F I Craik

Summary

Affiliation: University of Toronto
Country: Canada

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint The effects of divided attention on encoding and retrieval processes in human memory
    F I Craik
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Exp Psychol Gen 125:159-80. 1996
  2. ncbi request reprint Divided attention during encoding and retrieval: differential control effects?
    F I Craik
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 26:1744-9. 2000
  3. ncbi request reprint Levels of processing: past, present. and future?
    Fergus I M Craik
    Rotman Research Institute of Baycrest Centre, Toronto, Canada
    Memory 10:305-18. 2002
  4. ncbi request reprint Intelligence and executive control: evidence from aging and bilingualism
    Fergus Craik
    Rotman Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Cortex 41:222-4. 2005
  5. ncbi request reprint Brain-behavior relations across the lifespan: a commentary
    Fergus I M Craik
    Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre, 3560 Bathurst St, Toronto, ON, Canada M6A 2E1
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 30:885-92. 2006
  6. ncbi request reprint Aging and judgments of duration: effects of task complexity and method of estimation
    F I Craik
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, ON, Canada
    Percept Psychophys 61:549-60. 1999
  7. ncbi request reprint The attentional demands of encoding and retrieval in younger and older adults: 1. Evidence from divided attention costs
    N D Anderson
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Psychol Aging 13:405-23. 1998
  8. ncbi request reprint Comparison of older people and patients with frontal lesions: evidence from world list learning
    D T Stuss
    Rotman Research Institute of Baycrest Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Psychol Aging 11:387-95. 1996
  9. pmc Neural correlates of the episodic encoding of pictures and words
    C L Grady
    Rotman Research Institute of Baycrest Centre and Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 3560 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M6A 2E1
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:2703-8. 1998
  10. ncbi request reprint Dissociation of attentional processes in patients with focal frontal and posterior lesions
    D T Stuss
    Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care, University of Toronto, Ont, Canada
    Neuropsychologia 37:1005-27. 1999

Detail Information

Publications54

  1. ncbi request reprint The effects of divided attention on encoding and retrieval processes in human memory
    F I Craik
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Exp Psychol Gen 125:159-80. 1996
    ..Memory performance was sensitive to changes in task emphasis at encoding but not at retrieval. The results are discussed in terms of controlled and automatic processes and speculatively linked to underlying neuropsychological mechanisms...
  2. ncbi request reprint Divided attention during encoding and retrieval: differential control effects?
    F I Craik
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 26:1744-9. 2000
    ..The implications of these results for a fuller understanding of encoding and retrieval processes are discussed...
  3. ncbi request reprint Levels of processing: past, present. and future?
    Fergus I M Craik
    Rotman Research Institute of Baycrest Centre, Toronto, Canada
    Memory 10:305-18. 2002
    ..In the final section I offer some speculations on future directions, discussing the notion of levels of representation and a possible continuing role for LOP in memory research...
  4. ncbi request reprint Intelligence and executive control: evidence from aging and bilingualism
    Fergus Craik
    Rotman Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Cortex 41:222-4. 2005
  5. ncbi request reprint Brain-behavior relations across the lifespan: a commentary
    Fergus I M Craik
    Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre, 3560 Bathurst St, Toronto, ON, Canada M6A 2E1
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 30:885-92. 2006
    ..Topics discussed include plasticity, compensation and dedifferentiation, representation and control, memory and learning-all considered under the general heading of brain-behavior relations, and how they change across the lifespan...
  6. ncbi request reprint Aging and judgments of duration: effects of task complexity and method of estimation
    F I Craik
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, ON, Canada
    Percept Psychophys 61:549-60. 1999
    ..Task complexity had little effect. The major conclusion is that duration judgment ratios decrease from younger to older adults when the intervals are filled with a mental task...
  7. ncbi request reprint The attentional demands of encoding and retrieval in younger and older adults: 1. Evidence from divided attention costs
    N D Anderson
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Psychol Aging 13:405-23. 1998
    ..These results provide evidence for an age-related increase in the attentional demands of encoding and retrieval...
  8. ncbi request reprint Comparison of older people and patients with frontal lesions: evidence from world list learning
    D T Stuss
    Rotman Research Institute of Baycrest Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Psychol Aging 11:387-95. 1996
    ..These results add to the evidence that at least some of the decline in older people in tasks which measure executive or supervisory abilities is due to frontal system dysfunction...
