J A Karlowsky

Summary

Affiliation: University of Manitoba
Country: Canada

Publications

  1. pmc In vitro activity of OPT-80 tested against clinical isolates of toxin-producing Clostridium difficile
    James A Karlowsky
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Health Sciences Centre, MS673C, 820 Sherbrook Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:4163-5. 2008
  2. pmc Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis group in Canada in 2010-2011: CANWARD surveillance study
    James A Karlowsky
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, a and Diagnostic Services of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:1247-52. 2012
  3. ncbi request reprint Presence of ROB-1 beta-lactamase correlates with cefaclor resistance among recent isolates of Haemophilus influenzae
    J A Karlowsky
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    J Antimicrob Chemother 45:871-5. 2000
  4. pmc Fluoroquinolone-resistant urinary isolates of Escherichia coli from outpatients are frequently multidrug resistant: results from the North American Urinary Tract Infection Collaborative Alliance-Quinolone Resistance study
    James A Karlowsky
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Health Sciences Centre Diagnostic Services of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:2251-4. 2006
  5. ncbi request reprint In vitro interactions of anidulafungin with azole antifungals, amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine against Candida species
    James A Karlowsky
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man, Canada R3A 1R9
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 27:174-7. 2006
  6. ncbi request reprint Genetic relatedness of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli cultured from geographically diverse outpatient, midstream urine specimens
    James A Karlowsky
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Health Sciences Centre Diagnostic Services of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3A 1R9
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 58:283-7. 2007
  7. pmc Antimicrobial resistance in urinary tract pathogens in Canada from 2007 to 2009: CANWARD surveillance study
    James A Karlowsky
    Diagnostic Services of Manitoba Department of Clinical Microbiology, Health Sciences Centre, St Boniface General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:3169-75. 2011
  8. pmc In vitro activity of ceftaroline against gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens isolated from patients in Canadian hospitals in 2009
    James A Karlowsky
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Health Sciences Centre, MS673 820 Sherbrook St, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3A1R9, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:2837-46. 2011
  9. doi request reprint In vitro activity of dalbavancin and telavancin against staphylococci and streptococci isolated from patients in Canadian hospitals: results of the CANWARD 2007-2009 study
    James A Karlowsky
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0J9, Canada
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 69:342-7. 2011
  10. doi request reprint Annual macrolide prescription rates and the emergence of macrolide resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada from 1995 to 2005
    James A Karlowsky
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 34:375-9. 2009

Detail Information

Publications92

  1. pmc In vitro activity of OPT-80 tested against clinical isolates of toxin-producing Clostridium difficile
    James A Karlowsky
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Health Sciences Centre, MS673C, 820 Sherbrook Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:4163-5. 2008
    ..06 to 1 microg/ml, with 90% of the isolates inhibited by a concentration of 0.5 microg/ml. The in vitro activity of OPT-80 was independent of the susceptibilities of isolates to nine other antimicrobial agents...
  2. pmc Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis group in Canada in 2010-2011: CANWARD surveillance study
    James A Karlowsky
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, a and Diagnostic Services of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:1247-52. 2012
    ..M. Bourgault et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36:343-347, 1992), rates of resistance have increased for amoxicillin-clavulanate, from 0.8% (1992) to 6.2% (2010-2011), and for clindamycin, from 9% (1992) to 34.1% (2010-2011)...
  3. ncbi request reprint Presence of ROB-1 beta-lactamase correlates with cefaclor resistance among recent isolates of Haemophilus influenzae
    J A Karlowsky
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    J Antimicrob Chemother 45:871-5. 2000
    ..Susceptibilities to loracarbef (P < 0.001) and cefprozil were also reduced in the presence of ROB-1 while the activities of cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefixime and imipenem were similar in both TEM- and ROB-1-positive solates...
  4. pmc Fluoroquinolone-resistant urinary isolates of Escherichia coli from outpatients are frequently multidrug resistant: results from the North American Urinary Tract Infection Collaborative Alliance-Quinolone Resistance study
    James A Karlowsky
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Health Sciences Centre Diagnostic Services of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:2251-4. 2006
    ..0%) or nitrofurantoin (4.0%) was less common. Only 10.8% of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin alone. Fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates of E. coli from urine were frequently multidrug resistant...
  5. ncbi request reprint In vitro interactions of anidulafungin with azole antifungals, amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine against Candida species
    James A Karlowsky
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man, Canada R3A 1R9
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 27:174-7. 2006
    ..These results suggest additional studies are warranted, for example in animal models, to evaluate further the potential of combination antifungal therapy with anidulafungin for Candida infections...
