Susan H Fox

Summary

Affiliation: University Health Network
Country: Canada

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Parkinson's disease--opportunities for novel therapeutics to reduce the problems of levodopa therapy
    Susan H Fox
    Movement Disorders Clinic, University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Prog Brain Res 172:479-94. 2008
  2. doi request reprint Serotonin and Parkinson's disease: On movement, mood, and madness
    Susan H Fox
    Movement Disorders Clinic, University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, Ontario, Canada
    Mov Disord 24:1255-66. 2009
  3. doi request reprint Non-dopaminergic treatments for motor control in Parkinson's disease
    Susan H Fox
    Movement Disorders Clinic, Division of Neurology, University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, 399 Bathurst Street MCL7 412, Toronto, ON, M5T 2S8, Canada
    Drugs 73:1405-15. 2013
  4. doi request reprint A critique of available scales and presentation of the Non-Human Primate Dyskinesia Rating Scale
    Susan H Fox
    Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mov Disord 27:1373-8. 2012
  5. doi request reprint The Movement Disorder Society Evidence-Based Medicine Review Update: Treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease
    Susan H Fox
    Movement Disorder Clinic, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mov Disord 26:S2-41. 2011
  6. doi request reprint Levodopa-related motor complications--phenomenology
    Susan H Fox
    Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, Movement Disorders Clinic, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mov Disord 23:S509-14. 2008
  7. doi request reprint The MPTP-lesioned non-human primate models of Parkinson's disease. Past, present, and future
    Susan H Fox
    Division of Neurology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Prog Brain Res 184:133-57. 2010
  8. doi request reprint Increased levels of 5-HT1A receptor binding in ventral visual pathways in Parkinson's disease
    Philippe Huot
    Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mov Disord 27:735-42. 2012
  9. doi request reprint Characterization of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) enantiomers in vitro and in the MPTP-lesioned primate: R-MDMA reduces severity of dyskinesia, whereas S-MDMA extends duration of ON-time
    Philippe Huot
    Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8, Canada
    J Neurosci 31:7190-8. 2011
  10. doi request reprint L-DOPA pharmacokinetics in the MPTP-lesioned macaque model of Parkinson's disease
    Philippe Huot
    Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, 399 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8, Canada
    Neuropharmacology 63:829-36. 2012

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications48

  1. doi request reprint Parkinson's disease--opportunities for novel therapeutics to reduce the problems of levodopa therapy
    Susan H Fox
    Movement Disorders Clinic, University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Prog Brain Res 172:479-94. 2008
    ..Future studies are needed to develop 5-HT selective drugs that can reduce LID without affecting the anti-parkinsonian action of l-DOPA...
  2. doi request reprint Serotonin and Parkinson's disease: On movement, mood, and madness
    Susan H Fox
    Movement Disorders Clinic, University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, Ontario, Canada
    Mov Disord 24:1255-66. 2009
    ..However, several unanswered questions remain, and future studies need to focus on correlating changes in 5-HT neurotransmission in both pathological and in vivo imaging studies with a full clinical phenotype...
  3. doi request reprint Non-dopaminergic treatments for motor control in Parkinson's disease
    Susan H Fox
    Movement Disorders Clinic, Division of Neurology, University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, 399 Bathurst Street MCL7 412, Toronto, ON, M5T 2S8, Canada
    Drugs 73:1405-15. 2013
    ..While levodopa remains the most effective agent to treat motor symptoms in PD, the overall approach to using non-dopaminergic drugs in PD is to reduce reliance on levodopa and to target non-levodopa-responsive symptoms...
  4. doi request reprint A critique of available scales and presentation of the Non-Human Primate Dyskinesia Rating Scale
    Susan H Fox
    Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mov Disord 27:1373-8. 2012
    ..Here we present an update on the practical use of rating scales for evaluating LID in MPTP-lesioned primate models of PD, with a focus on macaques, and present specifics on the Non-Human Primate Dyskinesia Rating Scale...
