Geoffrey T Fong

Summary

Affiliation: University of Waterloo
Country: Canada

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint The near-universal experience of regret among smokers in four countries: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey
    Geoffrey T Fong
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Nicotine Tob Res 6:S341-51. 2004
  2. pmc Time perspective as a predictor of smoking status: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in Scotland, France, Germany, China, and Malaysia
    Genevieve Sansone
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
    BMC Public Health 13:346. 2013
  3. pmc Positive impact of Australian 'blindness' tobacco warning labels: findings from the ITC four country survey
    Ryan David Kennedy
    Propel Centre for Population Health Impact, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Exp Optom 95:590-8. 2012
  4. pmc Effectiveness of the European Union text-only cigarette health warnings: findings from four countries
    Sara C Hitchman
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Eur J Public Health 22:693-9. 2012
  5. doi request reprint Smokers' use of nicotine replacement therapy for reasons other than stopping smoking: findings from the ITC Four Country Survey
    David Hammond
    Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Addiction 103:1696-703. 2008
  6. pmc Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban
    Ryan David Kennedy
    Propel Centre for Population Health Impact, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Eur J Public Health 22:29-34. 2012
  7. pmc Patterns of cognitive dissonance-reducing beliefs among smokers: a longitudinal analysis from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey
    Omid Fotuhi
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada
    Tob Control 22:52-8. 2013
  8. pmc Perceptions of tobacco health warnings in China compared with picture and text-only health warnings from other countries: an experimental study
    Geoffrey T Fong
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Tob Control 19:i69-77. 2010
  9. pmc Support and correlates of support for banning smoking in cars with children: findings from the ITC Four Country Survey
    Sara C Hitchman
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada
    Eur J Public Health 21:360-5. 2011
  10. pmc Text and graphic warnings on cigarette packages: findings from the international tobacco control four country study
    David Hammond
    Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Prev Med 32:202-9. 2007

Detail Information

Publications56

  1. ncbi request reprint The near-universal experience of regret among smokers in four countries: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey
    Geoffrey T Fong
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Nicotine Tob Res 6:S341-51. 2004
    ....
  2. pmc Time perspective as a predictor of smoking status: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in Scotland, France, Germany, China, and Malaysia
    Genevieve Sansone
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
    BMC Public Health 13:346. 2013
    ..The aim of this study was to examine whether time perspective was associated with the likelihood of being a smoker or non-smoker across five countries that vary in smoking behavior and strength of tobacco control policies...
  3. pmc Positive impact of Australian 'blindness' tobacco warning labels: findings from the ITC four country survey
    Ryan David Kennedy
    Propel Centre for Population Health Impact, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Exp Optom 95:590-8. 2012
    ..The current study tested the hypothesis that the introduction of this warning label increased smokers' knowledge of this important health effect...
  4. pmc Effectiveness of the European Union text-only cigarette health warnings: findings from four countries
    Sara C Hitchman
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Eur J Public Health 22:693-9. 2012
    ..This article examines the effectiveness of the text health warnings among daily cigarette smokers in four Member States...
  5. doi request reprint Smokers' use of nicotine replacement therapy for reasons other than stopping smoking: findings from the ITC Four Country Survey
    David Hammond
    Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Addiction 103:1696-703. 2008
    ..To measure the prevalence and correlates of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) use for reasons other than quitting smoking among smokers in four countries...
  6. pmc Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban
    Ryan David Kennedy
    Propel Centre for Population Health Impact, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Eur J Public Health 22:29-34. 2012
    ..This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law...
  7. pmc Patterns of cognitive dissonance-reducing beliefs among smokers: a longitudinal analysis from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey
    Omid Fotuhi
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada
    Tob Control 22:52-8. 2013
    ..This is accomplished by examining the longitudinal pattern of belief change among smokers as their smoking behaviours change...
  8. pmc Perceptions of tobacco health warnings in China compared with picture and text-only health warnings from other countries: an experimental study
    Geoffrey T Fong
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Tob Control 19:i69-77. 2010
    ..To assess the perceived effectiveness of cigarette health warnings in China, compared with picture and text-only warnings from other countries...
  9. pmc Support and correlates of support for banning smoking in cars with children: findings from the ITC Four Country Survey
    Sara C Hitchman
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada
    Eur J Public Health 21:360-5. 2011
    ....
  10. pmc Text and graphic warnings on cigarette packages: findings from the international tobacco control four country study
    David Hammond
    Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Prev Med 32:202-9. 2007
    ..The current study examined the effectiveness of health warnings on cigarette packages in four countries...