  6. ncbi request reprint Genetic relatedness of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli cultured from geographically diverse outpatient, midstream urine specimens
    James A Karlowsky
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Health Sciences Centre Diagnostic Services of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3A 1R9
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 58:283-7. 2007
    ..Antimicrobial-susceptible isolates demonstrated limited genetic relatedness, whereas 2 epidemiologic clusters containing a total of 40 isolates (57.1%) were identified among the multidrug-resistant isolates...
  7. pmc Antimicrobial resistance in urinary tract pathogens in Canada from 2007 to 2009: CANWARD surveillance study
    James A Karlowsky
    Diagnostic Services of Manitoba Department of Clinical Microbiology, Health Sciences Centre, St Boniface General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:3169-75. 2011
    ..005). We conclude that frequently prescribed empirical agents for urinary tract infections, such as SXT and ciprofloxacin, demonstrate lowered in vitro susceptibilities when tested against recent clinical isolates...
  8. pmc In vitro activity of ceftaroline against gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens isolated from patients in Canadian hospitals in 2009
    James A Karlowsky
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Health Sciences Centre, MS673 820 Sherbrook St, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3A1R9, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:2837-46. 2011
    ..Overall, ceftaroline demonstrated potent in vitro activity against a recent collection of the most frequently encountered Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates from patients attending hospitals across Canada in 2009...
  9. doi request reprint In vitro activity of dalbavancin and telavancin against staphylococci and streptococci isolated from patients in Canadian hospitals: results of the CANWARD 2007-2009 study
    James A Karlowsky
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0J9, Canada
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 69:342-7. 2011
    ..Based on their robust in vitro activities, dalbavancin and telavancin have the potential to treat Gram-positive infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae...
  10. doi request reprint Annual macrolide prescription rates and the emergence of macrolide resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada from 1995 to 2005
    James A Karlowsky
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 34:375-9. 2009
    ..Resistance development is complex and factors other than macrolide use may also be associated with observed increases in macrolide resistance in Canada from 1995 to 2005...
  11. pmc AFN-1252, a FabI inhibitor, demonstrates a Staphylococcus-specific spectrum of activity
    James A Karlowsky
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:3544-8. 2009
    ..Enterobacteriaceae, nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli, and Moraxella catarrhalis. These data support the continued development of AFN-1252 for the treatment of patients with resistant staphylococcal infections...
  12. pmc Screening of stool samples for identification of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus isolates should include the methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside test to differentiate nonmotile Enterococcus gallinarum from E. faecium
    C Y Turenne
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
    J Clin Microbiol 36:2333-5. 1998
    ..faecium, whereas MDG identified 11 of the 33 isolates as nonmotile E. gallinarum. The MDG results were confirmed by sequencing the 16S rDNA V6-to-V8 region. We conclude that the MDG test is a necessary component of routine VRE screening...
  13. pmc In vitro activity of a new semisynthetic echinocandin, LY-303366, against systemic isolates of Candida species, Cryptococcus neoformans, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Aspergillus species
    G G Zhanel
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41:863-5. 1997
    ..12 microg/ml) (n = 10), and was inactive against C. neoformans (MIC90, >10.24 microg/ml) (n = 15) and B. dermatitidis (MIC90, 16 microg/ml) (n = 29)...
  14. pmc A Canadian national surveillance study of urinary tract isolates from outpatients: comparison of the activities of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, mecillinam, nitrofurantoin, and ciprofloxacin. The Canadian Urinary Isolate Study Group
    G G Zhanel
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Health Sciences Centre, Manitoba, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44:1089-92. 2000
    ..0, 18.9, 7.4, 0.1, and 1.2%, respectively. The majority of E. coli isolates resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or ciprofloxacin were susceptible (MIC, <16 microg/ml) to mecillinam...
  15. ncbi request reprint Mecillinam activity compared to ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin against urinary tract isolates of gram-negative bacilli
    G G Zhanel
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculties of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man, Canada
    Chemotherapy 44:391-6. 1998
    ..9% of ampicillin-resistant E. coli and 95.9% of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant E. coli. We conclude that mecillinam should be reevaluated for potential use in the treatment of community-acquired urinary tract infections...
  16. pmc Evaluation of an algorithmic approach in comparison with the Illumigene assay for laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection
    A Walkty
    Microbiology, Diagnostic Services of Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Manitoba, Canada
    J Clin Microbiol 51:1152-7. 2013
    ..Based on a reduction in turnaround time, simplicity, and acceptable sensitivity and specificity, we recommend algorithm 2 (screening with the GDH antigen test and confirmatory testing with the Illumigene)...
  17. ncbi request reprint Once versus thrice daily tobramycin alone and in combination with ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and imipenem in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model
    S A Zelenitsky
    Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
    Chemotherapy 44:1-6. 1998
    ..Ciprofloxacin-containing regimens demonstrated the most bacterial kill with subsequent doses, however, bacterial counts at 24 h were similar to those of other combination regimens...
