Paul B Pencharz

Summary

Affiliation: The Hospital for Sick Children
Country: Canada

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Determination of the tolerable upper intake level of leucine in adult men
    Paul B Pencharz
    The Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada
    J Nutr 142:2220S-2224S. 2012
  2. doi request reprint Application of Key Events Dose Response Framework to defining the upper intake level of leucine in young men
    Paul B Pencharz
    The Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    J Nutr 142:2225S-2226S. 2012
  3. ncbi request reprint Aromatic amino acid requirements in healthy human subjects
    Paul B Pencharz
    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Ontario, Canada
    J Nutr 137:1576S-1578S; discussion 1597S-1598S. 2007
  4. ncbi request reprint Assessment of protein nutritional status in children
    Paul B Pencharz
    Departments of Paediatrics and Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Pediatr Blood Cancer 50:445-6; discussion 451. 2008
  5. ncbi request reprint An approach to defining the upper safe limits of amino acid intake
    Paul B Pencharz
    Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, M5G 1X8 Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Nutr 138:1996S-2002S. 2008
  6. ncbi request reprint Amino acid needs for early growth and development
    Paul B Pencharz
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Toronto, and Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1X8
    J Nutr 134:1566S-1568S. 2004
  7. ncbi request reprint Different approaches to define individual amino acid requirements
    Paul B Pencharz
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Annu Rev Nutr 23:101-16. 2003
  8. ncbi request reprint Minimum methionine requirement and cysteine sparing of methionine in healthy school-age children
    Mohammad A Humayun
    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 84:1080-5. 2006
  9. ncbi request reprint Leucine is not a good choice as an indicator amino acid for determining amino acid requirements in men
    Jean W C Hsu
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3E2, Canada
    J Nutr 136:958-64. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint Aromatic amino acid requirements in healthy men measured by indicator amino acid oxidation
    Jean W C Hsu
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 83:82-8. 2006