  11. pmc Comparing the experience of regret and its predictors among smokers in four Asian countries: findings from the ITC surveys in Thailand, South Korea, Malaysia, and China
    Natalie Sansone
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Nicotine Tob Res 15:1663-72. 2013
    ..Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, S341-S351. doi:10.1080/14622200412331320743), but no research to date has examined the prevalence of regret among smokers in non-Western, low- and middle-income countries...
  12. doi request reprint Beyond light and mild: cigarette brand descriptors and perceptions of risk in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey
    Seema Mutti
    Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Addiction 106:1166-75. 2011
    ..To examine perceptions of risk related to type of cigarette brand...
  13. ncbi request reprint Smoking beliefs and behavior among youth in Malaysia and Thailand
    Carla M Parkinson
    Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Health Behav 33:366-75. 2009
    ..To characterize smoking beliefs among Thai and Malaysian youth and to examine associations with gender, antismoking media exposure, and smoking status...
  14. pmc The use of cessation assistance among smokers from China: Findings from the ITC China Survey
    Jilan Yang
    Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada
    BMC Public Health 11:75. 2011
    ..This study examined stop-smoking medication use and its association with quitting behavior among a population-based sample of Chinese smokers...
  15. pmc Socioeconomic disparities in quit intentions, quit attempts, and smoking abstinence among smokers in four western countries: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey
    Jessica L Reid
    Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Nicotine Tob Res 12:S20-33. 2010
    ..However, results are inconsistent for some outcomes, and little is known about how socioeconomic disparities vary across countries and over time...
  16. pmc Revising the machine smoking regime for cigarette emissions: implications for tobacco control policy
    David Hammond
    Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1
    Tob Control 16:8-14. 2007
    ..However, the current international standard for generating cigarette emissions--the ISO machine smoking regime--is widely acknowledged to be inappropriate for purposes of setting regulatory restrictions...
  17. ncbi request reprint Tobacco denormalization and industry beliefs among smokers from four countries
    David Hammond
    Department of Health Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Prev Med 31:225-32. 2006
    ....
  18. pmc Perceived risk and quitting behaviors: results from the ITC 4-country survey
    Mary Jean Costello
    School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Health Behav 36:681-92. 2012
    ..To rigorously test the relation between perceived risk (i.e., belief about the likelihood of harm) and quitting smoking...
  19. pmc Do time perspective and sensation-seeking predict quitting activity among smokers? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey
    Peter A Hall
    Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Addict Behav 37:1307-13. 2012
    ..If these associations are causal in nature, it may be the case that interventions and health communications that enhance future-orientation may foster more quit attempts among current smokers...
  20. pmc Smoking cessation interventions from health care providers before and after the national smoke-free law in France
    Ryan David Kennedy
    Propel Centre for Population Health Impact, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Eur J Public Health 22:23-8. 2012
    ....
  21. pmc Quitting smoking in China: findings from the ITC China Survey
    Yuan Jiang
    Department of Psychology, PAS Building, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Tob Control 19:i12-7. 2010
    ..Few studies have examined interest in quitting smoking and factors associated with quitting in mainland China...
  22. doi request reprint Health knowledge and perception of risks among Chinese smokers and non-smokers: findings from the Wave 1 ITC China Survey
    Jilan Yang
    Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Tob Control 19:i18-23. 2010
    ..Awareness of health risks of smoking is strongly associated with smoking behaviour. However, there are no population-based studies of smoking-related health knowledge in China...
  23. doi request reprint The appeal of smokeless tobacco products among young Canadian smokers: the impact of pictorial health warnings and relative risk messages
    William E Callery
    Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1
    Nicotine Tob Res 13:373-83. 2011
    ..Additionally, there is little evidence examining the impact of health warning labels (HWL) on ST use and perceptions...
  24. pmc Predictors of car smoking rules among smokers in France, Germany and the Netherlands
    Sara C Hitchman
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada
    Eur J Public Health 22:17-22. 2012
    ....
  25. doi request reprint Regret and rationalization among smokers in Thailand and Malaysia: findings from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey
    Wonkyong B Lee
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Health Psychol 28:457-64. 2009
    ..To test whether differences of history and strength in tobacco control policies will influence social norms, which, in turn, will influence quit intentions, by influencing smokers' regret and rationalization...
  26. ncbi request reprint Cigarette yields and human exposure: a comparison of alternative testing regimens
    David Hammond
    Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15:1495-501. 2006
    ....
  27. doi request reprint Knowledge about the relationship between smoking and blindness in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia: results from the International Tobacco Control Four-Country Project
    Ryan David Kennedy
    University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Optometry 82:310-7. 2011
    ..Studies have found that people are afraid of "going blind" and may be motivated to quit smoking if they know that vision loss is associated with smoking behavior...