  18. ncbi request reprint Macrolide resistance mechanisms among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated over 6 years of Canadian Respiratory Organism Susceptibility Study (CROSS) (1998 2004)
    A K Wierzbowski
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    J Antimicrob Chemother 60:733-40. 2007
    ..Furthermore, the genetic relatedness, serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility profile among S. pneumoniae isolates with dual erythromycin ribosomal methylase [Erm(B)] and efflux pump [Mef(A)] were analysed...
  19. doi request reprint Change in antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli urinary tract isolates at a single institution over a period of 10 years
    A Walkty
    Departments of Medicine and Clinical Microbiology, Health Sciences Centre, MS673B 820 Sherbrook Street, Winnipeg, MB R3A 1R9, Canada
    Can J Microbiol 58:345-9. 2012
    ..These data suggest that certain antimicrobials recommended for the treatment of urinary tract infections (ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) may no longer be optimal...
  20. pmc In vitro activity of ceftazidime combined with NXL104 versus Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates obtained from patients in Canadian hospitals (CANWARD 2009 study)
    A Walkty
    Health Sciences Centre, Department of Clinical Microbiology, MS673B 820 Sherbrook St, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3A1R9, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:2992-4. 2011
    ..These data suggest that the ceftazidime-NXL104 combination may prove useful for treating many P. aeruginosa infections...
  21. pmc Nitrofurantoin is active against vancomycin-resistant enterococci
    G G Zhanel
    Departments of Clinical Microbiology and Medicine, Health Sciences Centre and Faculties of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:324-6. 2001
    ..gallinarum isolates. We conclude that nitrofurantoin may provide effective treatment of urinary tract infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci...
  22. ncbi request reprint Evolving patterns of resistance to respiratory pathogens in Canada
    D J Hoban
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba
    Can Respir J 6:27A-30A. 1999
    ..To date, there have been only a few reports of resistance to the fluoroquinolones. The apparent increase in the rate of development of resistance and cross-resistance will lead to new therapeutic challenges...
  23. pmc Influence of human serum on pharmacodynamic properties of an investigational glycopeptide, LY333328, and comparator agents against Staphylococcus aureus
    G G Zhanel
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:2427-30. 1998
    ..Albumin was demonstrated to be almost solely responsible for changes in the aforementioned pharmacodynamic parameters of LY333328...
  24. doi request reprint Re-evaluation of rejection criteria for endotracheal tube (ETT) specimens from adult patients
    A Walkty
    Department of Medicine, Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, MB, Canada
    J Med Microbiol 61:1306-10. 2012
    ..The criterion of >10 SECs per low-power field should be further evaluated in a prospective study of patients with an unequivocal clinical diagnosis of pneumonia...
  25. pmc Synergy of an investigational glycopeptide, LY333328, with once-daily gentamicin against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in a multiple-dose, in vitro pharmacodynamic model
    S A Zelenitsky
    Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:592-7. 1999
    ..No significant differences between the pharmacodynamics of LY-gentamicin combination regimens containing Gq24 h versus those containing Gq8h were detected...
  26. pmc Susceptibilities of Candida species isolated from the lower gastrointestinal tracts of high-risk patients to the new semisynthetic echinocandin LY303366 and other antifungal agents
    G G Zhanel
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:2446-8. 1998
    ..6%) and Candida glabrata (35.7%). Susceptibilities to all antifungal agents tested, including LY303366, were similar to those reported previously for Candida species isolated from blood...
  27. pmc Rapid identification of fungi by using the ITS2 genetic region and an automated fluorescent capillary electrophoresis system
    C Y Turenne
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3A 1R9, Canada
    J Clin Microbiol 37:1846-51. 1999
    ..We have found that most clinically significant fungal isolates can be differentiated by this method, and it therefore serves to be a promising tool for the rapid (<7 h) diagnosis of fungemia and other invasive fungal infections...
  28. pmc Activity of NXL104 in combination with beta-lactams against genetically characterized Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates producing class A extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and class C beta-lactamases
    P R S Lagacé-Wiens
    Saint Boniface Hospital, Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, L4025 409 Taché Ave, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R2H 2A6
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:2434-7. 2011
    ..These results suggest that NXL104 may be useful in combination with β-lactams for the treatment of infections caused by ESBL- and AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae...
  29. pmc Influence of human serum on antifungal pharmacodynamics with Candida albicans
    G G Zhanel
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:2018-22. 2001
    ..Generally speaking, antifungal agents with high protein binding exhibited some form of reduced activity (MIC, killing, or PAFE) in the presence of serum compared to those with low protein binding...
