R E Grunau

Summary

Affiliation: University of British Columbia
Country: Canada

Publications

  1. pmc Neonatal pain-related stress and NFKBIA genotype are associated with altered cortisol levels in preterm boys at school age
    Ruth E Grunau
    Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Developmental Neurosciences and Child Health, Child and Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    PLoS ONE 8:e73926. 2013
  2. pmc Neonatal pain-related stress predicts cortical thickness at age 7 years in children born very preterm
    Manon Ranger
    Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Developmental Neurosciences and Child Health, Child and Family Research Institute, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    PLoS ONE 8:e76702. 2013
  3. doi request reprint Cortisol, behavior, and heart rate reactivity to immunization pain at 4 months corrected age in infants born very preterm
    Ruth E Grunau
    Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada
    Clin J Pain 26:698-704. 2010
  4. pmc Altered basal cortisol levels at 3, 6, 8 and 18 months in infants born at extremely low gestational age
    Ruth E Grunau
    Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    J Pediatr 150:151-6. 2007
  5. pmc Neonatal procedural pain exposure predicts lower cortisol and behavioral reactivity in preterm infants in the NICU
    Ruth E Grunau
    Centre for Community Child Health Research, British Columbia Research Institute for Children s and Women s Health, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Pain 113:293-300. 2005
  6. ncbi request reprint Long-term consequences of pain in human neonates
    Ruth E Grunau
    Centre for Community Child Health Research, Child and Family Research Institute, Vancouver, Canada
    Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 11:268-75. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint Psychosocial and academic characteristics of extremely low birth weight (< or =800 g) adolescents who are free of major impairment compared with term-born control subjects
    Ruth E Grunau
    Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Pediatrics 114:e725-32. 2004
  8. pmc Neonatal procedural pain and preterm infant cortisol response to novelty at 8 months
    Ruth E Grunau
    Centre for Community Child Health Research, British Columbia Research Institute for Children s and Women s Health, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Pediatrics 114:e77-84. 2004
  9. ncbi request reprint Early pain in preterm infants. A model of long-term effects
    Ruth Grunau
    Centre for Community Child Health Research, Room L408, B C Research Institute for Children s and Women s Health, Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, 4480 Oak Street, Vancouver, BC V6H 3V4, Canada
    Clin Perinatol 29:373-94, vii-viii. 2002
  10. ncbi request reprint Demographic and therapeutic determinants of pain reactivity in very low birth weight neonates at 32 Weeks' postconceptional Age
    R E Grunau
    Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Pediatrics 107:105-12. 2001

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications49

  1. pmc Neonatal pain-related stress and NFKBIA genotype are associated with altered cortisol levels in preterm boys at school age
    Ruth E Grunau
    Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Developmental Neurosciences and Child Health, Child and Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    PLoS ONE 8:e73926. 2013
    ....
  2. pmc Neonatal pain-related stress predicts cortical thickness at age 7 years in children born very preterm
    Manon Ranger
    Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Developmental Neurosciences and Child Health, Child and Family Research Institute, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    PLoS ONE 8:e76702. 2013
    ..Our present aim was to evaluate whether neonatal pain-related stress (adjusted for clinical confounders of prematurity) is associated with altered cortical thickness in very preterm children at school age...
  3. doi request reprint Cortisol, behavior, and heart rate reactivity to immunization pain at 4 months corrected age in infants born very preterm
    Ruth E Grunau
    Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada
    Clin J Pain 26:698-704. 2010
    ..To our knowledge, cortisol reactivity to pain has not been compared in preterm and full-term infants. We examined pain reactivity to immunization in preterm and full-term infants...
  4. pmc Altered basal cortisol levels at 3, 6, 8 and 18 months in infants born at extremely low gestational age
    Ruth E Grunau
    Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    J Pediatr 150:151-6. 2007
    ..Little is known about the developmental trajectory of cortisol levels in preterm infants after hospital discharge...
  5. pmc Neonatal procedural pain exposure predicts lower cortisol and behavioral reactivity in preterm infants in the NICU
    Ruth E Grunau
    Centre for Community Child Health Research, British Columbia Research Institute for Children s and Women s Health, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Pain 113:293-300. 2005
    ..Differential effects of early pain on development of behavioral, physiologic and hormonal systems warrant further investigation...
  6. ncbi request reprint Long-term consequences of pain in human neonates
    Ruth E Grunau
    Centre for Community Child Health Research, Child and Family Research Institute, Vancouver, Canada
    Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 11:268-75. 2006
    ..However, there are multiple sources of stress in the NICU, which contribute to inducing high overall 'allostatic load', therefore determining specific effects of neonatal pain in human infants is challenging...