  28. pmc The potential impact of plain packaging of cigarette products among Brazilian young women: an experimental study
    Christine M White
    School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
    BMC Public Health 12:737. 2012
    ..The current study examined how tobacco packaging influences brand appeal and perceptions of health risk among young women in Brazil...
  29. pmc Predictors of smoking in cars with nonsmokers: findings from the 2007 Wave of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey
    Sara C Hitchman
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Nicotine Tob Res 12:374-80. 2010
    ..This study examines the proportion and characteristics of smokers who smoke in cars with nonsmokers across four countries and the potentially modifiable correlates of this behavior...
  30. pmc Impact of point-of-sale tobacco display bans: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey
    Lin Li
    VicHealth Centre for Tobacco Control, Cancer Council Victoria, 100 Drummond Street, Melbourne, Victoria 3053, Australia, Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada, Department of Health Promotion, Education and Behavior, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA, School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada and Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Health Educ Res 28:898-910. 2013
    ..These findings indicate that implementing POS tobacco display bans does result in lower exposure to tobacco marketing and less frequent impulse purchasing of cigarettes...
  31. pmc Changes in effectiveness of cigarette health warnings over time in Canada and the United States, 2002-2011
    Sara C Hitchman
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Nicotine Tob Res 16:536-43. 2014
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Patient tobacco use in optometric practice: a Canada-wide study
    Ryan David Kennedy
    PhD OD, PhD MPH OD, MSc RN, PhD Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Institute for Global Tobacco Control, Department of Health, Behavior, and Society, Baltimore, Maryland RDK Propel Centre for Population Health Impact RDK, OD, University of Waterloo Schools of Optometry and Vision Science MMS and Public Health and Health Systems DH, Department of Psychology GTF, Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science MET, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada École d optométrie, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada JB School of Public Health and Health Systems, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada DH Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada GTF and Faculty of Nursing, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada ASHS
    Optom Vis Sci 91:769-77. 2014
    ..Optometrists were also asked to identify tools to assist addressing tobacco use with patients...
  33. pmc Gender empowerment and female-to-male smoking prevalence ratios
    Sara C Hitchman
    University of Waterloo, Department of Psychology, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada
    Bull World Health Organ 89:195-202. 2011
    ..To determine whether in countries with high gender empowerment the female-to-male smoking prevalence ratio is also higher...
  34. pmc An experimental investigation of tobacco smoke pollution in cars
    Taryn Sendzik
    Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada
    Nicotine Tob Res 11:627-34. 2009
    ..In particular, TSP constitutes a potentially serious health hazard to children because of prolonged exposure and their small size...
  35. ncbi request reprint Smoking topography, brand switching, and nicotine delivery: results from an in vivo study
    David Hammond
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:1370-5. 2005
    ..However, puffing behavior and its influence upon risk-exposure has yet to be assessed outside the laboratory, in smokers' natural environment...
  36. ncbi request reprint Smoking in movies, implicit associations of smoking with the self, and intentions to smoke
    Sonya Dal Cin
    University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Psychol Sci 18:559-63. 2007
    ....
  37. doi request reprint Patterns of smoking among adolescents in Malaysia and Thailand: findings from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia survey
    David Hammond
    Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo
    Asia Pac J Public Health 20:193-203. 2008
    ..In contrast, more than 50% Thai males and approximately one-third of Malaysian males aged 17 met the criteria for either experimental or current smoking...
  38. ncbi request reprint The impact of cigarette warning labels and smoke-free bylaws on smoking cessation: evidence from former smokers
    David Hammond
    University of Waterloo, Department of Health Studies, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1
    Can J Public Health 95:201-4. 2004
    ..The present study examined the extent to which former smokers' motivation to quit was influenced by two tobacco control policies recently introduced in the Waterloo Region: a local smoke-free bylaw and graphic cigarette warning labels...
  39. pmc Knowledge of health effects and intentions to quit among smokers in India: findings from the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India pilot survey
    Genevieve C Sansone
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L3G1, Canada
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 9:564-78. 2012
    ..These findings highlight the need to increase awareness about the health risks of smoking in India, particularly in rural areas, where levels of education and health knowledge are lower...
  40. pmc The association between exposure to point-of-sale anti-smoking warnings and smokers' interest in quitting and quit attempts: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey
    Lin Li
    VicHealth Centre for Tobacco Control, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia
    Addiction 107:425-33. 2012
    ....
  41. pmc Graphic Canadian cigarette warning labels and adverse outcomes: evidence from Canadian smokers
    David Hammond
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada
    Am J Public Health 94:1442-5. 2004
    ..We assessed the impact of graphic Canadian cigarette warning labels...