  5. doi request reprint The Movement Disorder Society Evidence-Based Medicine Review Update: Treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease
    Susan H Fox
    Movement Disorder Clinic, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mov Disord 26:S2-41. 2011
    ..Physical therapy was revised to likely efficacious as symptomatic adjunct therapy. This evidence-based medicine review updates the field and highlights gaps for research...
  6. doi request reprint Levodopa-related motor complications--phenomenology
    Susan H Fox
    Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, Movement Disorders Clinic, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mov Disord 23:S509-14. 2008
    ..These include fluctuations in FD symptoms termed motor fluctuations, as well as non-motor symptoms, termed non-motor fluctuations. Here we review the phenomenology and methods of assessing these levodopa-related complications...
  7. doi request reprint The MPTP-lesioned non-human primate models of Parkinson's disease. Past, present, and future
    Susan H Fox
    Division of Neurology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Prog Brain Res 184:133-57. 2010
    ....
  8. doi request reprint Increased levels of 5-HT1A receptor binding in ventral visual pathways in Parkinson's disease
    Philippe Huot
    Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mov Disord 27:735-42. 2012
    ..However, the discrete anatomical distribution of rises to the ventral visual areas suggests some role in predisposing to visual hallucinations...
  9. doi request reprint Characterization of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) enantiomers in vitro and in the MPTP-lesioned primate: R-MDMA reduces severity of dyskinesia, whereas S-MDMA extends duration of ON-time
    Philippe Huot
    Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8, Canada
    J Neurosci 31:7190-8. 2011
    ....
  10. doi request reprint L-DOPA pharmacokinetics in the MPTP-lesioned macaque model of Parkinson's disease
    Philippe Huot
    Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, 399 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8, Canada
    Neuropharmacology 63:829-36. 2012
    ..However, bioavailability of drugs varies between species and it is unknown how plasma L-DOPA levels providing therapeutic benefit in the non-human primate compare to those having similar actions in PD patients...
  11. pmc The monoamine re-uptake inhibitor UWA-101 improves motor fluctuations in the MPTP-lesioned common marmoset
    Philippe Huot
    Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS ONE 7:e45587. 2012
    ..Here, we further characterise the effects of UWA-101 on this extension of ON-time in terms of L-DOPA-induced side-effects in the MPTP-lesioned common marmoset...
  12. ncbi request reprint Pharmacological characterization of psychosis-like behavior in the MPTP-lesioned nonhuman primate model of Parkinson's disease
    Naomi P Visanji
    Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mov Disord 21:1879-91. 2006
    ..The response of different components of the psychotomimetic behavior suggested the involvement of both dopaminergic and nondopaminergic mechanisms in their expression...
  13. doi request reprint L-745,870 reduces L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned macaque model of Parkinson's disease
    Philippe Huot
    Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 342:576-85. 2012
    ..It is noteworthy that L-745,870 has already undergone significant clinical development, has an excellent profile for a therapeutic candidate, and could be advanced rapidly to phase IIa clinical studies for dyskinesia in PD...
  14. doi request reprint The pharmacology of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease
    Philippe Huot
    Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Pharmacol Rev 65:171-222. 2013
    ....
  15. ncbi request reprint Neuropsychiatric behaviors in the MPTP marmoset model of Parkinson's disease
    Susan H Fox
    Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Can J Neurol Sci 37:86-95. 2010
    ..Here we compare the time course of levodopa-induced motor fluctuations and neuropsychiatric-like behaviors to determine the relationship between duration of treatment and onset of symptoms...
  16. doi request reprint Increased 5-HT2A receptors in the temporal cortex of parkinsonian patients with visual hallucinations
    Philippe Huot
    Division of Brain Imaging and Behaviour Systems Neuroscience, Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mov Disord 25:1399-408. 2010
    ..Our results provide new insights into the pathophysiology of VH in PD and provide an anatomical basis to explain why compounds with 5-HT(2A) antagonist activity are effective at alleviating this debilitating complication...
