R Kaul

Summary

Affiliation: University of Toronto
Country: Canada

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Characterization of CD8 T-cell responses in HIV-1-exposed seronegative commercial sex workers from Nairobi, Kenya
    Judie B Alimonti
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Immunol Cell Biol 84:482-5. 2006
  2. doi request reprint Mucosal Neisseria gonorrhoeae coinfection during HIV acquisition is associated with enhanced systemic HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses
    Anthony Sheung
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    AIDS 22:1729-37. 2008
  3. ncbi request reprint Relative HIV resistance in kenyan sex workers is not due to an altered prevalence or mucosal immune impact of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection
    Heather Baltzer
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Curr HIV Res 7:504-7. 2009
  4. pmc Patterns of syphilis testing in a large cohort of HIV patients in Ontario, Canada, 2000-2009
    Ann N Burchell
    Ontario HIV Treatment Network, Suite 600, 1300 Yonge Street, Toronto, Ontario M4T 1X3, Canada
    BMC Infect Dis 13:246. 2013
  5. pmc Can herpes simplex virus type 2 suppression slow HIV disease progression: a study protocol for the VALacyclovir In Delaying Antiretroviral Treatment Entry (VALIDATE) trial
    Darrell H S Tan
    University Health Network, 585 University Ave, 13N 1323, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2N2 Canada
    Trials 11:113. 2010
  6. pmc T cell Activation does not drive CD4 decline in longitudinally followed HIV-infected Elite Controllers
    Philomena Kamya
    Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    AIDS Res Ther 8:20. 2011
  7. ncbi request reprint The genital tract immune milieu: an important determinant of HIV susceptibility and secondary transmission
    R Kaul
    Clinical Science Division, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada
    J Reprod Immunol 77:32-40. 2008
  8. ncbi request reprint HIV viral set point and host immune control in individuals with HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses prior to HIV acquisition
    Rupert Kaul
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    AIDS 24:1449-54. 2010
  9. ncbi request reprint Prevalent herpes simplex virus type 2 infection is associated with altered vaginal flora and an increased susceptibility to multiple sexually transmitted infections
    Rupert Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya
    J Infect Dis 196:1692-7. 2007
  10. doi request reprint Biological factors that may contribute to regional and racial disparities in HIV prevalence
    Rupert Kaul
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, 1 King s College Circle, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Reprod Immunol 65:317-24. 2011

Detail Information

Publications70

  1. ncbi request reprint Characterization of CD8 T-cell responses in HIV-1-exposed seronegative commercial sex workers from Nairobi, Kenya
    Judie B Alimonti
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Immunol Cell Biol 84:482-5. 2006
    ..Overall, many of the HIV(ES) women possess a HIV-1 p24-specific CD8+ IFN-gamma response, providing evidence to the specificity needed for an effective HIV vaccine...
  2. doi request reprint Mucosal Neisseria gonorrhoeae coinfection during HIV acquisition is associated with enhanced systemic HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses
    Anthony Sheung
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    AIDS 22:1729-37. 2008
    ..As Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T-cell immune function, we hypothesized that coinfection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses...
  3. ncbi request reprint Relative HIV resistance in kenyan sex workers is not due to an altered prevalence or mucosal immune impact of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection
    Heather Baltzer
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Curr HIV Res 7:504-7. 2009
    ..Relative HIV resistance in Kenyan FSWs was not due to a reduced prevalence or mucosal immune impact of HSV-2 infection...
  4. pmc Patterns of syphilis testing in a large cohort of HIV patients in Ontario, Canada, 2000-2009
    Ann N Burchell
    Ontario HIV Treatment Network, Suite 600, 1300 Yonge Street, Toronto, Ontario M4T 1X3, Canada
    BMC Infect Dis 13:246. 2013
    ..We characterized temporal patterns of of syphilis testing in a large cohort of HIV patients in Ontario, Canada...
  5. pmc Can herpes simplex virus type 2 suppression slow HIV disease progression: a study protocol for the VALacyclovir In Delaying Antiretroviral Treatment Entry (VALIDATE) trial
    Darrell H S Tan
    University Health Network, 585 University Ave, 13N 1323, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2N2 Canada
    Trials 11:113. 2010
    ..Suppression of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) may be a novel strategy for achieving this goal because HSV-2 is associated with clinically significant increases in HIV viral load, the primary driver of HIV disease progression...