  7. ncbi request reprint Psychosocial and academic characteristics of extremely low birth weight (< or =800 g) adolescents who are free of major impairment compared with term-born control subjects
    Ruth E Grunau
    Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Pediatrics 114:e725-32. 2004
    ..To compare academic and cognitive ability, attention, attitudes, and behavior of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) adolescents who are free of major impairments at 17 years of age with term-born control subjects...
  8. pmc Neonatal procedural pain and preterm infant cortisol response to novelty at 8 months
    Ruth E Grunau
    Centre for Community Child Health Research, British Columbia Research Institute for Children s and Women s Health, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Pediatrics 114:e77-84. 2004
    ..In addition, among the preterm infants, we evaluated whether cortisol levels at 8 months were related to neonatal exposure to procedural pain and morphine in the neonatal intensive care unit...
  9. ncbi request reprint Early pain in preterm infants. A model of long-term effects
    Ruth Grunau
    Centre for Community Child Health Research, Room L408, B C Research Institute for Children s and Women s Health, Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, 4480 Oak Street, Vancouver, BC V6H 3V4, Canada
    Clin Perinatol 29:373-94, vii-viii. 2002
    ..This article provides a model for examining long-term effects of pain in the newborn period embedded in a developmental context framework...
  10. ncbi request reprint Demographic and therapeutic determinants of pain reactivity in very low birth weight neonates at 32 Weeks' postconceptional Age
    R E Grunau
    Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Pediatrics 107:105-12. 2001
    ..Management of pain in very low birth weight infants is limited by a lack of empiric knowledge about the multiple determinants of biobehavioral reactivity in infants receiving neonatal intensive care...
  11. ncbi request reprint Pattern of learning disabilities in children with extremely low birth weight and broadly average intelligence
    Ruth Eckstein Grunau
    Centre for Community Health and Health Evaluation Research, British Columbia Research Institute for Children s and Women s Health, University of British Columbia, 4480 Oak St, Vancouver, British Columbia V6H 3V4, Canada
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 156:615-20. 2002
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Are twitches, startles, and body movements pain indicators in extremely low birth weight infants?
    R E Grunau
    Centre for Community Child Health Research, British Columbia Research Institute for Children s and Women s Health, Vancouver, Canada
    Clin J Pain 16:37-45. 2000
    ..The goal of this study was to examine whether body activity such as postural, trunk, and limb movements may be potential pain cues in preterm infants...
  13. ncbi request reprint Bedside application of the Neonatal Facial Coding System in pain assessment of premature neonates
    R E Grunau
    Centre for Community Child Health Research, B C Research Institute for Children s and Women s Health, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Pain 76:277-86. 1998
    ..While bedside coding of behavior does not permit raters to be blind to events, mechanical recording of heart rate allowed for an independent source of concurrent validation for bedside application of the NFCS scale...
  14. ncbi request reprint Behavior, pain perception, and the extremely low-birth weight survivor
    M F Whitfield
    Department of Paediatrics, University of British Columbia, B C s Children s Hospital, Vancouver, Canada
    Clin Perinatol 27:363-79. 2000
    ..This is a rapidly evolving area of knowledge of clear relevance to clinical management likely to affect long-term outcomes of high-risk children...
  15. ncbi request reprint Biobehavioral pain responses in former extremely low birth weight infants at four months' corrected age
    T F Oberlander
    Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Pediatrics 105:e6. 2000
    ..To compare biobehavioral responses to acute pain at 4 months' corrected age between former extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants and term-born controls...
  16. pmc Relations between behavioral and cardiac autonomic reactivity to acute pain in preterm neonates
    S J Morison
    Center for Community Health and Health Evaluation Research, British Columbia Research Institute for Children s and Women s Health, Vancouver, Canada
    Clin J Pain 17:350-8. 2001
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess relations and concordance between behavioral and physiologic reactivity to pain in preterm neonates at 32 weeks postconceptional age as a function of gestational age at birth...
