679-95. 2002
  6. ncbi Acetyl-L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid supplementation of aged beagle dogs improves learning in two landmark discrimination tests
    N W Milgram
    University of Toronto, Division of Life Sciences, Scarborough, Ontario, Canada
    FASEB J 21:3756-62. 2007
  7. ncbi Long-term treatment with antioxidants and a program of behavioral enrichment reduces age-dependent impairment in discrimination and reversal learning in beagle dogs
    Norton W Milgram
    Division of Life Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Scarborough, Ont, Canada M1C 1A4
    Exp Gerontol 39:753-65. 2004
  8. ncbi Enhanced spatial ability in aged dogs following dietary and behavioural enrichment
    P M D Nippak
    Institute of Medical Science, Division of Life Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 87:610-23. 2007
  9. ncbi Effect of feeding patterns on performance of a visuospatial memory task in the beagle dog: a novel cognitive-based protocol for assessing satiety
    Joan W C Chan
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 29:481-8. 2005
  10. ncbi Prior experience, antioxidants, and mitochondrial cofactors improve cognitive function in aged beagles
    Candace J Ikeda-Douglas
    Department of Life Sciences, University of Toronto at Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4, Canada
    Vet Ther 5:5-16. 2004

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications47

  1. ncbi Dietary enrichment counteracts age-associated cognitive dysfunction in canines
    N W Milgram
    Life Science Division, University of Toronto at Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Scarborough, Ont, Canada M1C 1A4
    Neurobiol Aging 23:737-45. 2002
    ..These results indicate that maintenance on foods fortified with complex mixtures of antioxidants can partially counteract the deleterious effects of aging on cognition...
  2. ncbi Cognitive experience and its effect on age-dependent cognitive decline in beagle dogs
    Norton W Milgram
    Department of Life Sciences, University of Toronto at Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail Road, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Neurochem Res 28:1677-82. 2003
    ..These findings demonstrate that cognitive abilities in aged animals can be modified by providing behavioral experience, indicating that cognitive abilities remain moderately plastic, even in very old animals...
  3. ncbi Neuroprotective effects of cognitive enrichment
    Norton W Milgram
    Department of Life Sciences, University of Toronto at Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Ageing Res Rev 5:354-69. 2006
    ..These results suggest that a combination of behavioral and nutritional or pharmacological interventions may be optimal for reducing the rate of age-dependent cognitive decline...
  4. ncbi Learning ability in aged beagle dogs is preserved by behavioral enrichment and dietary fortification: a two-year longitudinal study
    N W Milgram
    University of Toronto, Division of Life Sciences, Scarborough, Ont, Canada M1C 1A4
    Neurobiol Aging 26:77-90. 2005
    ....
  5. ncbi Landmark discrimination learning in the dog: effects of age, an antioxidant fortified food, and cognitive strategy
    Norton W Milgram
    Life Science Division, University of Toronto at Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Scarborough, Ont, Canada M1C 1A4
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 26:679-95. 2002
    ....
  6. ncbi Acetyl-L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid supplementation of aged beagle dogs improves learning in two landmark discrimination tests
    N W Milgram
    University of Toronto, Division of Life Sciences, Scarborough, Ontario, Canada
    FASEB J 21:3756-62. 2007
    ..We suggest that long-term maintenance on LA and ALC may be effective in attenuating age-associated cognitive decline by slowing the rate of mitochondrial decay and cellular aging...
  7. ncbi Long-term treatment with antioxidants and a program of behavioral enrichment reduces age-dependent impairment in discrimination and reversal learning in beagle dogs
    Norton W Milgram
    Division of Life Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Scarborough, Ont, Canada M1C 1A4
    Exp Gerontol 39:753-65. 2004
    ..These results suggest that the effectiveness of antioxidants in attenuating age-dependent cognitive decline is dependent on behavioral and environmental experience...
  8. ncbi Enhanced spatial ability in aged dogs following dietary and behavioural enrichment
    P M D Nippak
    Institute of Medical Science, Division of Life Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 87:610-23. 2007
    ..These findings indicate that long-term dietary intervention and enrichment can buffer age-associated cognitive decline...
  9. ncbi Effect of feeding patterns on performance of a visuospatial memory task in the beagle dog: a novel cognitive-based protocol for assessing satiety
    Joan W C Chan
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 29:481-8. 2005
    ....