  6. pmc T cell Activation does not drive CD4 decline in longitudinally followed HIV-infected Elite Controllers
    Philomena Kamya
    Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    AIDS Res Ther 8:20. 2011
    ..abstract:..
  7. ncbi request reprint The genital tract immune milieu: an important determinant of HIV susceptibility and secondary transmission
    R Kaul
    Clinical Science Division, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada
    J Reprod Immunol 77:32-40. 2008
    ..Strategies focused on genital co-infections, such as vaccines, microbicides and suppressive therapy, are feasible in the short term and have the potential to curb the pandemic...
  8. ncbi request reprint HIV viral set point and host immune control in individuals with HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses prior to HIV acquisition
    Rupert Kaul
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    AIDS 24:1449-54. 2010
    ..We examined the impact of pre-existing CD8(+) T-cell responses on post-acquisition outcomes...
  9. ncbi request reprint Prevalent herpes simplex virus type 2 infection is associated with altered vaginal flora and an increased susceptibility to multiple sexually transmitted infections
    Rupert Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya
    J Infect Dis 196:1692-7. 2007
    ..We hypothesized that HSV-2 infection might also predispose individuals to acquire other common sexually transmitted infections (STIs)...
  10. doi request reprint Biological factors that may contribute to regional and racial disparities in HIV prevalence
    Rupert Kaul
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, 1 King s College Circle, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Reprod Immunol 65:317-24. 2011
    ..Considering biological causes for these racial disparities may help to destigmatize the issue and lead to new and more effective strategies for prevention...
  11. doi request reprint Defining the genital immune correlates of protection against HIV acquisition: co-infections and other potential confounders
    R Kaul
    Clinical Science Division, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Sex Transm Infect 87:125-30. 2011
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Monthly antibiotic chemoprophylaxis and incidence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV-1 infection in Kenyan sex workers: a randomized controlled trial
    Rupert Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    JAMA 291:2555-62. 2004
    ..Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common in female sex workers (FSWs) and may enhance susceptibility to infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)...
  13. ncbi request reprint HIV-1-specific mucosal CD8+ lymphocyte responses in the cervix of HIV-1-resistant prostitutes in Nairobi
    R Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Immunol 164:1602-11. 2000
    ..HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of detectable HIV infection in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers may be playing an important part in protective immunity against heterosexual HIV-1 transmission...
  14. pmc Late seroconversion in HIV-resistant Nairobi prostitutes despite pre-existing HIV-specific CD8+ responses
    R Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Clin Invest 107:341-9. 2001
    ..Seroconversion generally occurs in the absence of detectable CTL escape mutations and may relate to the waning of HIV-specific CD8+ responses due to reduced antigenic exposure...
  15. pmc CD8(+) lymphocytes respond to different HIV epitopes in seronegative and infected subjects
    R Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Clin Invest 107:1303-10. 2001
    ..The association between differential recognition of distinct CTL epitopes and protection from HIV-1 infection may have significant implications for vaccine design...
  16. ncbi request reprint HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses among HIV-1-resistant sex workers
    K R Fowke
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
    Immunol Cell Biol 78:586-95. 2000
    ..Many HIV-1-resistant women show evidence of HIV-1-specific T-helper and cytotoxic responses. These data support the suggestion that HIV-1-specific T-cell responses contribute to protection against HIV-1 infection...
  17. doi request reprint Mucosal correlates of isolated HIV semen shedding during effective antiretroviral therapy
    P M Sheth
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mucosal Immunol 5:248-57. 2012
    ..Further elucidation of the causes of compartmentalized mucosal T-cell activation and IHS may have important public health implications...
  18. doi request reprint HCV-specific T cells in HCV/HIV co-infection show elevated frequencies of dual Tim-3/PD-1 expression that correlate with liver disease progression
    Bahareh Vali
    Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Eur J Immunol 40:2493-505. 2010
    ..These data demonstrate that co-expression of Tim-3 and PD-1 may play a significant role in HCV-specific T-cell dysfunction, especially in the setting of HIV co-infection...
  19. doi request reprint A role for mucosal IL-22 production and Th22 cells in HIV-associated mucosal immunopathogenesis
    C J Kim
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mucosal Immunol 5:670-80. 2012
    ..We conclude that reduced IL-22 production and Th22 depletion in the gut mucosa are important factors in HIV mucosal immunopathogenesis...