  17. doi request reprint Prenatal effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, serotonin transporter promoter genotype (SLC6A4), and maternal mood on child behavior at 3 years of age
    Tim F Oberlander
    Early Human Experience Unit, Developmental Neurosciences and Child Health, and Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 164:444-51. 2010
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Internalizing behaviors in 4-year-old children exposed in utero to psychotropic medications
    Shaila Misri
    Reproductive Mental Health Program, St Paul s Hospital, Rm 2B 185, 1081 Burrard St, Vancouver, BC V6Z 1Y6, Canada
    Am J Psychiatry 163:1026-32. 2006
    ..The authors had previously reported the effects of prenatal medication exposure in this same cohort when they were newborns and infants at 3 and 8 months of age...
  19. ncbi request reprint The expression of pain in infants and toddlers: developmental changes in facial action
    C M Lilley
    Department of Psychology, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Pain 72:161-70. 1997
    ..Reasons for the differing patterns of facial activity are examined, with attention paid to the development of inhibitory mechanisms and the role of negative emotions such as anger and anxiety...
  20. ncbi request reprint Long-term outcome after neonatal intraparenchymal echodensities with porencephaly
    R L Sherlock
    Department of Neonatology, Children s and Women s Health Center of British Columbia, 4480 Oak St, Vancouver, British Columbia V4H3V4, Canada
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 93:F127-31. 2008
    ..To compare the developmental trajectories of these infants over the childhood years with those of matched controls...
  21. pmc Neonatal pain, parenting stress and interaction, in relation to cognitive and motor development at 8 and 18 months in preterm infants
    Ruth E Grunau
    Centre for Community Child Health Research, Child and Family Research Institute, Room F605B, 4480 Oak St, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6H 3V4
    Pain 143:138-46. 2009
    ..Lower parenting stress modulated effects of neonatal pain, only on cognitive outcome at 18 months...
  22. pmc Is it painful or not? Discriminant validity of the Behavioral Indicators of Infant Pain (BIIP) scale
    Liisa Holsti
    Community Child Health Research, Child and Family Research Institute, Vancouver, Canada
    Clin J Pain 24:83-8. 2008
    ....
  23. ncbi request reprint Extremity movements help occupational therapists identify stress responses in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit: a systematic review
    Liisa Holsti
    Centre for Community Child Health Research, Child and Family Research Institute, Children s and Women s Health Centre of British Columbia, Canada
    Can J Occup Ther 74:183-94. 2007
    ..Accurate assessment and treatment of pain and stress in preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) is vital because pain and stress responses have been linked to long-term alterations in development in this population...
  24. pmc Altered long-range alpha-band synchronization during visual short-term memory retention in children born very preterm
    Sam M Doesburg
    Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Neuroimage 54:2330-9. 2011
    ....
  25. doi request reprint Prenatal alcohol exposure alters biobehavioral reactivity to pain in newborns
    Tim F Oberlander
    Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 34:681-92. 2010
    ..5 oz absolute alcohol/d) drinkers (controls)...
  26. pmc Considerations for using sucrose to reduce procedural pain in preterm infants
    Liisa Holsti
    Developmental Neurosciences and Child Health, Child and Family Research Institute, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Pediatrics 125:1042-7. 2010
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Antenatal depression and anxiety affect postpartum parenting stress: a longitudinal, prospective study
    Shaila Misri
    Department of Psychiatry and Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia
    Can J Psychiatry 55:222-8. 2010
    ..We studied the effect of antenatal depression and anxiety and treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (antidepressants [ADs]) on postpartum parenting stress...
  28. pmc Long-range synchronization and local desynchronization of alpha oscillations during visual short-term memory retention in children
    Sam M Doesburg
    Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, L408 4480 Oak Street, Vancouver, BC, V6R 3V4, Canada
    Exp Brain Res 201:719-27. 2010
    ..Local desynchronization of alpha rhythms over posterior cortex, conversely, likely arises because of increased engagement of visual cortex during retention...
  29. ncbi request reprint School entry age outcomes for infants with birth weight ≤ 800 grams
    Anne R Synnes
    Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    J Pediatr 157:989-994.e1. 2010
    ..To evaluate the mortality and long-term morbidity rates of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs)...
  30. pmc Initial validation of the Behavioral Indicators of Infant Pain (BIIP)
    Liisa Holsti
    Centre for Community Child Health Research, Child and Family Research Institute, Vancouver, Canada
    Pain 132:264-72. 2007
    ..64, p<0.01) as were correlations between the BIIP and mean heart rate (r=0.45, p<0.01). In this initial study, the BIIP has been shown to be a reliable, valid scale for assessing acute pain in preterm infants in the NICU...
  31. pmc Body movements: an important additional factor in discriminating pain from stress in preterm infants
    Liisa Holsti
    Centre for Community Child Health Research, British Columbia Research Institute for Children s and Women s Health, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Clin J Pain 21:491-8. 2005
    ....
