Clay B Holroyd

Summary

Affiliation: University of Victoria
Country: Canada

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Theories of anterior cingulate cortex function: opportunity cost
    Clay B Holroyd
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, V8W 3P5, Canada http web uvic ca lccl
    Behav Brain Sci 36:693-4; discussion 707-26. 2013
  2. doi request reprint Motivation of extended behaviors by anterior cingulate cortex
    Clay B Holroyd
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, P O Box 3050 Victoria, BC V8W 3P5, Canada
    Trends Cogn Sci 16:122-8. 2012
  3. doi request reprint Electrophysiological evidence of atypical motivation and reward processing in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Clay B Holroyd
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, PO Box 3050 STN CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P5 Canada
    Neuropsychologia 46:2234-42. 2008
  4. doi request reprint When is an error not a prediction error? An electrophysiological investigation
    Clay B Holroyd
    University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 9:59-70. 2009
  5. doi request reprint Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex integrates reinforcement history to guide voluntary behavior
    Clay B Holroyd
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, P O Box 3050 STN CSC, Victoria, Canada BC V8W 3P5
    Cortex 44:548-59. 2008
  6. ncbi request reprint The good, the bad and the neutral: electrophysiological responses to feedback stimuli
    Clay B Holroyd
    Department of Psychology University of Victoria, PO Box 3050 STN CSC Victoria, Canada BC V8W 3P5
    Brain Res 1105:93-101. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint A mechanism for error detection in speeded response time tasks
    Clay B Holroyd
    Department of Psychology, Princeton University, NJ, USA
    J Exp Psychol Gen 134:163-91. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex shows fMRI response to internal and external error signals
    Clay B Holroyd
    Department of Psychology, Green Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Nat Neurosci 7:497-8. 2004
  9. doi request reprint The topographical N170: electrophysiological evidence of a neural mechanism for human spatial navigation
    Travis E Baker
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
    Biol Psychol 94:90-105. 2013
  10. doi request reprint Individual differences in substance dependence: at the intersection of brain, behaviour and cognition
    Travis E Baker
    Department of Psychology, Center of Addiction Research of British Columbia, Child and Youth Care, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada
    Addict Biol 16:458-66. 2011