  10. ncbi Prior experience, antioxidants, and mitochondrial cofactors improve cognitive function in aged beagles
    Candace J Ikeda-Douglas
    Department of Life Sciences, University of Toronto at Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4, Canada
    Vet Ther 5:5-16. 2004
    ..Factors other than vitamin E also contributed to the response but remain undefined...
  11. ncbi A novel method for assessing contrast sensitivity in the beagle dog is sensitive to age and an antioxidant enriched food
    Christina de Rivera
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 29:379-87. 2005
    ..The initial results suggest that contrast sensitivity deteriorates with age in the canine while form perception is largely unaffected by age...
  12. ncbi Seizure activity results in increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in the hippocampus
    R C Moussa
    Centre for the Neurobiology of Stress, Division of Life Sciences, University of Toronto at Scarborough, Canada
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 95:36-47. 2001
    ....
  13. ncbi Open field activity and human interaction as a function of age and breed in dogs
    E Head
    University of Toronto, Scarborough College, Division of Life Sciences, Ontario, Canada
    Physiol Behav 62:963-71. 1997
    ..These findings indicate that OF activity is age-sensitive in dogs, but that breed and test conditions are also essential factors...
  14. ncbi Chronic antioxidant and mitochondrial cofactor administration improves discrimination learning in aged but not young dogs
    Christina T Siwak
    Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Scarborough, Canada
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 29:461-9. 2005
    ..Antioxidants improved the performance of aged dogs on the initial learning tests, suggesting a selective improvement of factors related to the aging process and specific cognitive processes rather than general cognitive enhancement...
  15. ncbi A comparison of egocentric and allocentric age-dependent spatial learning in the beagle dog
    Lori Ann Christie
    Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 29:361-9. 2005
    ....
  16. ncbi Comparison of the effects of adrafinil, propentofylline, and nicergoline on behavior in aged dogs
    C T Siwak
    Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Scarborough, ON, Canada
    Am J Vet Res 61:1410-4. 2000
    ..To compare the efficacy of adrafinil, propentofylline, and nicergoline for enhancing behavior of aged dogs...
  17. ncbi A novel cognitive palatability assessment protocol for dogs
    J A Araujo
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Anim Sci 82:2200-6. 2004
    ..The present protocol should be useful as a replacement or adjunct to other tests of palatability, but requires further validation by comparing the assessment of more similar and novel foods directly with other palatability tests...
  18. pmc Effect of age and level of cognitive function on spontaneous and exploratory behaviors in the beagle dog
    C T Siwak
    Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Scarborough, Ontario, Canada, M1C 1A4
    Learn Mem 8:317-25. 2001
    ..The age-impaired dogs show undirected, stereotypical types of behavioral patterns. These differences in activity patterns may be linked to underlying age-associated neuropathology...
  19. ncbi Concept abstraction in the aging dog: development of a protocol using successive discrimination and size concept tasks
    P Dwight Tapp
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Scarborough, Ont, Canada M1C 1A4
    Behav Brain Res 153:199-210. 2004
    ..Age impairments in concept learning may account for differences in transfer performance on both 3CSC tests...
  20. ncbi Dose-specific effects of scopolamine on canine cognition: impairment of visuospatial memory, but not visuospatial discrimination
    J A Araujo
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, 1 King s College Circle, M5S 1A8, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 175:92-8. 2004
    ....
  21. ncbi Extensive spatial training does not negate age differences in response latency
    Pria M D Nippak
    Institute of Medical Science, Division of Life Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Scarborough, ON, Canada M1C 1A4
    Brain Res 1070:171-88. 2006
    ....
  22. ncbi Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease: are NSAIDs and selective COX-2 inhibitors the next line of therapy?
    Catherine H Trepanier
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    J Alzheimers Dis 21:1089-99. 2010
    ..We also review recent anecdotal data with the TNF-α inhibitor, etanercept, and discuss possible explanations for the failure of preclinical data to translate into successful clinical trials...
  23. ncbi Further evidence for the cholinergic hypothesis of aging and dementia from the canine model of aging
    Joseph A Araujo
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 29:411-22. 2005
    ....
  24. ncbi Visuospatial function in the beagle dog: an early marker of cognitive decline in a model of human aging and dementia
    Christa M Studzinski
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Scarborough, Ont, Canada M1C 1A4
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 86:197-204. 2006
    ....
