Jeffrey C Kwong

Summary

Affiliation: University of Toronto
Country: Canada

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint The effect of universal influenza immunization on vaccination rates in Ontario
    Jeff C Kwong
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario
    Health Rep 17:31-40. 2006
  2. doi request reprint School-based influenza vaccine delivery, vaccination rates, and healthcare use in the context of a universal influenza immunization program: an ecological study
    Jeffrey C Kwong
    The Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Room G1 06, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada
    Vaccine 28:2722-9. 2010
  3. pmc Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations among elderly adults during the 2010-2011 season
    Jeffrey C Kwong
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, 2075 Bayview Ave, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 57:820-7. 2013
  4. doi request reprint Risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome after seasonal influenza vaccination and influenza health-care encounters: a self-controlled study
    Jeffrey C Kwong
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Canada
    Lancet Infect Dis 13:769-76. 2013
  5. pmc The impact of infection on population health: results of the Ontario burden of infectious diseases study
    Jeffrey C Kwong
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Canada
    PLoS ONE 7:e44103. 2012
  6. pmc Vaccination against 2009 pandemic H1N1 in a population dynamical model of Vancouver, Canada: timing is everything
    Jessica M Conway
    Division of Mathematical Modeling, University of British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, 655 West 12th Avenue, V5Z 4R4 Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    BMC Public Health 11:932. 2011
  7. pmc Factors associated with initiation and completion of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine series in an Ontario cohort of grade 8 girls
    Leah M Smith
    Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Queen s University, Carruthers Hall, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6, Canada
    BMC Public Health 11:645. 2011
  8. ncbi request reprint Canada's Response to Pandemic H1N1 Influenza: The Collection of Individual-Level Data at the Point of Vaccination
    Jeffrey C Kwong
    MD, MSc, is a scientist at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, in Toronto, Ontario You can contact Dr Kwong at 416 480 4055, ext 7665, by fax at 416 480 6048 or by e mail at
    Healthc Q 13:18-20. 2010
  9. pmc Obesity and respiratory hospitalizations during influenza seasons in Ontario, Canada: a cohort study
    Jeffrey C Kwong
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 53:413-21. 2011
  10. pmc Influenza morbidity and mortality in elderly patients receiving statins: a cohort study
    Jeffrey C Kwong
    The Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS ONE 4:e8087. 2009

Detail Information

Publications54

  1. ncbi request reprint The effect of universal influenza immunization on vaccination rates in Ontario
    Jeff C Kwong
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario
    Health Rep 17:31-40. 2006
    ..This article examines the association between introduction of Ontario's Universal Influenza Immunization Program and changes in vaccination rates over time in Ontario, compared with the other provinces combined...
  2. doi request reprint School-based influenza vaccine delivery, vaccination rates, and healthcare use in the context of a universal influenza immunization program: an ecological study
    Jeffrey C Kwong
    The Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Room G1 06, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada
    Vaccine 28:2722-9. 2010
    ..In the context of universal influenza vaccination, school-based delivery is associated with higher vaccination rates and modest reductions in healthcare use in school-age children...
  3. pmc Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations among elderly adults during the 2010-2011 season
    Jeffrey C Kwong
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, 2075 Bayview Ave, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 57:820-7. 2013
    ....
  4. doi request reprint Risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome after seasonal influenza vaccination and influenza health-care encounters: a self-controlled study
    Jeffrey C Kwong
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Canada
    Lancet Infect Dis 13:769-76. 2013
    ..However, influenza infection might also be associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. We aimed to assess the risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome after seasonal influenza vaccination and after influenza-coded health-care encounters...
  5. pmc The impact of infection on population health: results of the Ontario burden of infectious diseases study
    Jeffrey C Kwong
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Canada
    PLoS ONE 7:e44103. 2012
    ..We sought to quantify the contribution of a wide range of infectious diseases to the overall infectious disease burden in a high-income setting...
  6. pmc Vaccination against 2009 pandemic H1N1 in a population dynamical model of Vancouver, Canada: timing is everything
    Jessica M Conway
    Division of Mathematical Modeling, University of British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, 655 West 12th Avenue, V5Z 4R4 Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    BMC Public Health 11:932. 2011
    ..We adapted a city-level contact network model to study different campaigns on influenza morbidity and mortality...