  9. pmc Neural correlates of the episodic encoding of pictures and words
    C L Grady
    Rotman Research Institute of Baycrest Centre and Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 3560 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M6A 2E1
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:2703-8. 1998
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Dissociation of attentional processes in patients with focal frontal and posterior lesions
    D T Stuss
    Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care, University of Toronto, Ont, Canada
    Neuropsychologia 37:1005-27. 1999
    ..INT, NP, and IOR are mediated by different brain regions and their expression can be modulated by the complexity of the selection task...
  11. ncbi request reprint The effects of divided attention on encoding- and retrieval-related brain activity: A PET study of younger and older adults
    N D Anderson
    University of Toronto and Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Cogn Neurosci 12:775-92. 2000
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Changes in memory processing with age
    C L Grady
    Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 10:224-31. 2000
    ..Recent behavioral and neurophysiological experiments are furthering our understanding of the effects of aging on cognition. It appears that some brain changes seen with age may be compensatory...
  13. ncbi request reprint Parallel effects of aging and time pressure on memory for source: evidence from the spacing effect
    A S Benjamin
    University of Toronto and the Rotman Research Institute, Ontario, Canada
    Mem Cognit 29:691-7. 2001
    ..The results support the notion that source memory is selectively impaired in the elderly and that it is difficult to access mnemonic information about source under time pressure...
  14. ncbi request reprint Comparing the effects of aging and background noise on short-term memory performance
    D R Murphy
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto at Mississauga, Ontario, Canada
    Psychol Aging 15:323-34. 2000
    ..The results are interpreted as showing that encoding in secondary memory is impaired by aging and noise either as a function of degraded sensory representations, or as a function of reduced processing resources...
  15. ncbi request reprint Encoding specificity revisited: the role of semantics
    B Hannon
    University of Toronto
    Can J Exp Psychol 55:231-43. 2001
    ..In the case of recognition, however, both the semantic congruence between the encoding and generation contexts and the amount of semantic elaboration provided by the encoding context were important factors...
  16. doi request reprint Planning and task management in Parkinson's disease: differential emphasis in dual-task performance
    Ellen Bialystok
    Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Int Neuropsychol Soc 14:257-65. 2008
    ..This benefit may occur as a consequence of their inflexible exaggerated attention to some aspects of a complex task to the relative neglect of other aspects...
  17. ncbi request reprint Executive function across the life span
    Philip David Zelazo
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont, Canada M5S 3G3
    Acta Psychol (Amst) 115:167-83. 2004
    ..The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for hierarchical models of EF and its development...
  18. ncbi request reprint The effects of aging and divided attention on memory for item and associative information
    Alan D Castel
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 100 Saint George Street, Ontario M5S 3G3, Canada
    Psychol Aging 18:873-85. 2003
    ..The results are discussed in terms of an age-related reduction in processing resources compounded by an age-related increase in older adults' reliance on familiarity in associative recognition memory...
  19. ncbi request reprint The role of spatial working memory in inhibition of return: evidence from divided attention tasks
    Alan D Castel
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Percept Psychophys 65:970-81. 2003
    ..Overall, the results suggest that IOR is partially mediated by a spatial working memory system...
  20. ncbi request reprint The effects of aging on selectivity and control in short-term recall
    Alan D Castel
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mem Cognit 30:1078-85. 2002
    ..Overall, the data suggest that although older adults recall fewer words than do younger adults, they exert as much control over some aspects of encoding...
  21. pmc Destination memory impairment in older people
    Nigel Gopie
    Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest and University of Toronto, 3560 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Psychol Aging 25:922-8. 2010
    ..e., a false alarm). Overall, accuracy and confidence jointly influence age-related changes to destination memory, a fundamental component of successful communication...
  22. ncbi request reprint Age differences in recollection: three patterns of enhanced encoding
    Lin Luo
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Psychol Aging 22:269-80. 2007
    ..The authors discuss these results in terms of the enhanced elaboration afforded and processing demanded by differential combinations of age groups and encoding conditions...
  23. ncbi request reprint The effect of divided attention on memory for items and their context
    A K Troyer
    Psychology Department, Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care, Toronto, Ontario
    Can J Exp Psychol 54:161-71. 2000
    ..The findings support the idea that memory for temporal order requires greater attentional resources and strategic processing than memory for items...
  24. ncbi request reprint Source memory and divided attention: reciprocal costs to primary and secondary tasks
    A K Troyer
    Rotman Research Institute of Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Neuropsychology 13:467-74. 1999
    ..Furthermore, concurrent performance of VRT produced greater interference with a task that was more dependent on intact frontal functioning and better simulated the performance of patients with frontal dysfunction...