  20. ncbi request reprint Reduced rates of HIV acquisition during unprotected sex by Kenyan female sex workers predating population declines in HIV prevalence
    Joshua Kimani
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    AIDS 22:131-7. 2008
    ..We examined temporal trends in HIV prevalence and per-act incidence, adjusted for behavioral and other variables, in FSWs from Nairobi, Kenya...
  21. ncbi request reprint Gonococcal cervicitis is associated with reduced systemic CD8+ T cell responses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected and exposed, uninfected sex workers
    Rupert Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Infect Dis 185:1525-9. 2002
    ..Impaired function of virus-specific CD8(+) lymphocytes may partly explain the deleterious effects of gonococcal cervicitis on HIV-1 immune control and susceptibility...
  22. ncbi request reprint Sustained changes in sexual behavior by female sex workers after completion of a randomized HIV prevention trial
    Elizabeth N Ngugi
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 45:588-94. 2007
    ..Behavioral interventions in female sex workers (FSWs) are associated with changes in sexual behavior and reduced rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV We examined the sustainability of such interventions...
  23. ncbi request reprint New insights into HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in exposed, persistently seronegative Kenyan sex workers
    R Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    Immunol Lett 79:3-13. 2001
    ..These findings suggest that vaccine-induced protective HIV immunity is a realistic goal, but that vaccine strategies of boosting or persistent antigen may be necessary for long-lived protection...
  24. doi request reprint HIV-specific IL-21 producing CD4+ T cells are induced in acute and chronic progressive HIV infection and are associated with relative viral control
    Feng Yun Yue
    Clinical Sciences Division, St Michael s Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada
    J Immunol 185:498-506. 2010
    ..Thus, IL-21-producing CD4(+) T cells are induced in viremic HIV infection and likely contribute to viral control by affecting CD8(+) T cell maintenance...
  25. ncbi request reprint Quantitative ex vivo analysis of functional virus-specific CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood and genital tract of HIV-infected women
    Rupert Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    AIDS 17:1139-44. 2003
    ..The induction and monitoring of mucosal CD8 cell responses will be an important component of HIV-1 vaccine trials, but information regarding the frequency, phenotype and function of genital tract CD8 cell responses is lacking...
  26. doi request reprint Cervical HIV-specific IgA in a population of commercial sex workers correlates with repeated exposure but not resistance to HIV
    Rachel E Horton
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 25:83-92. 2009
    ..They also indicate that resistance to HIV is a complex condition related to more factors than exposure. Further studies of correlates of immune protection in these individuals would be beneficial to the field...
  27. pmc HIV-specific T-cells accumulate in the liver in HCV/HIV co-infection
    Bahareh Vali
    Institute of Medical Science, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    PLoS ONE 3:e3454. 2008
    ..We examined whether HIV-specific T-cells are identified in the liver of HCV/HIV co-infected individuals and promote liver inflammation through bystander immune responses...
  28. ncbi request reprint Mucosal innate immunity as a determinant of HIV susceptibility
    Shehzad M Iqbal
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Am J Reprod Immunol 59:44-54. 2008
    ..Given the great challenges to the development of HIV microbicides and vaccines, identification and enhancement of 'natural' innate immune defenses present attractive avenues for development of safe, non-toxic microbicides...
  29. pmc Tim-3 expression defines a novel population of dysfunctional T cells with highly elevated frequencies in progressive HIV-1 infection
    R Brad Jones
    Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    J Exp Med 205:2763-79. 2008
    ..Blocking the Tim-3 signaling pathway restored proliferation and enhanced cytokine production in HIV-1-specific T cells. Thus, Tim-3 represents a novel target for the therapeutic reversal of HIV-1-associated T cell dysfunction...
  30. pmc Progressive hypertrophic genital herpes in an HIV-infected woman despite immune recovery on antiretroviral therapy
    Mark H Yudin
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2008:592532. 2008
    ..HIV-infected individuals and their care providers should be aware that HSV-2 may cause atypical disease even in the context of near-comlpete immune reconstitution on HAART...
  31. doi request reprint Elevated elafin/trappin-2 in the female genital tract is associated with protection against HIV acquisition
    Shehzad M Iqbal
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
    AIDS 23:1669-77. 2009
    ..However, these factors do not entirely explain this model of natural immunity to HIV. We hypothesized that protection may be mediated by innate immune proteins in the genital tract of HIV-resistant sex workers...