  7. pmc Factors associated with initiation and completion of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine series in an Ontario cohort of grade 8 girls
    Leah M Smith
    Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Queen s University, Carruthers Hall, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6, Canada
    BMC Public Health 11:645. 2011
    ..In order to successfully guide future HPV vaccine programming, it is important to monitor HPV vaccine use and determine factors associated with use in this population...
  8. ncbi request reprint Canada's Response to Pandemic H1N1 Influenza: The Collection of Individual-Level Data at the Point of Vaccination
    Jeffrey C Kwong
    MD, MSc, is a scientist at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, in Toronto, Ontario You can contact Dr Kwong at 416 480 4055, ext 7665, by fax at 416 480 6048 or by e mail at
    Healthc Q 13:18-20. 2010
    ....
  9. pmc Obesity and respiratory hospitalizations during influenza seasons in Ontario, Canada: a cohort study
    Jeffrey C Kwong
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 53:413-21. 2011
    ....
  10. pmc Influenza morbidity and mortality in elderly patients receiving statins: a cohort study
    Jeffrey C Kwong
    The Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS ONE 4:e8087. 2009
    ..Statins possess immunomodulatory properties and have been proposed for reducing morbidity during an influenza pandemic. We sought to evaluate the effect of statins on hospitalizations and deaths related to seasonal influenza outbreaks...
  11. doi request reprint Impact of varicella vaccination on health care outcomes in Ontario, Canada: effect of a publicly funded program?
    Jeffrey C Kwong
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Canada
    Vaccine 26:6006-12. 2008
    ..Varicella vaccination is effective at reducing varicella-related health care use, with benefits extending beyond those who receive the vaccine. Publicly funded vaccination programs may be more effective than private vaccine availability...
  12. pmc Oral vitamin B12 therapy in the primary care setting: a qualitative and quantitative study of patient perspectives
    Jeff C Kwong
    Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, 263 McCaul Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1W7, Canada
    BMC Fam Pract 6:8. 2005
    ..We investigated patient perspectives on switching from injection to oral B12 therapy...
  13. pmc The effect of universal influenza immunization on mortality and health care use
    Jeffrey C Kwong
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS Med 5:e211. 2008
    ..We evaluated the effect of Ontario's UIIP on influenza-associated mortality, hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) use, and visits to doctors' offices...
  14. ncbi request reprint Using OHIP physician billing claims to ascertain individual influenza vaccination status
    Jeffrey C Kwong
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Ontario, Canada
    Vaccine 25:1270-4. 2007
    ....
  15. doi request reprint Measuring influenza immunization coverage among health care workers in acute care hospitals and continuing care organizations in Canada
    Susan Quach
    Surveillance and Epidemiology Unit, Public Health Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Infect Control 41:340-4. 2013
    ..We describe the ability of Canadian health care organizations to measure influenza immunization coverage among health care workers and identify factors associated with comprehensive influenza immunization measurement...
  16. pmc Incorporating scannable forms into immunization data collection processes: a mixed-methods study
    Christine L Heidebrecht
    Infectious Diseases, Public Health Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS ONE 7:e49627. 2012
    ..To explore the suitability of this approach for collecting immunization data, we conducted a feasibility study in two settings in Ontario, Canada...
  17. doi request reprint Health care worker influenza immunization rates: the missing pieces of the puzzle
    Susan Quach
    Surveillance and Epidemiology, Public Health Ontario, Toronto, Canada
    Am J Infect Control 41:685-90. 2013
    ..We conducted key informant interviews with campaign planners to learn about processes for collecting immunization data, including barriers and facilitating factors for measuring and reporting rates...
  18. pmc Perceptions of immunization information systems for collecting pandemic H1N1 immunization data within Canada's public health community: a qualitative study
    Christine L Heidebrecht
    Department of Surveillance and Epidemiology, Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion, Toronto, Canada
    BMC Public Health 10:523. 2010
    ....