  25. ncbi request reprint Dual-modality monitoring in a classification task: the effects of bilingualism and ageing
    Ellen Bialystok
    Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 59:1968-83. 2006
    ..The results indicate different processing demands for the two domains, with the simpler domain (LN) favouring bilinguals and the more semantically complex domain (AM) favouring related judgements for the two task modalities...
  26. ncbi request reprint Investigating the influence of continuous babble on auditory short-term memory performance
    Antje Heinrich
    University of Toronto at Mississauga, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada
    Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 61:735-51. 2008
    ..To further support our claim we show that a similar memory deficit results when participants perform the same memory task in quiet together with a nonauditory attention-demanding secondary task...
  27. ncbi request reprint Age-related differences in the functional connectivity of the hippocampus during memory encoding
    Cheryl L Grady
    Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Hippocampus 13:572-86. 2003
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint Influences on the efficiency of prospective memory in younger and older adults
    R West
    Rotman Research Institute of Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care, North York, Ontario, Canada
    Psychol Aging 16:682-96. 2001
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint Effect of bilingualism on cognitive control in the Simon task: evidence from MEG
    Ellen Bialystok
    Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Neuroimage 24:40-9. 2005
    ..The monolinguals demonstrated faster reaction times with activation in middle frontal regions. The interpretation is that the management of two language systems led to systematic changes in frontal executive functions...
  30. ncbi request reprint Word-list-learning performance in younger and older adults: intra-individual performance variability and false memory
    Kelly J Murphy
    The Rotman Research Institute of Baycrest Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 14:70-94. 2007
    ..The findings presented here are consistent with the notion that changes in cognition with aging in part reflect age-related decline in frontal lobe function...
  31. ncbi request reprint Planning and task management in older adults: cooking breakfast
    Fergus I M Craik
    Rotman Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mem Cognit 34:1236-49. 2006
    ..The results showed substantial age-related decrements in most measures of executive control. Additionally, older bilinguals showed some advantages in task management over their monolingual peers...
  32. ncbi request reprint Executive control in a modified antisaccade task: Effects of aging and bilingualism
    Ellen Bialystok
    Faculty of Health, Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada
    J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 32:1341-54. 2006
    ..A speculative interpretation of this pattern of results is offered in conclusion...
  33. ncbi request reprint Bilingualism, aging, and cognitive control: evidence from the Simon task
    Ellen Bialystok
    Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Psychol Aging 19:290-303. 2004
    ..It appears, therefore, that controlled processing is carried out more effectively by bilinguals and that bilingualism helps to offset age-related losses in certain executive processes...
  34. ncbi request reprint The mnemonic mechanisms of errorless learning
    Nicole D Anderson
    Kunin Lunenfeld Applied Research Unit, Baycrest, 3560 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ont M6A 2E1, Canada
    Neuropsychologia 44:2806-13. 2006
    ..We do not recommend standard errorless learning for individuals with intact explicit memory, such as students trying to learn information in preparation for an examination...
  35. ncbi request reprint Cognitive rehabilitation in the elderly: overview and future directions
    Gordon Winocur
    Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Int Neuropsychol Soc 13:166-71. 2007
    ..The benefits were attributed to several factors, including the program's emphasis on techniques that promoted efficient strategic processing. Limitations of the program and directions for future research are discussed...
  36. ncbi request reprint An examination of the effects of stimulus type, encoding task, and functional connectivity on the role of right prefrontal cortex in recognition memory
    C L Grady
    Rotman Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M6A 2E1, Canada
    Neuroimage 14:556-71. 2001
    ....
  37. ncbi request reprint Name and face learning in older adults: effects of level of processing, self-generation, and intention to learn
    Angela K Troyer
    Psychology Department, Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care, 3560 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario M6A 2E1, Canada
    J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 61:P67-74. 2006
    ..Findings suggest that memory interventions should emphasize processing names semantically, processing faces physically, self-generating this information, and keeping in mind that memory for the names will be needed in the future...
  38. ncbi request reprint The role of cognition in age-related hearing loss
    Fergus I M Craik
    Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre, 3560 Bathurst St, Toronto, ON, M6A 2E1, Canada
    J Am Acad Audiol 18:539-47. 2007
    ....
  39. doi request reprint Past experience modulates the neural mechanisms of episodic memory formation
    Jordan Poppenk
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G3, Canada
    J Neurosci 30:4707-16. 2010
    ..In so doing, our results challenge recent novelty-encoding hypotheses...