  17. doi request reprint The α₂ adrenergic antagonist fipamezole improves quality of levodopa action in Parkinsonian primates
    Tom H Johnston
    Division of Brain, Imaging, and Behaviour Systems Neuroscience, Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada
    Mov Disord 25:2084-93. 2010
    ..Increased duration and quality of levodopa action may represent therapeutically valuable actions of α(2) adrenergic antagonists...
  18. doi request reprint The effects of fast-off-D2 receptor antagonism on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia and psychosis in parkinsonian macaques
    James B Koprich
    Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, 399 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5T 2S8
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 43:151-6. 2013
    ..However, fast-off-D2 drugs could provide benefit if new congeners would have an even faster dissociation rate. Such drugs are now becoming available...
  19. doi request reprint Regulation of cortical and striatal 5-HT1A receptors in the MPTP-lesioned macaque
    Philippe Huot
    Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Neurobiol Aging 33:207.e9-19. 2012
    ..05) in MPTP-L-DOPA-chronic macaques. These data suggest that 5-HT(1A) receptors are involved in the pathophysiology of both parkinsonism and complications of L-DOPA therapy...
  20. doi request reprint Effect of histamine H2 receptor antagonism on levodopa-induced dyskinesia in the MPTP-macaque model of Parkinson's disease
    Tom H Johnston
    Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mov Disord 25:1379-90. 2010
    ..Furthermore, in combination with a higher dose of levodopa, famotidine can reduce peak-dose levodopa-induced chorea and improve the quality of on-time...
  21. doi request reprint Reduction of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia by the selective metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist 3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl]pyridine in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned macaque model of Parkinson's disease
    Tom H Johnston
    Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Ontario, Canada
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 333:865-73. 2010
    ..Selective mGlu5 inhibitors may have significant potential to ameliorate dyskinesia, but care should be taken to ensure that such effects do not come at the expense of the peak antiparkinsonian benefit of L-DOPA...
  22. doi request reprint The nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) receptor antagonist J-113397 enhances the effects of levodopa in the MPTP-lesioned nonhuman primate model of Parkinson's disease
    Naomi P Visanji
    Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto, Canada
    Mov Disord 23:1922-5. 2008
    ..The actions of NOP antagonists seen in rodents translate to nonhuman primates. However, the present study raises the possibility that these levodopa-sparing benefits may be offset by a propensity to exacerbate dyskinesia...
  23. doi request reprint Use of catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition to minimize L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-induced dyskinesia in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned macaque
    Philippe Huot
    Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Eur J Neurosci 37:831-8. 2013
    ..In addition to the well-recognized action of COMT inhibition to reduce wearing-OFF, the data presented suggest that COMT inhibition in combination with low doses of L-DOPA has potential as a strategy to alleviate dyskinesia...
  24. doi request reprint 5-HT2A receptor levels increase in MPTP-lesioned macaques treated chronically with L-DOPA
    Philippe Huot
    Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Neurobiol Aging 33:194.e5-15. 2012
    ..These data provide an anatomical basis for mechanisms to explain the efficacy of 5-HT(2A) antagonists against dyskinesia...
  25. doi request reprint The selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist ADL5510 reduces levodopa-induced dyskinesia without affecting antiparkinsonian action in MPTP-lesioned macaque model of Parkinson's disease
    James B Koprich
    Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mov Disord 26:1225-33. 2011
    ..Naltrexone, in contrast, did not alleviate LID or affect the antiparkinsonian actions of L-dopa. Mu-selective opioid antagonists have the potential to form the basis of novel antidyskinetic therapies for PD...
  26. doi request reprint Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition reduces L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-induced hyperactivity in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned non-human primate model of Parkinson's disease
    Tom H Johnston
    Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 336:423-30. 2011
    ..Inhibition of FAAH may represent a novel approach to reducing L-DOPA-induced side effects, such as ICD and DDS, while maintaining the antiparkinsonian benefits of L-DOPA treatment...