  32. doi request reprint Bacterial vaginosis in HIV-infected women induces reversible alterations in the cervical immune environment
    Anuradha Rebbapragada
    Clinical Science Division, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 49:520-2. 2008
    ..Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with increased HIV cervicovaginal shedding. We hypothesized that this might relate to BV-associated increases in mucosal activated CD4 T cells, which could enhance local HIV replication...
  33. doi request reprint Otosyphilis in HIV-coinfected individuals: a case series from Toronto, Canada
    Sharmistha Mishra
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada
    AIDS Patient Care STDS 22:213-9. 2008
    ..Increased awareness of uncommon manifestations of syphilis in high-risk individuals is warranted to prompt appropriate investigation and treatment...
  34. ncbi request reprint Associations of sexual risk taking among Kenyan female sex workers after enrollment in an HIV-1 prevention trial
    Geeta Yadav
    Faculty of Arts and Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 38:329-34. 2005
    ..Female sex workers (FSWs) often lack the ability to negotiate safer sex and are at high risk for HIV-1 infection and sexually transmitted infections (STIs)...
  35. ncbi request reprint Reduced HIV risk-taking and low HIV incidence after enrollment and risk-reduction counseling in a sexually transmitted disease prevention trial in Nairobi, Kenya
    Rupert Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 30:69-72. 2002
    ..This finding should be considered in the design of clinical trials with an endpoint of HIV incidence, in particular HIV preventive vaccine trials...
  36. ncbi request reprint Negative mucosal synergy between Herpes simplex type 2 and HIV in the female genital tract
    Anuradha Rebbapragada
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    AIDS 21:589-98. 2007
    ..The present study aimed to elucidate the mucosal immune interactions between HIV and HSV2 in the genital tract...
  37. ncbi request reprint HIV-specific CD8+ lymphocytes in semen are not associated with reduced HIV shedding
    Prameet M Sheth
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Immunol 175:4789-96. 2005
    ..6; p = 0.03) and of several proinflammatory cytokines. Neither the presence nor the frequency of semen HIV-specific CD8+ T cell IFN-gamma responses in semen correlated with reduced levels of HIV RNA in semen...
  38. pmc Evaluation of a quantitative real-time PCR assay to measure HIV-specific mucosal CD8+ T cell responses in the cervix
    Duncan Chege
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS ONE 5:e13077. 2010
    ..Nonetheless, this platform may have a potential role in measuring mitogen-induced immune responses in the genital tract...
  39. ncbi request reprint Preferential apoptosis of HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cells
    Feng Yun Yue
    Clinical Sciences Division, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    J Immunol 174:2196-204. 2005
    ....
  40. doi request reprint Coinfection with herpes simplex virus type 2 is associated with reduced HIV-specific T cell responses and systemic immune activation
    Prameet M Sheth
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    J Infect Dis 197:1394-401. 2008
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 and AIDS: what are protective immune responses?
    Tara Beattie
    Clinical Sciences Division, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J HIV Ther 7:35-9. 2002
    ..Achieving this goal will at least require the induction of HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses at the site of initial viral contact (generally the genital tract), perhaps in combination with HIV-1-specific neutralising antibody...
  42. ncbi request reprint HIV viral shedding in semen: lack of correlation with systemic virus-specific CD8 responses
    Prameet M Sheth
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    AIDS 18:2202-5. 2004
    ..No correlation was observed between viral load in either semen or blood and systemic CD8 T-cell responses. Further studies of immune correlates of semen HIV shedding are needed...
  43. doi request reprint Persistent HIV RNA shedding in semen despite effective antiretroviral therapy
    Prameet M Sheth
    Department of Medicine, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    AIDS 23:2050-4. 2009
    ..Isolates were drug-sensitive, and this phenomenon was not associated with semen drug levels or regimen...
  44. pmc Sexual risk factors for HIV infection in early and advanced HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic overview of 68 epidemiological studies
    Li Chen
    Centre for Global Health Research, St Michael s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS ONE 2:e1001. 2007
    ..It is commonly assumed that sexual risk factors for heterosexual HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, such as multi-partner sex, paid sex and co-infections, become less important as HIV epidemics mature and prevalence increases...
  45. pmc Foreskin T-cell subsets differ substantially from blood with respect to HIV co-receptor expression, inflammatory profile, and memory status
    J L Prodger
    Clinical Science Division, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Mucosal Immunol 5:121-8. 2012
    ..Further characterization of foreskin T-cell subsets may help to define the correlates of HIV susceptibility in the foreskin...