  25. ncbi An investigation of the relationship between response latency across several cognitive tasks in the beagle dog
    Pria M D Nippak
    Institute of Medical Science, Department of Psychology, Division of Life Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Scarborough, ON, Canada M1C 1A4
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 29:371-7. 2005
    ..These results further validate the use of RLs as an index of cognition, and also highlight the importance of further studies using animal models...
  26. ncbi The canine model of human cognitive aging and dementia: pharmacological validity of the model for assessment of human cognitive-enhancing drugs
    Christa M Studzinski
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada M5S 1A8
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 29:489-98. 2005
    ..These findings collectively support the utilization of the dog model as a preclinical screen for identifying novel CETs for both age-associated memory disorder and dementia...
  27. ncbi Frontal lobe volume, function, and beta-amyloid pathology in a canine model of aging
    P Dwight Tapp
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Scarborough, Ontario M1C 1A4, Canada
    J Neurosci 24:8205-13. 2004
    ..These findings are consistent with the frontal lobe theory of aging in humans, which suggests that the frontal lobes and functions subserved by this region are compromised early in aging...
  28. pmc Effects of age on measures of complex working memory span in the beagle dog (Canis familiaris) using two versions of a spatial list learning paradigm
    P Dwight Tapp
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Scarborough, Ontario M1C 1A4, Canada
    Learn Mem 10:148-60. 2003
    ....
  29. pmc Size and reversal learning in the beagle dog as a measure of executive function and inhibitory control in aging
    P Dwight Tapp
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Scarborough, Ontario, Canada M1C 1A4
    Learn Mem 10:64-73. 2003
    ..These separate patterns of reversal impairments in the old and senior dogs may reflect different rates of aging in subregions of the frontal cortex...
  30. ncbi Visuospatial impairments in aged canines (Canis familiaris): the role of cognitive-behavioral flexibility
    Alan D F Chan
    Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Behav Neurosci 116:443-54. 2002
    ..Analysis of the response patterns of individual canines indicated that the deficits were related to the use of ineffective strategies and inflexibility in strategy modification...
  31. ncbi Adrafinil disrupts performance on a delayed nonmatching-to-position task in aged beagle dogs
    Christina T Siwak
    Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto at Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, ON, Canada M1C 1A4
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 76:161-8. 2003
    ..The disturbance of memory functions from adrafinil could be a result of increased noradrenergic transmission in the prefrontal cortex...
  32. ncbi Response latency in Canis familiaris: mental ability or mental strategy?
    Pria M D Nippak
    Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Behav Neurosci 117:1066-75. 2003
    ..In addition, the slower responding young dogs made fewer errors. Thus, RL appears to reflect the learning strategy applied, rather than the level of mental ability...
  33. ncbi Locomotor activity rhythms in dogs vary with age and cognitive status
    Christina T Siwak
    Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Behav Neurosci 117:813-24. 2003
    ..The effect of age was less prominent in dogs housed in an indoor/outdoor facility. This suggests that bright sunlight and natural light-dark transitions are better able to consolidate and synchronize the activity rhythms of the dogs...
  34. pmc Improvement of short-term memory performance in aged beagles by a nutraceutical supplement containing phosphatidylserine, Ginkgo biloba, vitamin E, and pyridoxine
    Joseph A Araujo
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, 1 King s College Circle, Toronto, Ontario
    Can Vet J 49:379-85. 2008
    ..Performance accuracy was significantly improved in supplemented dogs compared with control dogs and the effect was long lasting. These findings suggest that the nutraceutical supplement can improve memory in aged dogs...
  35. ncbi Age-dependent decline in locomotor activity in dogs is environment specific
    Christina T Siwak
    Division of Life Sciences, Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto at Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Scarborough, Ontario, Canada M1C 1A4
    Physiol Behav 75:65-70. 2002
    ..Aged dogs were less active than young dogs in the home cage but not in the open field. Activity also varied as a function of sex and housing condition. Behavioral activity is a complex manifestation of many underlying factors...
  36. ncbi Pharmaceutical and other commercial uses of the dog model
    Candace J Ikeda-Douglas
    Department of Pharmacology, 1 King s College Circle, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada M5S 1A8
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 29:355-60. 2005
  37. ncbi Comparison of the cognitive palatability assessment protocol and the two-pan test for use in assessing palatability of two similar foods in dogs
    Joseph A Araujo
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 1A8
    Am J Vet Res 65:1490-6. 2004
    ..To compare preferences of dogs for 2 similar foods by use of 2 distinct methods (the cognitive palatability assessment protocol [CPAP] and the 2-pan test)...