  27. doi request reprint Non-dopaminergic treatments in development for Parkinson's disease
    Susan H Fox
    Movement Disorders Clinic, Division of Neurology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Lancet Neurol 7:927-38. 2008
    ..Here, we review novel non-dopaminergic approaches that are in at least phase II clinical development for the treatment of PD...
  28. doi request reprint Dopamine D3 receptor stimulation underlies the development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in animal models of Parkinson's disease
    Naomi P Visanji
    Toronto Western Research Institute, 399 Bathurst Street, MC11 419, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8, Canada
    Neurobiol Dis 35:184-92. 2009
    ..Our data suggest a role for D3 receptors in the development of LID and suggest that initiating L-DOPA treatment with a D3 antagonist may reduce the development of LID in PD...
  29. ncbi request reprint A simple rodent assay for the in vivo identification of agents with potential to reduce levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease
    Tom H Johnston
    Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Exp Neurol 191:243-50. 2005
    ..These observations highlight the association between potential anti-dyskinetic action and a selective reduction in l-DOPA-induced vertical activity in the reserpine-treated rat...
  30. ncbi request reprint Advances in the delivery of treatments for Parkinson's disease
    Tom H Johnston
    Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON M5T 2S8, Canada
    Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2:1059-73. 2005
    ..The advent and application of these varied technologies will help encourage patient-specific means of treatment for PD...
  31. doi request reprint RGFP109, a histone deacetylase inhibitor attenuates L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in the MPTP-lesioned marmoset: a proof-of-concept study
    Tom H Johnston
    Division of Brain, Imaging and Behaviour, Systems Neuroscience, Toronto Western Research Institute, 399 Bathurst Street, MP 12 303, Toronto, ON M5T2S8, Canada
    Parkinsonism Relat Disord 19:260-4. 2013
    ..We hypothesised that inhibition of histone deacetylase, the enzyme responsible of histone deacetylation, would alleviate LID...
  32. ncbi request reprint Translation of nondopaminergic treatments for levodopa-induced dyskinesia from MPTP-lesioned nonhuman primates to phase IIa clinical studies: keys to success and roads to failure
    Susan H Fox
    Movement Disorders Clinic, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mov Disord 21:1578-94. 2006
    ..Failure to meet these criteria carries the risk of false negative conclusions in phase IIa trials...
  33. doi request reprint Overview of the extranigral aspects of Parkinson disease
    Shen Yang Lim
    Movement Disorders Centre, Toronto Western Hospital, 399 Bathurst St, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8, Canada
    Arch Neurol 66:167-72. 2009
    ..Later-stage features often contribute markedly to disability and impaired quality of life and, therefore, represent an important future therapeutic challenge...
  34. doi request reprint Anatomically selective serotonergic type 1A and serotonergic type 2A therapies for Parkinson's disease: an approach to reducing dyskinesia without exacerbating parkinsonism?
    Philippe Huot
    Toronto Western Research Institute, MCL 11 419, Toronto Western Hospital, 399 Bathurst Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5T 2S8
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 339:2-8. 2011
    ....
  35. doi request reprint Neurobiological basis of serotonin-dopamine antagonists in the treatment of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome
    Thomas D L Steeves
    Division of Neurology, University of Toronto, Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Centre, Toronto Western Hospital, Ontario, Canada
    Prog Brain Res 172:495-513. 2008
    ..This information, when placed in the context of the observed functional imaging abnormalities, may generate further insights into the pathophysiology of TS...
  36. doi request reprint Novel nondopaminergic targets for motor features of Parkinson's disease: review of recent trials
    Lorraine V Kalia
    Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Clinic and the Edmond J Safra Program in Parkinson s Disease, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mov Disord 28:131-44. 2013
    ..Nondopaminergic drugs are not expected to replace dopaminergic strategies, but further development of these drugs will likely yield novel approaches with positive clinical implications...