  30. pmc In vitro activity of colistin (polymyxin E) against 3,480 isolates of gram-negative bacilli obtained from patients in Canadian hospitals in the CANWARD study, 2007-2008
    A Walkty
    Health Sciences Centre, Department of Medicine, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3A 1R9
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:4924-6. 2009
    ..All multidrug-resistant (n = 76) P. aeruginosa isolates were susceptible to colistin (MIC, < or = 2 microg/ml). These data support a role for colistin in the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa...
  31. pmc In vitro susceptibilities of Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from blood cultures of neutropenic patients
    D J Hoban
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:1463-4. 1999
    ..Fluconazole resistance (MIC >/= 64 microg/ml) was not identified in any of the C. albicans (n = 513), Candida parapsilosis (n = 78), Candida tropicalis (n = 62), or C. neoformans (n = 38) isolates tested...
  32. pmc Rapid identification of bacteria from positive blood cultures by fluorescence-based PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of the 16S rRNA gene
    C Y Turenne
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Manitoba R3A 1R9, Canada
    J Clin Microbiol 38:513-20. 2000
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint Review of macrolides and ketolides: focus on respiratory tract infections
    G G Zhanel
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
    Drugs 61:443-98. 2001
    ..Few pharmacoeconomic studies involving macrolides are presently available. The ketolides are being developed in an attempt to address the increasingly prevalent problems of macrolide-resistant and multiresistant organisms...
  34. doi request reprint Pharmacodynamic activity of ceftobiprole compared with vancomycin versus methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) using an in vitro model
    George G Zhanel
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    J Antimicrob Chemother 64:364-9. 2009
    ..This study compared the pharmacodynamics of ceftobiprole and vancomycin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) using an in vitro model...
  35. pmc Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in intensive care units in Canada: results of the Canadian National Intensive Care Unit (CAN-ICU) study, 2005-2006
    George G Zhanel
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:1430-7. 2008
    ..aeruginosa, H. influenzae, Enterococcus spp., S. pneumoniae, and K. pneumoniae are the most common isolates recovered from clinical specimens in Canadian ICUs. A MDR phenotype is common for P. aeruginosa isolates in Canadian ICUs...
  36. pmc Comparison of CO2 generation (BACTEC) and viable-count methods to determine the postantibiotic effect of antimycobacterial agents against Mycobacterium avium complex
    G G Zhanel
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:184-7. 1998
    ..3 h), rifampin (9.7 h), and rifabutin (9.5 h), while the shortest PAEs resulted from clofazimine (1.7 h) and ethambutol (1.1 h) exposure. CO2 generation is a valid and efficient means of determining in vitro PAEs against MAC...
  37. ncbi request reprint Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli outpatient urinary isolates: final results from the North American Urinary Tract Infection Collaborative Alliance (NAUTICA)
    George G Zhanel
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, and Department of Medicine, Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Man, Canada
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 27:468-75. 2006
    ..This study reports higher rates of antibiotic resistance in US versus Canadian outpatient urinary isolates of E. coli and demonstrates the continuing evolution of resistance to antimicrobial agents...
  38. doi request reprint Ceftaroline: a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    George G Zhanel
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Drugs 69:809-31. 2009
    ..Further clinical studies are needed to determine the efficacy and safety of ceftaroline, and to define its role in patient care...
  39. ncbi request reprint Ceftobiprole: a review of a broad-spectrum and anti-MRSA cephalosporin
    George G Zhanel
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Am J Clin Dermatol 9:245-54. 2008
    ..Further clinical studies are needed to determine the efficacy and safety of ceftobiprole and to define its role in patient care...
  40. doi request reprint Antimicrobial susceptibility of 3931 organisms isolated from intensive care units in Canada: Canadian National Intensive Care Unit Study, 2005/2006
    George G Zhanel
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 62:67-80. 2008
    ..aeruginosa), respectively...
  41. pmc Increasing genetic relatedness of ciprofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in Canada from 1997 to 2005
    Kimberly A Nichol
    Diagnostic Services of Manitoba Department of Clinical Microbiology, Health Sciences Centre, MS673 820 Sherbrook St, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3A 1R9, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:1190-4. 2008
    ..Increased genetic homogeneity among the isolates from 2003 to 2005 (cluster analysis; P < 0.001) appeared to be due to expansion of existing clonal groups and to introduction of new PFGE types...
  42. ncbi request reprint Piperacillin-tazobactam: a beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination
    Alfred Gin
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Canada
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 5:365-83. 2007
    ..Piperacillin-tazobactam has an excellent safety and tolerability profile and continues to be a reliable option for the empiric treatment of moderate-to-severe infections in hospitalized patients...