  38. ncbi The ability to smell remains intact, but does not recover, after olfactory bulb lesions
    J Fecteau
    Life Sciences, University of Toronto at Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Scarborough, Ontario, M1C 1A4, Canada
    Int J Neurosci 108:11-20. 2001
    ..These results, therefore, indicate first that the sense of smell remains intact following extensive olfactory bulb lesions, and that a previously acquired discrimination is permanently lost after complete olfactory bulb lesions...
  39. ncbi Changes in phosphorylation of the NMDA receptor in the rat hippocampus induced by status epilepticus
    M Niimura
    Centre for the Neurobiology of Stress, Department of Life Sciences, University of Toronto at Scarborough, Toronto, ON M1C 1A4, Canada
    J Neurochem 92:1377-85. 2005
    ..Changes in phosphorylation of the NMDA receptor may play a role in the pathophysiological consequences of SE...
  40. ncbi Cognitive decline and human (Homo sapiens) aging: an investigation using a comparative neuropsychological approach
    Isabelle Boutet
    School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    J Comp Psychol 121:270-81. 2007
    ..The results are consistent with the notion that cognitive processes supported by the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex are among the first to decline with increasing age in both humans and animals...
  41. ncbi Effects of scopolamine challenge on regional cerebral blood volume. A pharmacological model to validate the use of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to assess cerebral blood volume in a canine model of aging
    P Dwight Tapp
    John Tu and Thomas Yuen Center for Functional Onco Imaging, University of California, 164 Irvine Hall, Irvine, CA, USA
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 29:399-406. 2005
    ....
  42. pmc Neurogenesis decreases with age in the canine hippocampus and correlates with cognitive function
    Christina T Siwak-Tapp
    Institute for Brain Aging and Dementia, University of California, 1226 Gillespie Neuroscience Research Facility, Irvine, CA 92697 4540, USA
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 88:249-59. 2007
    ..These results suggest that new neurons in the aged canine dentate gyrus may participate in modulating cognitive functions...
  43. ncbi Brain aging in the canine: a diet enriched in antioxidants reduces cognitive dysfunction
    Carl W Cotman
    Institute for Brain Aging and Dementia, University of California, 1226 Gillespie Neuroscience Research Facility, Irvine, CA 92697 4540, USA
    Neurobiol Aging 23:809-18. 2002
    ..Thus, studies in the canine model suggest that oxidative damage impairs cognitive function and that antioxidant treatment can result in significant improvements, supporting the need for further human studies...
  44. pmc Region specific neuron loss in the aged canine hippocampus is reduced by enrichment
    Christina T Siwak-Tapp
    Institute for Brain Aging and Dementia, University of California, 1226 Gillespie Neuroscience Research Facility, Irvine, CA 92697 4540, USA
    Neurobiol Aging 29:39-50. 2008
    ..These results suggest that the aged canine hippocampus in the left hemisphere shows selective neuron loss and that behavioral enrichment may reduce this loss...
  45. ncbi Nutritional management of brain aging in dogs
    Philip Roudebush
    Technical Information Services, Hill s Pet Nutrition Inc, PO Box 148, Topeka, KS 66601, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 227:722-8. 2005
  46. ncbi Immunization with fibrillar Abeta(1-42) in young and aged canines: Antibody generation and characteristics, and effects on CSF and brain Abeta
    Elizabeth Head
    Institute for Brain Aging and Dementia, Department of Neurology, University of California, 1259 Gillespie Neuroscience Research Facility, Irvine, CA 92697 4540, USA
    Vaccine 24:2824-34. 2006
    ..A nonsignificant increase in CSF Abeta(1-40) and decrease in Abeta(1-40/1-42) in cortex was detected. Canines may be a useful system for testing an Abeta vaccine...
  47. ncbi Application of an automated voxel-based morphometry technique to assess regional gray and white matter brain atrophy in a canine model of aging
    P Dwight Tapp
    John Tu and Thomas Yuen Center for Functional Onco Imaging, University of California, 164 Irvine Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 5020, USA
    Neuroimage 29:234-44. 2006
    ....