  46. doi request reprint Reduced mother-to-child transmission of HIV associated with infant but not maternal GB virus C infection
    Wendy Bhanich Supapol
    Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    J Infect Dis 197:1369-77. 2008
    ..We investigated whether maternal or infant GBV-C infection was associated with mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 infection...
  47. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 Env-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in exposed, uninfected Kenyan sex workers: a prospective analysis
    Rupert Kaul
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    AIDS 18:2087-9. 2004
    ..Annual HIV incidence was 5.8%. CTL were independently associated with age and recent HIV-1 exposure,but were not prospectively associated with protection in a multivariable model that included HIV-1 exposure and duration of sex work...
  48. ncbi request reprint Disproportionately high semen shedding of HIV is associated with compartmentalized cytomegalovirus reactivation
    Prameet M Sheth
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Mount Sinai Hospital, Canada
    J Infect Dis 193:45-8. 2006
    ..Semen levels of HIV and CMV were closely correlated (r=0.5; P<.01), independently of blood HIV load and CD4(+) T cell count. Prevention of CMV reactivation warrants further study as a possible strategy to reduce semen shedding of HIV...
  49. doi request reprint Immune reconstitution in the sigmoid colon after long-term HIV therapy
    P M Sheth
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mucosal Immunol 1:382-8. 2008
    ..In this select study population, long-term HAART was associated with complete CD4+ T-cell reconstitution in sigmoid colon. However, colonic immune activation may drive ongoing HIV replication...
  50. doi request reprint Mother-to-child transmission of GB virus C in a cohort of women coinfected with GB virus C and HIV in Bangkok, Thailand
    W Bhanich Supapol
    Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Infect Dis 200:227-35. 2009
    ..Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of GBV-C has been observed in multiple small studies. Our study examined the rate and correlates of MTCT of GBV-C in a large cohort of GBV-C-HIV-coinfected pregnant women in Thailand...
  51. pmc Effect of baseline HIV disease parameters on CD4+ T cell recovery after antiretroviral therapy initiation in Kenyan women
    Lyle R McKinnon
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    PLoS ONE 5:e11434. 2010
    ..However, the rate and extent of CD4+ T cell recovery varies widely. We assessed the impact of several factors on immune reconstitution in a large Kenyan cohort...
  52. ncbi request reprint Cross-clade HIV-1-specific neutralizing IgA in mucosal and systemic compartments of HIV-1-exposed, persistently seronegative subjects
    Claudia Devito
    Department of Clinical Virology, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 30:413-20. 2002
    ..In conclusion, mucosal and plasma IgA from HEPS subjects neutralizes HIV-1 of different clades. This ability to induce HIV-1-specific systemic and mucosal IgA may be an important feature of an effective prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine...
  53. ncbi request reprint Cross-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes against a HIV-1 p24 epitope in slow progressors with B*57
    Geraldine M A Gillespie
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, OX3 9DS, UK
    AIDS 16:961-72. 2002
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint Recombination following superinfection by HIV-1
    Guowei Fang
    Wadsworth Center, NY State Department of Health, Albany, 12208, USA
    AIDS 18:153-9. 2004
    ..There is increasing recognition of recombinant HIV-1 strains globally, but it has been unclear whether recombination results from superinfection during untreated, chronic infection...
  55. ncbi request reprint Development of functional human monoclonal single-chain variable fragment antibody against HIV-1 from human cervical B cells
    Jody D Berry
    Monoclonal Antibody Section, National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease, 1015 Arlington St, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Hybrid Hybridomics 22:97-108. 2003
    ..This work demonstrates, for the first time, cloning of a functional scFv MAb to a sexually transmitted disease pathogen from local cervical B-cell pools in exposed humans...
  56. ncbi request reprint Maternal milk IgA and mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus: not a silver spoon
    Rupert Kaul
    J Pediatr 149:591-3. 2006
  57. ncbi request reprint Plasma and mucosal fluid from HIV type 1-infected patients but not from HIV type 1-exposed uninfected subjects prevent HIV type 1-exposed DC from infecting other target cells
    Johan Söderlund
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 23:101-6. 2007
    ..However, they readily neutralized HIV-1 infection of PBMC alone. This may suggest that protection against HIV-1 infection in HEPS individuals occurs prior to interaction between HIV-1-exposed DC and other target cells...