  43. doi request reprint Determination of the pharmacodynamic activity of clinically achievable tigecycline serum concentrations against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, AmpC beta-lactamases and reduced susceptibility to carbapenems us
    George G Zhanel
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    J Antimicrob Chemother 64:824-8. 2009
    ..This study assessed the in vitro pharmacodynamic activity of tigecycline against E. coli with ESBLs, AmpCs and CRS...
  44. doi request reprint Prevalence of antimicrobial resistant pathogens from blood cultures from Canadian hospitals: results of the CANWARD 2007-2009 study
    Heather J Adam
    Department of Microbiology, Health Sciences Centre Diagnostic Services of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3A 1R9, Canada
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 69:307-13. 2011
    ..9%]). The most active agents against Gram-negative bacilli were carbapenems (e.g., meropenem and ertapenem) and piperacillin-tazobactam, while for Gram-positive cocci, they were vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin...
  45. ncbi request reprint Tigecycline: a novel glycylcycline antibiotic
    George G Zhanel
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Health Sciences Centre, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 4:9-25. 2006
    ..e., nausea, vomiting and diarrhea) the most commonly reported. Tigecycline is a promising new broad-spectrum parenteral monotherapy for the treatment of patients with Gram-positive and -negative bacterial infections...
  46. pmc In vitro activity of Iclaprim against respiratory and bacteremic isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    George G Zhanel
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:1690-2. 2009
    ..The potential clinical utility of iclaprim to treat patients with pneumococcal infections may depend upon the current prevalence of resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in this pathogen...
  47. doi request reprint New lipoglycopeptides: a comparative review of dalbavancin, oritavancin and telavancin
    George G Zhanel
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Drugs 70:859-86. 2010
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint Role of efflux mechanisms on fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    George G Zhanel
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Manitoba, Canada
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 24:529-35. 2004
    ..In the meantime, appropriate antibiotic selection and optimal dosing strategies should aim to eradicate the causative pathogen before a resistant efflux mutant can emerge...
  49. ncbi request reprint The glycylcyclines: a comparative review with the tetracyclines
    George G Zhanel
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Drugs 64:63-88. 2004
    ..e. nausea, vomiting and headache). Tigecycline appears to be a promising new antibacterial based on in vitro and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic activity; however more clinical data are needed to fully evaluate its potential...
  50. ncbi request reprint Comparative review of the carbapenems
    George G Zhanel
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Drugs 67:1027-52. 2007
    ..aeruginosa than meropenem. Clinical trials are required to establish the efficacy and safety of doripenem in moderate to severe infections, including nosocomial infections...
  51. pmc In vitro susceptibilities of gram-negative bacteria isolated from hospitalized patients in four European countries, Canada, and the United States in 2000-2001 to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and comparator antimicrobials: implications for therapy
    Richard P Wenzel
    Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond Focus Technologies, Herndon, Virginia 20171, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:3089-98. 2003
    ..The present study demonstrated that established parenteral expanded-spectrum cephalosporin antimicrobial agents retain significant in vitro activity against many clinically important gram-negative pathogens...
  52. pmc Trends in antimicrobial resistance among urinary tract infection isolates of Escherichia coli from female outpatients in the United States
    James A Karlowsky
    Focus Technologies, Inc, 13665 Dulles Technology Drive, Suite 200, Herndon, VA 20171 4603, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:2540-5. 2002
    ..8 to 17.0%) from 1995 to 2001 but demonstrated considerable regional and institutional variation in 2001. Therapies other than SXT may need to be considered in some locations...
  53. pmc Longitudinal assessment of antipneumococcal susceptibility in the United States
    Mark E Jones
    Focus Technologies, Inc, Koniginneweg 11, 1217 KP Hilversum, The Netherlands
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:2651-5. 2002
    ..4%; P < 0.001), and levofloxacin (0.3%; P = 0.017). Resistance to ceftriaxone (0.1%; P = 0.809) and moxifloxacin (0.03%; P = 0.570) decreased. Concurrently, multidrug resistance increased (P < 0.001) from 6.3% to 11.3%...
  54. pmc Determining Linezolid's baseline in vitro activity in Canada using gram-positive clinical isolates collected prior to its national release
    James A Karlowsky
    Focus Technologies, Inc, Herndon, Virginia 20171 4603, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:1989-92. 2002
    ..Future studies will determine how linezolid clinical use in Canada affects its in vitro activity...
  55. pmc Activities of faropenem, an oral beta-lactam, against recent U.S. isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis
    Ian A Critchley
    Focus Technologies, Inc formerly MRL, Herndon, Virginia 20171, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:550-5. 2002
    ..influenzae strains, respectively; and 0.12 and 0.5 microg/ml for beta-lactamase-negative and -positive M. catarrhalis strains, respectively. Faropenem holds promise as an oral therapy for community-acquired respiratory tract infections...