Research Grants

  1. Adaptive Regulation of Cognitive Control
    Clay Holroyd; Fiscal Year: 2003

Detail Information

Publications45

  1. doi request reprint Theories of anterior cingulate cortex function: opportunity cost
    Clay B Holroyd
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, V8W 3P5, Canada http web uvic ca lccl
    Behav Brain Sci 36:693-4; discussion 707-26. 2013
    ..This proposal suggests that the ACC selects extended goal-directed actions according to their learned costs and benefits and executes those behaviors subject to depleting resources. ..
  2. doi request reprint Motivation of extended behaviors by anterior cingulate cortex
    Clay B Holroyd
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, P O Box 3050 Victoria, BC V8W 3P5, Canada
    Trends Cogn Sci 16:122-8. 2012
    ..This theory accounts for ACC activity in relation to learning and control while simultaneously explaining the effects of ACC damage as disrupting the motivational context supporting the production of goal-directed action sequences...
  3. doi request reprint Electrophysiological evidence of atypical motivation and reward processing in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Clay B Holroyd
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, PO Box 3050 STN CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P5 Canada
    Neuropsychologia 46:2234-42. 2008
    ..This result indicates that children with ADHD are unusually sensitive to the salience of reward and suggests that such sensitivity may be mediated in part by the midbrain dopamine system...
  4. doi request reprint When is an error not a prediction error? An electrophysiological investigation
    Clay B Holroyd
    University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 9:59-70. 2009
    ..This observation suggests that ACC utilizes dopamine reward prediction error signals for adaptive decision making when the optimal behavior is, in fact, learnable...
  5. doi request reprint Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex integrates reinforcement history to guide voluntary behavior
    Clay B Holroyd
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, P O Box 3050 STN CSC, Victoria, Canada BC V8W 3P5
    Cortex 44:548-59. 2008
    ..This finding is consistent with the position that dACC integrates the recent history of reinforcements to guide voluntary choice behavior, as opposed to evaluating behaviors per se...
  6. ncbi request reprint The good, the bad and the neutral: electrophysiological responses to feedback stimuli
    Clay B Holroyd
    Department of Psychology University of Victoria, PO Box 3050 STN CSC Victoria, Canada BC V8W 3P5
    Brain Res 1105:93-101. 2006
    ..This result is consistent with recent proposals that the evaluative system that produces the fERN classifies outcomes into two categories: those outcomes that indicate that a goal has been satisfied and those that do not...
  7. ncbi request reprint A mechanism for error detection in speeded response time tasks
    Clay B Holroyd
    Department of Psychology, Princeton University, NJ, USA
    J Exp Psychol Gen 134:163-91. 2005
    ..B. Holroyd & M. G. H. Coles, 2002). The model is used to simulate behavioral and event-related brain potential data in a speeded response time task, and the results of the simulation are compared with empirical data...
  8. ncbi request reprint Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex shows fMRI response to internal and external error signals
    Clay B Holroyd
    Department of Psychology, Green Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Nat Neurosci 7:497-8. 2004
    ....
  9. doi request reprint The topographical N170: electrophysiological evidence of a neural mechanism for human spatial navigation
    Travis E Baker
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
    Biol Psychol 94:90-105. 2013
    ..These results hold promise for integrating ERP measures of spatial navigation with extensive animal, human, and computational literatures on parahippocampal function. ..
  10. doi request reprint Individual differences in substance dependence: at the intersection of brain, behaviour and cognition
    Travis E Baker
    Department of Psychology, Center of Addiction Research of British Columbia, Child and Youth Care, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada
    Addict Biol 16:458-66. 2011
    ..These results highlight important neurobiological and behavioral differences between two classes of dependent users that can inform the development of individually tailored treatment programs...
  11. doi request reprint Learning to become an expert: reinforcement learning and the acquisition of perceptual expertise
    Olav E Krigolson
    University of Victoria, Canada
    J Cogn Neurosci 21:1834-41. 2009
    ..Our results suggest that the acquisition of perceptual expertise relies on interactions between the posterior perceptual system and the reinforcement learning system involving medial-frontal cortex...
  12. doi request reprint Which way do I go? Neural activation in response to feedback and spatial processing in a virtual T-maze
    Travis E Baker
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P5, Canada
    Cereb Cortex 19:1708-22. 2009
    ..Taken together, these results confirm a fundamental prediction of a dopamine theory of the fERN and suggest that the dopamine and MTL systems may interact in navigational learning tasks...
  13. ncbi request reprint ERP correlates of feedback and reward processing in the presence and absence of response choice
    Nick Yeung
    Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Cereb Cortex 15:535-44. 2005
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Sensitivity of electrophysiological activity from medial frontal cortex to utilitarian and performance feedback
    Sander Nieuwenhuis
    Department of Psychology, Princeton University, NJ, USA