  19. doi request reprint Time and motion study to compare electronic and hybrid data collection systems during the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza vaccination campaign
    Susan Quach
    Surveillance and Epidemiology, Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion, Toronto, Canada
    Vaccine 29:1997-2003. 2011
    ..Electronic registration and record keeping were faster than paper-based methods; these findings should be used to improve data collection for future influenza seasons...
  20. doi request reprint Influenza vaccination rates in Ontario children: implications for universal childhood vaccination policy
    Kathy Moran
    Durham Region Health Department and York Region Community and Health Services, Public Health Branch, Ontario, Canada
    Vaccine 27:2350-5. 2009
    ..5%) and Alberta (52.2%). Universal vaccination in Ontario has achieved modest coverage in children aged 2-11 years, but has been less successful than targeted programs in vaccinating infants aged 6-23 months...
  21. pmc Influenza vaccination coverage across ethnic groups in Canada
    Susan Quach
    Surveillance and Epidemiology, Public Health Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    CMAJ 184:1673-81. 2012
    ..We conducted a national study to estimate influenza vaccine coverage across 12 ethnic groups in Canada to assess the presence of ethnic disparities...
  22. doi request reprint Spatial association between ambient fine particulate matter and incident hypertension
    Hong Chen
    From Public Health Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada H C, J C K, R C Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada H C, J C K, P J V, R C Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada H C, J C K, A K Population Studies Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada R T B Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada J C K Department of Health Sciences, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada P J V Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada M S G Division of Clinical Epidemiology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada M S G Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor R D B Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada A v D, R V M Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California
    Circulation 129:562-9. 2014
    ..However, epidemiological evidence relating PM2.5 and hypertension is sparse. We thus conducted a population-based cohort study to determine whether exposure to ambient PM2.5 is associated with incident hypertension...
  23. pmc Contagious comments: what was the online buzz about the 2011 Quebec measles outbreak?
    Jennifer A Pereira
    Public Health Ontario, Toronto, Canada
    PLoS ONE 8:e64072. 2013
    ..We analyzed readers' online responses to Canadian news articles regarding the outbreak to better understand public perceptions of measles and vaccination...
  24. pmc Respiratory virus infection and risk of invasive meningococcal disease in central Ontario, Canada
    Ashleigh R Tuite
    Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    PLoS ONE 5:e15493. 2010
    ....
  25. doi request reprint Low rates of influenza immunization in young children under Ontario's universal influenza immunization program
    Michael A Campitelli
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 Canada
    Pediatrics 129:e1421-30. 2012
    ..To determine physician-administered influenza vaccine coverage for children aged 6 to 23 months in a jurisdiction with a universal influenza immunization program during 2002-2009 and to describe predictors of vaccination...
  26. pmc Pan-Canadian assessment of pandemic immunization data collection: study methodology
    Jennifer A Pereira
    Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion, Toronto, Canada
    BMC Med Res Methodol 10:51. 2010
    ..This study's objective was to compare the efficiencies and perceptions of data collection methods employed during Canada's pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza vaccination campaign...
  27. doi request reprint Influenza vaccination and all-cause mortality in community-dwelling elderly in Ontario, Canada, a cohort study
    Michael A Campitelli
    The Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Canada
    Vaccine 29:240-6. 2010
    ..Since observational studies are prone to bias, future efforts to estimate vaccine effectiveness in the elderly should strive to minimize bias through improved data quality, novel data sources, and/or new analytical techniques...
  28. pmc Barriers to the use of reminder/recall interventions for immunizations: a systematic review
    Jennifer A Pereira
    Surveillance and Epidemiology, Public Health Ontario, 480 University Ave, Suite 300, Toronto, ON M5G 1V2, Canada
    BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 12:145. 2012
    ..We identified providers' perceived barriers to their use from existing literature...
  29. doi request reprint Underestimating the safety benefits of a new vaccine: the impact of acellular pertussis vaccine versus whole-cell pertussis vaccine on health services utilization
    Steven Hawken
    Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Epidemiol 176:1035-42. 2012
    ..Future analyses comparing vaccines for safety should examine specific endpoints and general health services utilization...