  56. doi request reprint In vitro activity of ceftobiprole against clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa obtained from Canadian intensive care unit (ICU) patients as part of the CAN-ICU Study
    Andrew Walkty
    J Antimicrob Chemother 62:206-8. 2008
  57. ncbi request reprint Susceptibility to fluoroquinolones among commonly isolated Gram-negative bacilli in 2000: TRUST and TSN data for the United States. Tracking Resistance in the United States Today. The Surveillance Network
    James A Karlowsky
    Focus Technologies Inc, 13665 Dulles Technology Drive, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 19:21-31. 2002
    ..TRUST centralized in vitro and electronic (TSN) surveillance methods provided an effective strategy for monitoring trends in resistance...
  58. ncbi request reprint Activity of cefditoren against beta-lactamase-positive and -negative Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis
    James A Karlowsky
    Focus Technologies, Inc, 13665 Dulles Technology Drive, Herndon, Virginia 20171, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 42:53-8. 2002
    ..5 and 1 microg/mL inhibited 93.1 and 100% of M. catarrhalis isolates, respectively. We conclude that cefditoren is highly active in vitro against beta-lactamase-positive H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis...
  59. ncbi request reprint In vitro susceptibility of recent clinical isolates of pneumococci to the investigational cephalosporin cefditoren
    James A Karlowsky
    Focus Technologies, Inc formerly MRL, 13665 Dulles Technology Drive, Herndon, Virginia 20171, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 42:59-64. 2002
    ..The potent in vitro activity of cefditoren against a recent US collection of pneumococci as demonstrated in this study supports its continued development for oral empiric therapy in outpatients with respiratory tract infections...
  60. pmc In vitro activities of broad-spectrum cephalosporins against nonmeningeal isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae: MIC interpretation using NCCLS M100-S12 recommendations
    Daniel F Sahm
    Focus Technologies, Inc, Herndon, Virginia 20171, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 40:669-74. 2002
    ..3% were resistant. Overall, the new M100-S12 ceftriaxone and cefotaxime interpretative breakpoints for nonmeningeal isolates of S. pneumoniae decreased the number of isolates interpreted as intermediate by 10% and as resistant by 3 to 4%...
  61. ncbi request reprint Apparent plateau in beta-lactamase production among clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in the United States: results from the LIBRA Surveillance initiative
    Mark E Jones
    Focus Technologies, Koninginneweg 11, 1217 KP, Hilversum, The Netherlands
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 19:119-23. 2002
    ..In summary, antimicrobial susceptibilities and the prevalence of beta-lactamase production in H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis in the United States has remained essentially unchanged from 1997-1998 to 1999...
  62. ncbi request reprint Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from respiratory and skin and soft tissue infections: United States LIBRA surveillance data from 1999
    Ian A Critchley
    Focus Technologies, Inc formerly MRL, 13665 Dulles Technology Drive, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 42:129-35. 2002
    ..Given the higher rates of macrolide resistance reported in other countries and the seriousness of invasive infections, continued antimicrobial surveillance of S. pyogenes in the United States would be prudent...
  63. ncbi request reprint Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of levofloxacin-resistant clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae collected in 13 countries during 1999-2000
    Ian A Critchley
    Focus Technologies, Inc, 13665 Dulles Technology Drive, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 20:100-7. 2002
    ..Future studies to characterise resistant isolates by other molecular methods may ensure that the appropriate counter-measures can be taken to control the spread of resistant isolates...
  64. ncbi request reprint Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolated in two successive respiratory seasons in the US
    James A Karlowsky
    Focus Technologies Inc, 13665 Dulles Technology Drive, Suite 200, Herndon, VA 20171 4603, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 20:76-85. 2002
    ..However, a significant regional variation in S. pneumoniae susceptibilities was observed, as was a decrease in beta-lactamase rates among H. influenzae from the 1999-2000 to 2000-2001 respiratory seasons...
  65. pmc Comparison of four antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods to determine the in vitro activities of piperacillin and piperacillin-tazobactam against clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    James A Karlowsky
    Focus Technologies, Herndon, Virginia 20171, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:3339-43. 2003
    ..1% of the results for E. aerogenes isolates and 6.0% of the results for E. cloacae isolates tested with the Vitek system...
  66. pmc Susceptibilities to levofloxacin in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis clinical isolates from children: results from 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 TRUST studies in the United States
    James A Karlowsky
    Focus Technologies, Herndon, Virginia 20171, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:1790-7. 2003
    ..pneumoniae were susceptible to levofloxacin. If fluoroquinolones become a treatment option for pediatric patients, careful monitoring of fluoroquinolone susceptibilities will be increasingly important in future surveillance studies...