    Cereb Cortex 14:741-7. 2004
    ..The results are consistent with the view that the two components are manifestations of the same underlying cognitive and neural process...
  15. ncbi request reprint Theta phase resetting and the error-related negativity
    Nick Yeung
    Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Psychophysiology 44:39-49. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that the proposed analysis methods cannot provide unambiguous evidence that the ERN is generated by phase resetting of ongoing oscillations...
  16. ncbi request reprint It's worse than you thought: the feedback negativity and violations of reward prediction in gambling tasks
    Greg Hajcak
    Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 9500, USA
    Psychophysiology 44:905-12. 2007
    ..These data suggest that the magnitude of the feedback negativity is sensitive to violations of reward prediction, but that this effect may depend on the close coupling of prediction and outcome...
  17. doi request reprint Dissociated roles of the anterior cingulate cortex in reward and conflict processing as revealed by the feedback error-related negativity and N200
    Travis E Baker
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, BC, Canada
    Biol Psychol 87:25-34. 2011
    ..These results point toward avenues for future investigation...
  18. ncbi request reprint The feedback-related negativity reflects the binary evaluation of good versus bad outcomes
    Greg Hajcak
    Department of Psychology, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA
    Biol Psychol 71:148-54. 2006
    ..These data are discussed in terms of contemporary theories of the FRN, as well as appraisal processes implicated in emotional processing...
  19. doi request reprint Frontal midline theta and N200 amplitude reflect complementary information about expectancy and outcome evaluation
    Azadeh Hajihosseini
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
    Psychophysiology 50:550-62. 2013
    ....
  20. doi request reprint The feedback correct-related positivity: sensitivity of the event-related brain potential to unexpected positive feedback
    Clay B Holroyd
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
    Psychophysiology 45:688-97. 2008
    ....
  21. ncbi request reprint Errors without conflict: implications for performance monitoring theories of anterior cingulate cortex
    Vincent van Veen
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Brain Cogn 56:267-76. 2004
    ..These results question involvement of the ACC in the detection of errors per se when controlling for conflict...
  22. ncbi request reprint Reward prediction error signals associated with a modified time estimation task
    Clay B Holroyd
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada
    Psychophysiology 44:913-7. 2007
    ..As predicted by the theory, our results indicate that fERN amplitude reflects a reward prediction error signal and that the size of this error signal is correlated across participants with changes in task performance...
  23. doi request reprint What can topology changes in the oddball N2 reveal about underlying processes?
    Christopher M Warren
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
    Neuroreport 22:870-4. 2011
    ..Thus, the oddball N2 has a variable scalp distribution that depends on the relative engagement of cortical areas, consistent with noradrenergic modulation having the greatest impact in those areas mostly engaged by the task at hand...
  24. ncbi request reprint Predictive information and error processing: the role of medial-frontal cortex during motor control
    Olav E Krigolson
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
    Psychophysiology 44:586-95. 2007
    ..Furthermore, in both experiments the predicted error waveforms had an earlier peak latency than the unpredicted error waveforms. These results demonstrate that the medial-frontal error system can evaluate predictive error information...
  25. ncbi request reprint Hierarchical error processing: different errors, different systems
    Olav E Krigolson
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada
    Brain Res 1155:70-80. 2007
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint Brain potentials associated with expected and unexpected good and bad outcomes
    Greg Hajcak
    Department of Psychology, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA
    Psychophysiology 42:161-70. 2005
    ..These results are discussed in terms of the potential role of expectations in processing errors and negative feedback...
  27. doi request reprint Electroencephalographic correlates of target and outcome errors
    Olav E Krigolson
    Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Exp Brain Res 190:401-11. 2008
    ..Importantly, this result suggests that a reinforcement learning system within medial-frontal cortex may play a role in improving subsequent motor output...
  28. doi request reprint Reward positivity elicited by predictive cues
    Clay B Holroyd
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
    Neuroreport 22:249-52. 2011
    ..These results indicate that the reward positivity reflects the initial assessment of whether a trial will end in success or failure and the reappraisal of that information once the outcome actually occurs...
  29. ncbi request reprint Context dependence of the event-related brain potential associated with reward and punishment
    Clay B Holroyd
    Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA
    Psychophysiology 41:245-53. 2004
    ..This result is discussed in terms of a recent theory that holds that the ERN reflects a reward prediction error signal associated with a neural system for reinforcement learning...
  30. ncbi request reprint Errors in reward prediction are reflected in the event-related brain potential