  42. ncbi request reprint Exposure to tobacco marketing and support for tobacco control policies
    David Hammond
    Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada
    Am J Health Behav 30:700-9. 2006
    ..To examine the salience of tobacco marketing on postsecondary campuses and student support for tobacco control policies...
  43. ncbi request reprint Remembering the message: the use of a reminder cue to increase condom use following a safer sex intervention
    Sonya Dal Cin
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada
    Health Psychol 25:438-43. 2006
    ..These findings therefore imply that health intervention programs may be more efficacious if they include strategies such as reminder cues to increase the salience of health information in the appropriate contexts...
  44. doi request reprint Understanding the impact of the Smoke-Free Ontario Act on hospitality establishments' outdoor environments: a survey of restaurants and bars
    Ryan David Kennedy
    Health Psychology Laboratory, PAS 3rd Floor, Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada
    Tob Control 19:165-7. 2010
    ..The Smoke-Free Ontario Act (SFOA) came into effect in May 2006 and included restrictions to outdoor hospitality areas by only permitting smoking on a patio if the area had no roof...
  45. pmc Methods of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey
    Changbao Wu
    Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Tob Control 19:i1-5. 2010
    ..It also faces technical challenges in sample selection and weight calculation when some selected upper level clusters need to be replaced by new ones owing to massive relocation exercises within the cities...
  46. ncbi request reprint Establishing a causal chain: why experiments are often more effective than mediational analyses in examining psychological processes
    Steven J Spencer
    Psychology Department, University of Waterloo, ON, Canada
    J Pers Soc Psychol 89:845-51. 2005
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint A social neuroscience perspective on physical activity
    Peter A Hall
    Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    J Sport Exerc Psychol 30:432-49. 2008
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint Use of and beliefs about light cigarettes in four countries: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey
    Ron Borland
    Cancer Control Research Institute, The Cancer Council Victoria, Australia
    Nicotine Tob Res 6:S311-21. 2004
    ....
  49. ncbi request reprint Smoker awareness of and beliefs about supposedly less-harmful tobacco products
    RICHARD J O'CONNOR
    Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263, USA park org
    Am J Prev Med 29:85-90. 2005
    ..Cigarette manufacturers in the United States have begun marketing cigarette brands claiming to reduce smokers' exposure to selected toxins in tobacco smoke. Little data exist on smokers' awareness, use, and beliefs about these products...
  50. ncbi request reprint Legislation on smoking in enclosed public places in Scotland: how will we evaluate the impact?
    Sally J Haw
    NHS Health Scotland, Rosebery House, Haymarket Terrace, Edinburgh EH12 5EZ, UK
    J Public Health (Oxf) 28:24-30. 2006
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint Prevalence and correlates of roll-your-own smoking in Thailand and Malaysia: Findings of the ITC-South East Asia Survey
    David Young
    VicHealth Centre for Tobacco Control, Cancer Council of Victoria, Australia
    Nicotine Tob Res 10:907-15. 2008
    ..Finally, exclusive RYO smokers were less aware of health warnings (RYO tobacco carries no health warnings), but even so, knowledge of the health effects of tobacco was equivalent...
  52. ncbi request reprint Showing leads to doing: graphic cigarette warning labels are an effective public health policy
    David Hammond
    Eur J Public Health 16:223-4; author reply 225. 2006
  53. ncbi request reprint Smokers' reactions to cigarette package warnings with graphic imagery and with only text: a comparison between Mexico and Canada
    James F Thrasher
    Department of Health Promotion, Education and Behavior, SC 29208, USA
    Salud Publica Mex 49:S233-40. 2007
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint Does smoke-free Ireland have more smoking inside the home and less in pubs than the United Kingdom? Findings from the international tobacco control policy evaluation project
    Andrew Hyland
    Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Department of Health Behavior, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, New York 14263, USA
    Eur J Public Health 18:63-5. 2008
    ..This article aims to assess whether nationwide smoke-free policies are associated with more smoking or drinking inside the home...
  55. ncbi request reprint Australian smokers support stronger regulatory controls on tobacco: findings from the ITC Four-Country Survey
    David Young
    VicHealth Centre for Tobacco Control, The Cancer Council Victoria, Carlton
    Aust N Z J Public Health 31:164-9. 2007
    ..To examine Australian smokers' attitudes towards regulation of the tobacco industry and to compare their attitudes with those of three similar countries--the United Kingdom (UK), the United States (US), and Canada...
  56. ncbi request reprint HIV/STD risk reduction interventions for African American and Latino adolescent girls at an adolescent medicine clinic: a randomized controlled trial
    John B Jemmott
    Annenberg School for Communication and School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, 3535 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159:440-9. 2005
    ..Adolescent girls in the United States and around the world are at a heightened risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...