  30. doi request reprint Exploring the feasibility of integrating barcode scanning technology into vaccine inventory recording in seasonal influenza vaccination clinics
    Jennifer A Pereira
    Department of Surveillance and Epidemiology, Public Health Ontario, Toronto, Canada
    Vaccine 30:794-802. 2012
    ..We conducted feasibility studies to examine integration of barcode scanning into inventory recording workflow for mass immunization clinics...
  31. doi request reprint Population-based incidence of herpes zoster after introduction of a publicly funded varicella vaccination program
    Peter Tanuseputro
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Vaccine 29:8580-4. 2011
    ..We assessed the impact of childhood varicella vaccination in Ontario, Canada on zoster incidence and healthcare visits, and established baseline zoster rates prior to zoster vaccine introduction...
  32. doi request reprint Is a mass immunization program for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 good value for money? Evidence from the Canadian Experience
    Beate Sander
    Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Vaccine 28:6210-20. 2010
    ....
  33. doi request reprint The effect of universal influenza immunization on antibiotic prescriptions: an ecological study
    Jeffrey C Kwong
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, University of Toronto, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 49:750-6. 2009
    ..Universal influenza immunization is associated with reduced influenza-associated antibiotic prescriptions...
  34. doi request reprint Seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness in pre- and full-term children aged 6-23 months over multiple seasons
    Shixin Shen
    Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Vaccine 31:2974-8. 2013
    ..This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in pre- and full-term children aged 6-23 months...
  35. doi request reprint Electronic immunization data collection systems: application of an evaluation framework
    Christine L Heidebrecht
    Public Health Ontario, Suite 300, 480 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 1 V2, Canada
    BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 14:5. 2014
    ..We adapted an evaluation framework in order to assess electronic immunization data collection systems, and applied it in two Ontario public health units...
  36. doi request reprint Immunizing health care workers against influenza: a glimpse into the challenges with voluntary programs and considerations for mandatory policies
    Susan Quach
    Surveillance and Epidemiology, Public Health Ontario, Toronto, Canada
    Am J Infect Control 41:1017-23. 2013
    ....
  37. doi request reprint Safety and utilization of influenza immunization in children with inflammatory bowel disease
    Eric I Benchimol
    Children s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Pediatrics 131:e1811-20. 2013
    ..This study assessed whether immunization was associated with adverse events in IBD patients using a population-based database of children with IBD...
  38. pmc Physical activity and influenza-coded outpatient visits, a population-based cohort study
    Eric Siu
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS ONE 7:e39518. 2012
    ..We examined the association between physical activity and influenza-coded outpatient visits, as a proxy for influenza infection...
  39. pmc Association between Birth Order and Emergency Room Visits and Acute Hospital Admissions following Pediatric Vaccination: A Self-Controlled Study
    Steven Hawken
    ICES uOttawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS ONE 8:e81070. 2013
    ..We investigated the association between a child's birth order and emergency room (ER) visits and hospital admissions following 2-,4-,6- and 12-month pediatric vaccinations...
  40. doi request reprint Safety of influenza vaccination in patients with myasthenia gravis: a population-based study
    Lorne Zinman
    Department of Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada
    Muscle Nerve 40:947-51. 2009
    ..Vaccination of patients with MG against influenza was not found to be associated with exacerbations of the disease. Our findings do not support the practice of withholding influenza vaccination in patients with MG...
  41. pmc Optimal pandemic influenza vaccine allocation strategies for the Canadian population
    Ashleigh R Tuite
    Department of Epidemiology, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS ONE 5:e10520. 2010
    ..We sought to determine optimal prioritization of vaccine distribution among different age and risk groups within the Canadian population, to minimize influenza-attributable morbidity and mortality...
  42. pmc A cost comparison of electronic and hybrid data collection systems in Ontario during pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccination campaigns
    Jennifer A Pereira
    Department of Surveillance and Epidemiology, Public Health Ontario, Toronto, Canada
    BMC Health Serv Res 11:210. 2011
    ..The objective of our evaluation was to compare projected five-year costs associated with implementing these systems in Ontario public health units (PHUs) during pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccination campaigns...