  40. ncbi request reprint Lapses of intention and performance variability reveal age-related increases in fluctuations of executive control
    Robert West
    Rotman Research Institute of Baycrest Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Brain Cogn 49:402-19. 2002
    ..These and other data are consistent with the proposal that aging is associated with a decrease in the stability of executive control over time...
  41. ncbi request reprint Aging and memory: a cognitive approach
    Lin Luo
    Postdoctoral Fellow, York University and Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre, Toronto, Ontario
    Can J Psychiatry 53:346-53. 2008
    ..The practical implications of these research findings and ideas include the point that clinical memory assessments should incorporate tests designed to measure the different aspects of memory functioning...
  42. ncbi request reprint Cognitive rehabilitation in the elderly: a randomized trial to evaluate a new protocol
    Donald T Stuss
    Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Int Neuropsychol Soc 13:120-31. 2007
    ..The results for each functional domain are reported in separate papers in this series...
  43. ncbi request reprint Task-related activity in prefrontal cortex and its relation to recognition memory performance in young and old adults
    Cheryl L Grady
    Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care, 3560 Bathurst St, Toronto, Ont, Canada M6A 2E1
    Neuropsychologia 43:1466-81. 2005
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Cognition through the lifespan: mechanisms of change
    Fergus I M Craik
    Rotman Research Institute at Baycrest, 3560 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario M6A 2E1, Canada
    Trends Cogn Sci 10:131-8. 2006
    ..This framework is offered in light of recent interest in finding greater continuity throughout the lifespan and creating a more comprehensive explanation of cognitive function and cognitive change...
  45. doi request reprint Item and associative memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: performance on standardized memory tests
    Angela K Troyer
    Department of Psychology, Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Neuropsychology 22:10-6. 2008
    ..Incorporating measures of associative recall into clinical evaluations of individuals with memory change may be useful for detecting aMCI...
  46. ncbi request reprint Bilingualism as a protection against the onset of symptoms of dementia
    Ellen Bialystok
    Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Neuropsychologia 45:459-64. 2007
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint Memory for general and specific value information in younger and older adults: measuring the limits of strategic control
    Alan D Castel
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 1563, USA
    Mem Cognit 35:689-700. 2007
    ..The findings suggest that although both groups retain high-value information, older adults rely more on gist-based encoding and retrieval operations, whereas younger adults are able to remember specific numeric value information...
  48. ncbi request reprint Effects of divided attention on episodic memory in chronic traumatic brain injury: a function of severity and strategy
    Jennifer A Mangels
    Department of Psychology, Schermerhorn Hall, Columbia University, 1190 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10027, USA
    Neuropsychologia 40:2369-85. 2002
    ..We discuss these outcome differences in terms of the relationship between strategy and executive control and highlight the need for more sensitive anatomical and behavioral measurement at both acute and chronic stages of injury...
  49. ncbi request reprint Divided attention in younger and older adults: effects of strategy and relatedness on memory performance and secondary task costs
    Moshe Naveh-Benjamin
    Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
    J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 31:520-37. 2005
    ..Naveh-Benjamin, 2000) and age-related differences in the use of self-initiated activities and environmental support (F. I. M. Craik, 1983, 1986)...
  50. ncbi request reprint The effects of attention switching on encoding and retrieval of words in younger and older adults
    Michael J Hogan
    Department of Psychology, NUI, Galway, Ireland
    Exp Aging Res 32:153-83. 2006
    ..Results are discussed in light of theoretical models of aging memory that posit a role for executive control processing...
  51. ncbi request reprint Effects of time of day on age differences in working memory
    Robert West
    Rotman Research Institute of Baycrest Centre and University of Toronto, Canada
    J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 57:P3-10. 2002
    ..The efficiency of the response inhibition function was similar for younger and older adults and paralleled changes in body temperature...
  52. ncbi request reprint Bilingualism and naming: implications for cognitive assessment
    Ellen Bialystok
    Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Int Neuropsychol Soc 13:209-11; discussion 215-8. 2007
    ..This observation is important if cognitive status is inferred from naming performance. In this commentary we largely endorse the arguments made by Gollan and colleagues, although we point to some limitations in their experimental design...
  53. ncbi request reprint Memory changes in normal and pathological aging
    Fergus I M Craik
    Can J Psychiatry 53:343-5. 2008
  54. ncbi request reprint Memory for proper names in old age: a disproportionate impairment?
    Peter G Rendell
    Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia
    Q J Exp Psychol A 58:54-71. 2005
    ..Familiarity largely determined the proportions of recognizable items that were named in a prior phase. Overall, little evidence was found for a disproportionate age-related impairment in naming in either episodic or semantic memory...