  37. doi request reprint A novel MDMA analogue, UWA-101, that lacks psychoactivity and cytotoxicity, enhances L-DOPA benefit in parkinsonian primates
    Tom H Johnston
    Toronto Western Research Institute, 399 Bathurst St, MC 11 419, Toronto, ON, Canada
    FASEB J 26:2154-63. 2012
    ..These data identify a new class of therapeutic in Parkinson's disease and highlight the potential benefits of studying illicit drugs that in themselves would never be considered safe for long-term therapy...
  38. doi request reprint The serotonergic system in Parkinson's disease
    Philippe Huot
    Toronto Western Research Institute, MCL 11 419, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, 399 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5T 2S8
    Prog Neurobiol 95:163-212. 2011
    ....
  39. ncbi request reprint Histamine H3 receptor agonists reduce L-dopa-induced chorea, but not dystonia, in the MPTP-lesioned nonhuman primate model of Parkinson's disease
    Jordi Gomez-Ramirez
    Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mov Disord 21:839-46. 2006
    ..Overall, the results obtained in this study suggest that histamine H3 receptors may be involved in the neural mechanisms underlying L-dopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease...
  40. doi request reprint TC-8831, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, reduces L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in the MPTP macaque
    Tom H Johnston
    Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Neuropharmacology 73:337-47. 2013
    ..TC-8831 displayed robust anti-dyskinetic actions and improved the quality of ON-time evoked by L-DOPA without any reduction in anti-parkinsonian benefit...
  41. doi request reprint 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor antagonists as potential treatment for psychiatric disorders
    Tiago A Mestre
    University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital and Division of Neurology, Movement Disorders Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Expert Opin Investig Drugs 22:411-21. 2013
    ..More recently, highly selective 5-HT2A-R antagonists have been evaluated in the treatment of a wide range of other psychiatric disorders...
  42. ncbi request reprint New insights into the organization of the basal ganglia
    James B Koprich
    Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, ON, Canada
    Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 9:298-304. 2009
    ....
  43. doi request reprint Serotonin 2A receptors and visual hallucinations in Parkinson disease
    Benedicte Ballanger
    Vivian M Rakoff PET Centre, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Arch Neurol 67:416-21. 2010
    ..Although dopamine may have a role, indirect evidence indicates that serotonin may also contribute to the pathogenesis of complex VHs, probably via involvement of the serotonin 2 receptor...
  44. pmc Alternating hemiplegia of childhood-related neural and behavioural phenotypes in Na+,K+-ATPase α3 missense mutant mice
    Greer S Kirshenbaum
    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS ONE 8:e60141. 2013
    ..Our results thus provide validation for missense mutations in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α3 as a cause of AHC, and highlight Myshkin mice as a starting point for the exploration of disease mechanisms and novel treatments in AHC...
  45. doi request reprint Drug treatments for the neuropsychiatric complications of Parkinson's disease
    Barbara S Connolly
    University of Toronto, ON, Canada
    Expert Rev Neurother 12:1439-49. 2012
    ..This article will review current treatment approaches to mood disorders, psychosis and cognitive problems in PD, as well as management of dopamine-induced impulse control disorders...
  46. doi request reprint Improvement of apathy after levofloxacin treatment: an N-of-1 study
    Melissa Jo Armstrong
    Department of Medicine Neurology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Neurologist 18:146-8. 2012
    ..We sought to determine whether this effect could be objectively supported and replicated outside the context of infection...
  47. doi request reprint Surgical correction of kyphosis in patients with camptocormia due to Parkinson's disease: a retrospective evaluation
    Pettarusp M Wadia
    Movement Disorders Centre, Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 82:364-8. 2011
    ..Despite prolonged postoperative courses, including a high complication rate and the need for multiple revisions, both patients benefited from the procedures...
  48. ncbi request reprint Ipratropium bromide spray as treatment for sialorrhea in Parkinson's disease
    Teri R Thomsen
    Movement Disorders Centre, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mov Disord 22:2268-73. 2007
    ..There were no significant adverse events. Ipratropium bromide spray was well tolerated in subjects with PD. Although it did not affect objective measures of saliva production, further studies in parkinsonism may be warranted...