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications100

  1. doi request reprint Determination of the tolerable upper intake level of leucine in adult men
    Paul B Pencharz
    The Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada
    J Nutr 142:2220S-2224S. 2012
    ..It is important to note that these are acute studies, where each participant was exposed to graded increases in leucine intake. Longer term adaptation was not studied...
  2. doi request reprint Application of Key Events Dose Response Framework to defining the upper intake level of leucine in young men
    Paul B Pencharz
    The Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    J Nutr 142:2225S-2226S. 2012
    ..Thus, the "key determining event" appears to be when the participants reach their maximal leucine oxidation level, after which the risk of metabolic adverse effects progressively increased...
  3. ncbi request reprint Aromatic amino acid requirements in healthy human subjects
    Paul B Pencharz
    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Ontario, Canada
    J Nutr 137:1576S-1578S; discussion 1597S-1598S. 2007
    ..1 mg.kg(-1).d(-1). Hence, tyrosine can spare 78% of the dietary phenylalanine need. Finally the optimal proportions of dietary phenylalanine and tyrosine have been shown to be 60:40, respectively...
  4. ncbi request reprint Assessment of protein nutritional status in children
    Paul B Pencharz
    Departments of Paediatrics and Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Pediatr Blood Cancer 50:445-6; discussion 451. 2008
    ..Classically, nitrogen balance has been used as a reflection of dietary protein intake. While it has been used extensively on a research basis its clinical applicability is limited...
  5. ncbi request reprint An approach to defining the upper safe limits of amino acid intake
    Paul B Pencharz
    Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, M5G 1X8 Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Nutr 138:1996S-2002S. 2008
    ....
  6. ncbi request reprint Amino acid needs for early growth and development
    Paul B Pencharz
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Toronto, and Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1X8
    J Nutr 134:1566S-1568S. 2004
    ....
  7. ncbi request reprint Different approaches to define individual amino acid requirements
    Paul B Pencharz
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Annu Rev Nutr 23:101-16. 2003
    ..Finally, a minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation model has been developed which allows the determination of dietary essential amino acid requirements in children and other vulnerable populations...
  8. ncbi request reprint Minimum methionine requirement and cysteine sparing of methionine in healthy school-age children
    Mohammad A Humayun
    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 84:1080-5. 2006
    ..Cysteine can provide a portion of the sulfur amino acid requirement in adults. Whether this is true in children-and, if so, to what extent-is not known...
  9. ncbi request reprint Leucine is not a good choice as an indicator amino acid for determining amino acid requirements in men
    Jean W C Hsu
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3E2, Canada
    J Nutr 136:958-64. 2006
    ..In conclusion, leucine may be used as the indicator in the IAAO technique only when the daily intake leucine is given at its mean requirement level and the potential metabolic effects of other variables are taken into consideration...
  10. ncbi request reprint Aromatic amino acid requirements in healthy men measured by indicator amino acid oxidation
    Jean W C Hsu
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 83:82-8. 2006
    ..In the current literature, no agreement exists on estimates for aromatic amino acid (phenylalanine plus tyrosine) requirements as measured by stable-isotope techniques...
  11. doi request reprint Protein requirement of healthy school-age children determined by the indicator amino acid oxidation method
    Rajavel Elango
    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 94:1545-52. 2011
    ..The current Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) recommendations for protein requirements in children are based on a factorial estimate and have not been directly determined...
  12. ncbi request reprint Enteric-coated pancreatic enzyme with bicarbonate is equal to standard enteric-coated enzyme in treating malabsorption in cystic fibrosis
    Daina Kalnins
    Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, The Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 42:256-61. 2006
    ..5 mEq of bicarbonate per capsule with a conventional enteric-coated enzyme (EC-PE) capsule in cystic fibrosis patients with signs or symptoms of moderate to severe malabsorption...
  13. ncbi request reprint Lysine requirement of healthy school-age children determined by the indicator amino acid oxidation method
    Rajavel Elango
    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 86:360-5. 2007
    ..The current Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) recommendations for lysine requirements in children are based on a factorial estimate...
  14. doi request reprint Threonine requirement of parenterally fed postsurgical human neonates
    Karen P Chapman
    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 89:134-41. 2009
    ..The threonine requirement of human neonates who receive parenteral nutrition (PN) has not been determined experimentally...
  15. ncbi request reprint Splanchnic first pass disappearance of threonine and lysine do not differ in healthy men in the fed state
    Karen P Chapman
    The Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    J Nutr 143:290-4. 2013
    ..We conclude that the threonine requirement of the gut of healthy men consuming a liquid formula diet based on free amino acids is similar to the lysine requirement, which is in contrast to our previous findings for neonates...
  16. ncbi request reprint Branched-chain amino acid requirements in school-aged children determined by indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO)
    Diana R Mager
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    J Nutr 133:3540-5. 2003
    ..The estimated mean requirements of the total BCAA as determined by IAAO is approximately 48% higher than the current DRI recommendations, suggesting that these recommendations may be too low to meet the needs of school-aged children...
  17. doi request reprint The addition of cysteine to the total sulphur amino acid requirement as methionine does not increase erythrocytes glutathione synthesis in the parenterally fed human neonate
    Glenda Courtney-Martin
    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Ontario, Canada
    Pediatr Res 67:320-4. 2010
    ..Cysteine supplementation did not significantly affect GSH synthesis. These data suggest that term infants are capable of synthesizing cysteine from methionine, not only for protein but also for GSH synthesis...
  18. ncbi request reprint Mild-to-moderate chronic cholestatic liver disease increases leucine oxidation in children
    Diana R Mager
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    J Nutr 136:965-70. 2006
    ..However, F13CO2 and whole-body leucine oxidation did not differ in the fed state. We conclude that the increased need for dietary BCAA in MCC liver disease is mediated in part by increased leucine oxidation in the postabsorptive state...
  19. ncbi request reprint Phase of menstrual cycle affects lysine requirement in healthy women
    Wantanee Kriengsinyos
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 287:E489-96. 2004
    ..Therefore, we reason that the higher lysine requirement observed in the luteal phase is probably due to higher amino acid catabolism...
  20. doi request reprint Lysine requirement in parenterally fed postsurgical human neonates
    Karen P Chapman
    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 91:958-65. 2010
    ..The lysine requirement of human neonates receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) has not been determined experimentally...
  21. pmc Assessment of protein requirement in octogenarian women with use of the indicator amino acid oxidation technique