  32. pmc Cortisol, contingency learning, and memory in preterm and full-term infants
    David W Haley
    Centre for Community Child Health Research, British Columbia Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 31:108-17. 2006
    ..Infants who showed increased cortisol levels from 0 to 20 min on Day 1 had significantly better memory, regardless of prematurity, than infants who showed decreased cortisol levels...
  33. ncbi request reprint Prior pain induces heightened motor responses during clustered care in preterm infants in the NICU
    Liisa Holsti
    Centre for Community Child Health Research, Room F6, 4480 Oak Street, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6H 3V4
    Early Hum Dev 81:293-302. 2005
    ..Acute pain is a significant stressor for preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU); however, little is known about the effects of acute pain on subsequent motor responses during clusters of tactile handling...
  34. ncbi request reprint Biobehavioural reactivity to pain in preterm infants: a marker of neuromotor development
    Ruth E Grunau
    Centre for Community Child Health Research, Child and Family Research Institute, Canada
    Dev Med Child Neurol 48:471-6. 2006
    ..It was concluded that pain reactivity before discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit may be a useful marker of neuromotor development in infancy...
  35. pmc Specific Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program movements are associated with acute pain in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit
    Liisa Holsti
    Centre for Community Child Health Research, British Columbia Research Institute for Children s and Women s Health, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Pediatrics 114:65-72. 2004
    ..The objective of this study was to identify developmentally relevant movements indicative of pain in preterm infants...
  36. ncbi request reprint Relationships between adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol are altered during clustered nursing care in preterm infants born at extremely low gestational age
    Liisa Holsti
    Centre for Community Child Health Research, Child and Family Research Institute, Vancouver, Canada
    Early Hum Dev 83:341-8. 2007
    ..Little is known about the effects of clustered nursing care on hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) responses in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit...
  37. pmc Behavioral responses to pain are heightened after clustered care in preterm infants born between 30 and 32 weeks gestational age
    Liisa Holsti
    Centre for Community Child Health Research, Child and Family Research Institute, Vancouver, Canada
    Clin J Pain 22:757-64. 2006
    ..To compare biobehavioral pain responses of preterm infants born at differing gestational ages (GAs) when pain was preceded by a rest period or by a series of routine nursing interventions...
  38. ncbi request reprint Externalizing and attentional behaviors in children of depressed mothers treated with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant during pregnancy
    Tim F Oberlander
    Department of Pediatrics, Human Early Experience Unit, Centre for Community Child Health Research, Research Institute for Children s and Women s Health, University of British Columbia, 4480 Oak Street, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6 3V4
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 161:22-9. 2007
    ..To evaluate attentional and activity behaviors in 4-year-olds following prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) exposure...
  39. ncbi request reprint Does parenchymal brain injury affect biobehavioral pain responses in very low birth weight infants at 32 weeks' postconceptional age?
    Tim F Oberlander
    Biobehavioral Research Unit, Centre for Community Child Health Research, B C Research Institute for Children s and Women s Health, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Pediatrics 110:570-6. 2002
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine whether infants with PBI display altered responses to acute procedural pain at 32 weeks' postconceptional age (PCA), compared with control subjects...
  40. ncbi request reprint Predicting IQ of biologically "at risk" children from age 3 to school entry: sensitivity and specificity of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale IV
    R E Grunau
    Centre for Community Health and Health Evaluation Research, British Columbia Research Institute for Children s and Women s Health, Vancouver, Canada
    J Dev Behav Pediatr 21:401-7. 2000
    ..Accuracy of early identification was improved significantly by considering the number of subtests the child did not perform at age 3 years...
  41. ncbi request reprint Aerobic capacity, strength, flexibility, and activity level in unimpaired extremely low birth weight (<or=800 g) survivors at 17 years of age compared with term-born control subjects
    Marilyn Rogers
    Neonatal Follow Up Programme, Children s and Women s Health Centre of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Pediatrics 116:e58-65. 2005
    ..To compare aerobic capacity, strength, flexibility, and activity level in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) adolescents at 17 years of age with term-born control subjects...
  42. ncbi request reprint A prospective controlled study of neurodevelopment in HIV-uninfected children exposed to combination antiretroviral drugs in pregnancy
    Ariane Alimenti
    Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Pediatrics 118:e1139-45. 2006
    ....