  58. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 neutralizing activity is correlated with increased levels of chemokines in saliva of HIV-1-exposed uninfected individuals
    Taha Hirbod
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden
    Curr HIV Res 6:28-33. 2008
    ..We hypothesized that other immune molecules might also contribute to the HIV-1 neutralizing activity observed in the mucosal secretions of HIV-1 exposed uninfected individuals...
  59. doi request reprint Toll-like receptor expression and responsiveness are increased in viraemic HIV-1 infection
    Richard T Lester
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    AIDS 22:685-94. 2008
    ..Toll-like receptors (TLR) are important in pathogen recognition and may play a role in HIV disease. We evaluated the effect of chronic untreated and treated HIV-1 infection on systemic TLR expression and TLR signalling...
  60. doi request reprint HIV-neutralizing immunoglobulin A and HIV-specific proliferation are independently associated with reduced HIV acquisition in Kenyan sex workers
    Taha Hirbod
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden
    AIDS 22:727-35. 2008
    ..We performed a prospective, nested case-control study to examine the association of genital IgA and systemic cellular immune responses with subsequent HIV acquisition in high-risk Kenyan female sex workers (FSWs)...
  61. ncbi request reprint HLA typing in a Kenyan cohort identifies novel class I alleles that restrict cytotoxic T-cell responses to local HIV-1 clades
    Thomas G Bird
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford, UK
    AIDS 16:1899-904. 2002
    ..To investigate HLA class I allele frequencies in a Kenyan commercial sex worker (CSW) cohort, and to examine HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses directed against epitopes derived from locally prevalent clade A virus...
  62. ncbi request reprint Long-term survivors in Nairobi: complete HIV-1 RNA sequences and immunogenetic associations
    Guowei Fang
    Wadsworth Center, NY State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    J Infect Dis 190:697-701. 2004
    ..0048). Studying the interaction among immunogenetics, immune responses, and viral sequences from all HIV-1 subtypes may increase our understanding of slow HIV-1 disease progression...
  63. ncbi request reprint Screening for HIV-specific T-cell responses using overlapping 15-mer peptide pools or optimized epitopes
    Tara Beattie
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    AIDS 18:1595-8. 2004
    ..These factors should be considered in the monitoring of HIV vaccine trials...
  64. ncbi request reprint Construction of an infectious HIV type 1 molecular clone from an African patient with a subtype D/C Recombinant Virus
    Binshan Shi
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 20:1015-8. 2004
    ..This infectious HIV-1 subtype D/C recombinant molecular clone obtained from a Kenyan long-term survivor promises to be useful to study pathogenesis and vaccine design...
  65. ncbi request reprint Clinical and immunogenetic correlates of abacavir hypersensitivity
    Elizabeth J Phillips
    British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV AIDS, Vancouver, University of British Columbia, Canada
    AIDS 19:979-81. 2005
    ..001). Five of seven PT (71%) versus one of 11 controls (9%) (P = 0.005) showed significant abacavir-specific CD8 proliferation, suggesting a direct role for HLA-B*5701-restricted CD8 cells in the pathophysiology of AHS...
  66. ncbi request reprint Structures of three HIV-1 HLA-B*5703-peptide complexes and identification of related HLAs potentially associated with long-term nonprogression
    Guillaume B E Stewart-Jones
    Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 175:2459-68. 2005
    ....
  67. ncbi request reprint Conflicting selective forces affect T cell receptor contacts in an immunodominant human immunodeficiency virus epitope
    Astrid K N Iversen
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9AD, UK
    Nat Immunol 7:179-89. 2006
    ..Thus, viral escape from CTL responses does not necessarily correlate with disease progression...
  68. ncbi request reprint Strong TCR conservation and altered T cell cross-reactivity characterize a B*57-restricted immune response in HIV-1 infection
    Geraldine M A Gillespie
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 177:3893-902. 2006
    ..Collectively, our findings highlight unusual features of the B*5701/B*5703-KF11-specific immune responses which could influence disease progression and that might be important to consider when designing future vaccine regimens...
  69. doi request reprint Stay it with flora: maintaining vaginal health as a possible avenue for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus acquisition
    Lucy Y Shin
    J Infect Dis 197:1355-7. 2008
  70. doi request reprint Transition from long-term nonprogression to HIV-1 disease associated with escape from cellular immune control
    Kimdar Sherefa Kemal
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 48:119-26. 2008
    ..These data are relevant to vaccine design and identification of the correlates of protection from disease progression...