  43. pmc Evaluation of coseasonality of influenza and invasive pneumococcal disease: results from prospective surveillance
    Stefan P Kuster
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS Med 8:e1001042. 2011
    ..We aimed to investigate the relationship between influenza infection and IPD in Ontario, Canada, using several complementary methodological tools...
  44. doi request reprint Predictors of universal influenza vaccination uptake in grades 1 and 2 Toronto school children: effective vaccination strategies should not end with at risk children
    Richard G Foty
    Child Health Evaluative Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Vaccine 28:6518-22. 2010
    ..20, 95%CL 1.01-1.42) and those with the lowest income adequacy (OR 1.37, 95%CL 1.12-1.68). Data from this study will be helpful in designing future influenza vaccination strategies to improve vaccination rates in the entire population...
  45. ncbi request reprint Death rates of medical school class presidents
    Donald A Redelmeier
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, The Clinical Epidemiology and Health Care Research Program, Sunnybrook and Women s College Health Sciences Centre, The Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Ontario, Canada
    Soc Sci Med 58:2537-43. 2004
    ..001 ). We suggest that the type of medical professional who sacrifices themselves for this type of professional prestige may also be the type who fails to look after their health or is otherwise prone to early mortality...
  46. doi request reprint Estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness in community-dwelling elderly patients using the instrumental variable analysis method
    Kenny Wong
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, 2075 Bayview Ave, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Arch Intern Med 172:484-91. 2012
    ..Estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness in elderly individuals are largely from observational studies, which are susceptible to bias. Instrumental variable (IV) methods control for overt and hidden biases in observational studies...
  47. ncbi request reprint Influenza immunization data: can we make order out of chaos?
    Sherman D Quan
    are members of the Department of Surveillance and Epidemiology, Public Health Ontario, in Toronto, Ontario
    Healthc Q 14:6-8. 2011
    ....
  48. pmc Is a Mass Immunization Program for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Good Value for Money? Early Evidence from the Canadian Experience
    Beate Sander
    Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada University of Guelph Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto Sunnybrook Hospital, The University of Toronto Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment Collaborative THETA and University of Toronto
    PLoS Curr 1:RRN1137. 2009
    ..Our analysis indicates this program will reduce influenza cases by 50%, preventing 35 deaths, and cutting treatment costs in half. A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 immunization program is likely to be highly cost-effective...
  49. pmc Economic appraisal of Ontario's Universal Influenza Immunization Program: a cost-utility analysis
    Beate Sander
    Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    PLoS Med 7:e1000256. 2010
    ..This is the first large-scale program of its kind worldwide. The objective of this study was to conduct an economic appraisal of Ontario's UIIP compared to a targeted influenza immunization program (TIIP)...
  50. pmc Optimal pandemic influenza vaccine allocation strategies for the canadian population
    Ashleigh Tuite
    Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Public Health Agency of Canada
    PLoS Curr 2:RRN1144. 2010
    ..Vaccination may significantly reduce influenza-attributable morbidity and mortality, but the benefits are dependent on epidemic dynamics, time for program roll-out, and vaccine uptake...
  51. pmc Risk of incident diabetes in relation to long-term exposure to fine particulate matter in Ontario, Canada
    Hong Chen
    Public Health Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Environ Health Perspect 121:804-10. 2013
    ..5 µm in diameter; PM(2.5)) can activate pathophysiological responses that may induce insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, epidemiological evidence relating PM2.5 and diabetes is sparse, particularly for incident diabetes...
  52. pmc Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Allocation in the Canadian Population during a Pandemic
    Ashleigh Tuite
    Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Public Health Agency of Canada
    PLoS Curr 1:RRN1143. 2009
    ....
  53. ncbi request reprint Flu shots in Canada: are they getting to those who need them most?
    Jeff C Kwong
    University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Healthc Q 11:20-2. 2008
  54. ncbi request reprint Appropriate measures of influenza immunization program effectiveness
    Jeffrey C Kwong
    Vaccine 25:967-9. 2007
    ..Regardless, for evaluating universal influenza immunization program effectiveness, other established and available measures employed in previous studies describing the epidemiology of influenza should be used instead of laboratory data...