    Clay B Holroyd
    Department of Psychology, Princeton University, NJ 08544, USA
    Neuroreport 14:2481-4. 2003
    ..Consistent with the theory, we found that larger ERNs were elicited by unexpected absences of reward...
  31. ncbi request reprint Detection of synchronized oscillations in the electroencephalogram: an evaluation of methods
    Nick Yeung
    Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA
    Psychophysiology 41:822-32. 2004
    ..These findings suggest that proposed analysis methods may not effectively disambiguate competing views of ERP generation...
  32. ncbi request reprint Alcohol and error processing
    Clay B Holroyd
    Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Trends Neurosci 26:402-4. 2003
    ....
  33. doi request reprint Constraints on decision making: implications from genetics, personality, and addiction
    Travis E Baker
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, P O Box 3050, STN CSC, Victoria, British Columbia, V8W 3P5, Canada
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 13:417-36. 2013
    ..These results highlight a need for future research to validate the PST as a measure of basal ganglia reward learning. ..
  34. pmc The Impact of Deliberative Strategy Dissociates ERP Components Related to Conflict Processing vs. Reinforcement Learning
    Christopher M Warren
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria Victoria, BC, Canada
    Front Neurosci 6:43. 2012
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint A computational account of altered error processing in older age: dopamine and the error-related negativity
    Sander Nieuwenhuis
    University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2:19-36. 2002
    ..These age changes could be simulated by manipulation of a single parameter of the neurocomputational model, this manipulation corresponding to weakened phasic activity of the mesencephalic dopamine system...
  36. ncbi request reprint Reinforcement-related brain potentials from medial frontal cortex: origins and functional significance
    Sander Nieuwenhuis
    Department of Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 28:441-8. 2004
    ..Our review is organized around a set of predictions derived from a recent theory, which holds that the ERN is associated with the arrival of a negative reward prediction error signal in anterior cingulate cortex...
  37. ncbi request reprint Medial prefrontal cortex and error potentials
    Clay B Holroyd
    Science 296:1610-1 author reply 1610-1. 2002
  38. ncbi request reprint Knowing good from bad: differential activation of human cortical areas by positive and negative outcomes
    Sander Nieuwenhuis
    Department of Cognitive Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Eur J Neurosci 21:3161-8. 2005
    ..These results support a new hypothesis regarding the neural generators of the FRN, and have important implications for the use of this component as an electrophysiological index of performance monitoring and reward processing...
  39. ncbi request reprint Neural dynamics of error processing in medial frontal cortex
    Rogier B Mars
    F C Donders Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Neuroimage 28:1007-13. 2005
    ..Specifically, these data illustrate how the anterior cingulate receives evaluative information, indicating that an action has not produced the desired result...
  40. doi request reprint Anterior cingulate cortex signals the requirement to break inertia when switching tasks: a study of the bivalency effect
    Todd S Woodward
    Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Neuroimage 40:1311-8. 2008
    ..e., conflict is not elicited by the current stimulus), and/or may support a more generalized account of dACC function involving monitoring internal states for conditions that may require adjustments in control over the course of action...
  41. pmc Learning-related changes in brain activity following errors and performance feedback in schizophrenia
    Sarah E Morris
    VA Capitol Network VISN 5 Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center, 10 No Greene St, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Schizophr Res 99:274-85. 2008
    ..These findings suggest that reward-related brain activity is weakened in schizophrenia, perhaps reflecting diminished sensitivity to whether ongoing events are better or worse than expected...
  42. ncbi request reprint Decision-making in Blackjack: an electrophysiological analysis
    Johannes Hewig
    Department of Biological and Clinical Psychology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany
    Cereb Cortex 17:865-77. 2007
    ....
  43. ncbi request reprint Spared error-related potentials in mild to moderate Parkinson's disease
    Clay B Holroyd
    Cognitive Psychophysiology Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, USA
    Neuropsychologia 40:2116-24. 2002
    ..These results are discussed in terms of disease progression...
  44. ncbi request reprint Activity in human reward-sensitive brain areas is strongly context dependent
    Sander Nieuwenhuis
    Department of Cognitive Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Neuroimage 25:1302-9. 2005
    ..These results provide important evidence regarding the way in which the brain scales the motivational value of events by the context in which these events occur...
  45. ncbi request reprint The neural basis of human error processing: reinforcement learning, dopamine, and the error-related negativity
    Clay B Holroyd
    Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, USA
    Psychol Rev 109:679-709. 2002
    ..They provide support for this proposal using both computational modeling and psychophysiological experimentation...

Research Grants1

  1. Adaptive Regulation of Cognitive Control
    Clay Holroyd; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..