  43. pmc Prenatal and postnatal inflammation in relation to cortisol levels in preterm infants at 18 months corrected age
    A Gover
    Developmental Neurosciences and Child Health, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    J Perinatol 33:647-51. 2013
    ..To examine whether early inflammation is related to cortisol levels at 18 months corrected age (CA) in children born very preterm...
  44. pmc Internalizing behaviours in school-age children born very preterm are predicted by neonatal pain and morphine exposure
    M Ranger
    Department of Paediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada Developmental Neurosciences and Child Health, Child and Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Eur J Pain 18:844-52. 2014
    ..We examined whether neonatal pain-related stress is associated with internalizing behaviours at age 7 years in children born very preterm, and whether morphine affects this relationship...
  45. pmc Tractography-based quantitation of corticospinal tract development in premature newborns
    Elysia Adams
    Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    J Pediatr 156:882-8, 888.e1. 2010
    ..To evaluate the impact of early brain injury and neonatal illness on corticospinal tract (CST) development in premature newborns serially studied with diffusion tensor tractography...
  46. ncbi request reprint Are there developmentally distinct motor indicators of pain in preterm infants?
    Sara J Morison
    Centre for Community Child Health Research, British Columbia Research Institute for Children s and Women s Health, Room L 408, 4480 Oak Street, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6H 3V4
    Early Hum Dev 72:131-46. 2003
    ..Extension of extremities and finger splay, but not twitches and startles, from the NIDCAP, appear to be stress cues and show promise as clinical pain indicators to supplement facial and physiological pain measures in preterm infants...
  47. ncbi request reprint Pain in vulnerable infants. Introduction
    Bonnie Stevens
    Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 50 St George Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3H4
    Clin Perinatol 29:xv-xvii. 2002
  48. pmc Does prone or supine position influence pain responses in preterm infants at 32 weeks gestational age?
    Ruth Eckstein Grunau
    Centre for Community Child Health Research, B C Research Institute for Children s and Women s Health, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Clin J Pain 20:76-82. 2004
    ..The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of prone and supine position in preterm infants during acute pain of blood collection...
  49. ncbi request reprint Pain reactivity in 2-month-old infants after prenatal and postnatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication exposure
    Tim F Oberlander
    Department of Pediatrics, Biobehavioral Research Unit, Centre for Community Child Health Research, Room L408, 4480 Oak St, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Pediatrics 115:411-25. 2005
    ..Based on previous findings showing reduced pain responses in newborns after prenatal exposure, we hypothesized that altered pain reactivity would also be found at 2 months of age...

Research Grants8

  1. PAIN IN PRETERM INFANTS--DEVELOPMENT AND EFFECTS
    Ruth Grunau; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Neurodevelopmental functioning will be assessed in follow-up at 3, 6, 8, and 18 months CCA. The results of these studies will have both theoretical importance and significant implications for clinical management of pain in VLGA infants. ..
  2. PAIN IN PRETERM INFANTS--DEVELOPMENT AND EFFECTS
    Ruth Grunau; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Neurodevelopmental functioning will be assessed in follow-up at 3, 6, 8, and 18 months CCA. The results of these studies will have both theoretical importance and significant implications for clinical management of pain in VLGA infants. ..
  3. PAIN IN PRETERM INFANTS--DEVELOPMENT AND EFFECTS
    Ruth Grunau; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Neurodevelopmental functioning will be assessed in follow-up at 3, 6, 8, and 18 months CCA. The results of these studies will have both theoretical importance and significant implications for clinical management of pain in VLGA infants. ..
  4. PAIN IN PRETERM INFANTS--DEVELOPMENT AND EFFECTS
    Ruth Grunau; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Neurodevelopmental functioning will be assessed in follow-up at 3, 6, 8, and 18 months CCA. The results of these studies will have both theoretical importance and significant implications for clinical management of pain in VLGA infants. ..
  5. PAIN IN PRETERM INFANTS--DEVELOPMENT AND EFFECTS
    Ruth Grunau; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Neurodevelopmental functioning will be assessed in follow-up at 3, 6, 8, and 18 months CCA. The results of these studies will have both theoretical importance and significant implications for clinical management of pain in VLGA infants. ..
  6. Pain in Preterm Infants: Development and Effects
    Ruth Grunau; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Further understanding of the role of maternal factors will inform strategies for intervention related to these difficulties. ..
  7. Pain in Preterm Infants: Development and Effects
    Ruth E Grunau; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Further understanding of the role of maternal factors will inform strategies for intervention related to these difficulties. ..