  67. ncbi request reprint In vitro synergy studies using aztreonam and fluoroquinolone combinations against six species of Gram-negative bacilli
    Ian A Critchley
    Focus Technologies, Herndon, VA 20171, USA
    Chemotherapy 49:44-8. 2003
    ..Combination antimicrobial therapy is often necessary to eradicate infections caused by gram-negative bacteria...
  68. pmc Surveillance for antimicrobial susceptibility among clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii from hospitalized patients in the United States, 1998 to 2001
    James A Karlowsky
    Focus Technologies, Herndon, Virginia 20171, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:1681-8. 2003
    ..aeruginosa and A. baumannii were constant or decreased only marginally (</=3%) from 1998 to 2001. Greater decreases in susceptibility rates were, however, observed for fluoroquinolones and ceftazidime among P. aeruginosa isolates...
  69. pmc Trends in antimicrobial susceptibilities among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from hospitalized patients in the United States from 1998 to 2001
    James A Karlowsky
    Focus Technologies, Herndon, Virginia 20171, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:1672-80. 2003
    ..Ongoing surveillance of Enterobacteriaceae will be particularly important to monitor changes in fluoroquinolone susceptibility, as well as changes in the prevalence of isolates resistant to multiple classes of antimicrobial agents...
  70. ncbi request reprint Factors associated with relative rates of antimicrobial resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States: results from the TRUST Surveillance Program (1998-2002)
    James A Karlowsky
    Focus Technologies, Herndon, Virginia 20171 4603, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 36:963-70. 2003
    ..53), and azithromycin (R2=0.41). Patient age, specimen source, and penicillin resistance were factors associated with antimicrobial resistance, particularly for nonfluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents...
  71. ncbi request reprint Importance of using current NCCLS breakpoints to interpret cefotaxime and ceftriaxone MICs for Streptococcus pneumoniae
    James A Karlowsky
    J Antimicrob Chemother 51:467-8. 2003
  72. pmc Reinterpretation of susceptibility data using current NCCLS breakpoint criteria
    Mark E Jones
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:830. 2003
  73. ncbi request reprint Susceptibility of antimicrobial-resistant urinary Escherichia coli isolates to fluoroquinolones and nitrofurantoin
    James A Karlowsky
    Focus Technologies, Herndon, Virginia 20171 4603, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 36:183-7. 2003
    ..4% of ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates (683 of 6560) were resistant to nitrofurantoin. An association between resistance to fluoroquinolones and nitrofurantoin in E. coli has not been previously reported and warrants further study...
  74. ncbi request reprint The activity of levofloxacin and comparator agents against clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae collected worldwide during 1999 and 2000
    Mark E Jones
    Focus Technologies Inc, Hilversum, The Netherlands
    Chemotherapy 48:232-7. 2002
    ..Increases in penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae have been documented worldwide...
  75. pmc Clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae with different susceptibilities to ceftriaxone and cefotaxime
    James A Karlowsky
    Focus Technologies, Herndon, Virginia 20171, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:3155-60. 2003
    ..Whether such isolates have increased in prevalence over time remains unknown...
  76. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria causing skin and soft tissue infections in the USA and Europe: a guide to appropriate antimicrobial therapy
    Mark E Jones
    Focus Technologies, Dwarsdijk 30, 3612AP Tienhoven, Netherlands
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 22:406-19. 2003
    ..For P. aeruginosa piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin, imipenem and ceftazidime were the most active compounds tested irrespective of region. Surveillance data should be considered when selecting empirical therapy for treating SSTI...
  77. ncbi request reprint The activity of levofloxacin and other antimicrobials against clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae collected worldwide during 1999-2002
    Mark E Jones
    Focus Technologies Inc, Dwarsdijk 30, 3612AP Tienhoven, The Netherlands
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 47:579-86. 2003
    ..3%-0.7%) and in Asia (3.0-3.2%), but little or no change was seen in Mexico (3.8%-0%) or Brazil or South Africa, where no levofloxacin resistant isolates were detected in either study period...
  78. ncbi request reprint Stable antimicrobial susceptibility rates for clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the 2001-2003 tracking resistance in the United States today surveillance studies
    James A Karlowsky
    Focus Bio Inova, Herndon, Virginia 20171 4603, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 40:S89-98. 2005
    ..Ongoing surveillance of P. aeruginosa is essential...
  79. ncbi request reprint Activity of faropenem, a new furanem, against European respiratory pathogens collected during 2000-2001: a comparison with other beta-lactam agents
    Mark E Jones
    J Antimicrob Chemother 51:196-9. 2003
  80. ncbi request reprint Virulence characteristics and phylogenetic background of multidrug-resistant and antimicrobial-susceptible clinical isolates of Escherichia coli from across the United States, 2000-2001
    James R Johnson
    Mucosal and Vaccine Research Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55417, USA
    J Infect Dis 190:1739-44. 2004
    ..Increases in antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli have been paralleled by an increasing incidence of E. coli sepsis, suggesting a possible link between resistance and virulence...
  81. pmc In vitro activities of novel nonfluorinated quinolones PGE 9262932 and PGE 9509924 against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae with defined mutations in DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV
    Mark E Jones
    Focus Technologies, Hilversum, The Netherlands Focus Technologies, Herndon, Virginia, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:1651-7. 2002
    ..aureus or S. pneumoniae was detected for the two NFQs. On the basis of their in vitro activities, these NFQ agents show potential for the treatment of infections caused by isolates resistant to currently available fluoroquinolones...
  82. ncbi request reprint Antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria most commonly isolated from bone related infections: the role of cephalosporins in antimicrobial therapy
    Mark E Jones
    Focus Technologies Inc, 13665 Dulles Technology Drive, Suite 200, Herndon, VA, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 23:240-6. 2004
    ....
  83. pmc In vitro antimicrobial activity of doripenem, a new carbapenem
    Yigong Ge
    Peninsula Pharmaceuticals, Alameda, California 94502, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:1384-96. 2004
    ..Overall, doripenem demonstrated in vitro activity similar to that of meropenem against gram-negative pathogens and to that of imipenem against gram-positive pathogens...
  84. ncbi request reprint In vitro antibacterial activity of the peptide deformylase inhibitor BB-83698
    Denene Lofland
    Genesoft Pharmaceuticals, Inc, 7300 Shoreline Court, South San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 53:664-8. 2004
    ..BB-83698 is a peptide deformylase inhibitor currently in clinical trials in Europe. The purpose of this study was to provide additional susceptibility data from clinical isolates, including drug-resistant strains...
  85. pmc Factors influencing fluoroquinolone resistance
    Daniel F Sahm
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:1651-4. 2003
  86. pmc Factors associated with relative rates of antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates tested in clinical laboratories in the United States from 1999 to 2002
    Robert K Flamm
    Focus Technologies, 13665 Dulles Technology Drive, Suite 200, Herndon, VA 20171 4603, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:2431-6. 2004
    ..Multidrug resistance (MDR) (resistance to three or more antimicrobial agents) accounted for 24.9% of all isolates. The MDR rate was highest in isolates from patients in nursing homes (29.9%) and ICU (29.5%)...
  87. ncbi request reprint Antibiotic resistance - is resistance detected by surveillance relevant to predicting resistance in the clinical setting?
    James A Karlowsky
    Focus Technologies, 13665 Dulles Technology Drive, Herndon, VA 20171 4603, USA
    Curr Opin Pharmacol 2:487-92. 2002
    ....
  88. pmc In vitro activity of API-1252, a novel FabI inhibitor, against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis
    James A Karlowsky
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:1580-1. 2007
  89. pmc Antimicrobial surveillance of Haemophilus influenzae in the United States during 2000-2001 leads to detection of clonal dissemination of a beta-lactamase-negative and ampicillin-resistant strain
    James A Karlowsky
    Focus Technologies, Inc, Herndon, Virginia 20171 1217 KP Hilversum, The Netherlands
    J Clin Microbiol 40:1063-6. 2002
    ..Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA following SmaI digestion demonstrated identical patterns for each of the nine isolates, suggesting intra- and interhospital dissemination of a BLNAR clone...
  90. ncbi request reprint Regional trends in antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in the United States: results from the TRUST Surveillance Program, 1999-2000
    Clyde Thornsberry
    Focus Technologies Inc, Nashville, TN, USA answers com
    Clin Infect Dis 34:S4-S16. 2002
    ..6%) and M. catarrhalis (86.2%-96.8%) also varied by region. Notable variation in regional antimicrobial resistance rates (S. pneumoniae) and beta-lactamase production (H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis) exists throughout the United States...
  91. pmc Baseline study to determine in vitro activities of daptomycin against gram-positive pathogens isolated in the United States in 2000-2001
    Ian A Critchley
    Focus Technologies, Inc, Herndon, Virginia, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:1689-93. 2003
    ..This study may serve as a baseline to monitor future changes in the susceptibility of gram-positive species to daptomycin following its introduction into clinical use...
  92. pmc Relationship between antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and that in Haemophilus influenzae: evidence for common selective pressure
    Mark E Jones
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:3106-7. 2002