    Minghua Tang
    Departments of Nutrition Science MT and WWC and Statistics GPM, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN the Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada RE the Department of Paediatrics and Nutrition Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada PBP and the Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutrition Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada ROB
    Am J Clin Nutr 99:891-8. 2014
    ..Data on the protein requirements of elderly adults are limited, because it is impractical to conduct repeated nitrogen balance protocols in these vulnerable humans...
  22. ncbi request reprint Determination of the tolerable upper intake level of leucine in acute dietary studies in young men
    Rajavel Elango
    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 96:759-67. 2012
    ..Currently, the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for leucine is unknown...
  23. ncbi request reprint Total sulfur amino acid requirement of healthy school-age children as determined by indicator amino acid oxidation technique
    Justine M Turner
    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 83:619-23. 2006
    ..Current total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) requirements of children are based on a factorial estimate that involves several assumptions...
  24. ncbi request reprint Reevaluation of the protein requirement in young men with the indicator amino acid oxidation technique
    Mohammad A Humayun
    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 86:995-1002. 2007
    ..The current estimated protein requirements are based on the nitrogen balance method, which has many limitations. An alternate approach is needed to permit a reevaluation of protein requirements...
  25. ncbi request reprint Total sulfur amino acid requirement and metabolism in parenterally fed postsurgical human neonates
    Glenda Courtney-Martin
    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 88:115-24. 2008
    ..Except for tyrosine, the amino acid requirements of human neonates receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) have not been experimentally derived...
  26. ncbi request reprint Total branched-chain amino acids requirement in patients with maple syrup urine disease by use of indicator amino acid oxidation with L-[1-13C]phenylalanine
    Roya Riazi
    Division of Gasteroentrology Nutrition, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 Univ Ave, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 287:E142-9. 2004
    ..kg(-1).day(-1), with the safe level of intake (upper 95% confidence interval) at 62 mg.kg(-1).day(-1). This is the first time BCAA requirements in patients with MSUD have been determined directly...
  27. doi request reprint Natural history of glucose intolerance in patients with cystic fibrosis: ten-year prospective observation program
    Anca E Sterescu
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Pediatr 156:613-7. 2010
    ..To determine prospectively the long-term natural history of glucose homeostasis in adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF)...
  28. doi request reprint Evidence that protein requirements have been significantly underestimated
    Rajavel Elango
    The Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 13:52-7. 2010
    ..This review discusses recent evidence that suggests a significant underestimation of protein requirements in adult humans...
  29. doi request reprint Reproducibility of short-term food intake and subjective appetite scores after a glucose preload, ventilation threshold, and body composition in boys
    Nick Bellissimo
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 33:326-37. 2008
    ..In conclusion, FI and subjective appetite scores in response to glucose preloads, VT, subjective appetite after short-duration exercise, and estimates of FM from BIA are reproducible in boys...
  30. ncbi request reprint Valine may be the first limiting branched-chain amino acid in egg protein in men
    Roya Riazi
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, The University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    J Nutr 133:3533-9. 2003
    ..007, P = 0.038, respectively). We conclude that valine may be the first limiting BCAA in egg protein...
  31. doi request reprint Glutathione and riboflavin status in supplemented patients undergoing home nocturnal hemodialysis versus standard hemodialysis
    Jovil Kannampuzha
    The Keenan Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael s Hospital Toronto, Ontario, Canada Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Ren Nutr 20:199-208. 2010
    ..Glutathione (GSH), an important intracellular antioxidant, requires cysteine as a rate-limiting amino acid for its synthesis and riboflavin for its regeneration...
  32. doi request reprint Amino acid requirements in humans: with a special emphasis on the metabolic availability of amino acids
    Rajavel Elango
    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Amino Acids 37:19-27. 2009
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint Changes in response to insulin and the effects of varying glucose tolerance on whole-body protein metabolism in patients with cystic fibrosis
    Mahroukh Rafii
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 81:421-6. 2005
    ..Diabetes mellitus has been reported to increase whole-body protein breakdown and thus loss of lean body mass. Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is associated with undernutrition and increased mortality...
  34. ncbi request reprint The total branched-chain amino acid requirement in young healthy adult men determined by indicator amino acid oxidation by use of L-[1-13C]phenylalanine
    Roya Riazi
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3E2
    J Nutr 133:1383-9. 2003
    ..d), respectively. Based on the balance of BCAA in egg protein, our estimate for the mean leucine requirement is 55 mg/(kg. d), which is substantially higher than the 34 mg/(kg. d) recommended by the DRI...
  35. ncbi request reprint Evidence that phenylalanine may not provide the full needs for aromatic amino acids in children
    Jean W C Hsu
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3E2
    Pediatr Res 61:361-5. 2007
    ..In conclusion, this study indicates that phenylalanine may not provide the total needs for aromatic amino acids in children fed an amino acid-based diet without tyrosine...
  36. ncbi request reprint Minimum protein intake for the preterm neonate determined by protein and amino acid kinetics
    Gordon A Zello
    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Pediatr Res 53:338-44. 2003
    ..64 +/- 4.41 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)). Infants in our study were able to adapt to short-term changes in protein intake with little consequence to the overall whole-body protein economy, as measured by the three test amino acids...
  37. ncbi request reprint Application of the indicator amino acid oxidation technique for the determination of metabolic availability of sulfur amino acids from casein versus soy protein isolate in adult men
    Mohammad A Humayun
    Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X8
    J Nutr 137:1874-9. 2007
    ..8 +/- 1.0 vs. 10.7 +/- 1.2% for casein; 12.7 +/- 1.3 vs. 12.9 +/- 2.6% for SPI). In conclusion, the IAAO technique can be used to determine the MA of AA for protein synthesis in test proteins for humans...
  38. ncbi request reprint Phenylalanine requirement in children with classical PKU determined by indicator amino acid oxidation
    Glenda Courtney-Martin
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3E2, Canada
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 283:E1249-56. 2002
    ..kg(-1). day(-1). The similarity between these two values (19.5 and 20 mg. kg(-1). day(-1)) suggests that the maximal phenylalanine intake for children with PKU should be no higher than 20 mg. kg(-1). day(-1)...
  39. ncbi request reprint In vivo regulation of phenylalanine hydroxylation to tyrosine, studied using enrichment in apoB-100
    Mahroukh Rafii
    Division of Gastroentrology and Nutrition, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 294:E475-9. 2008
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Effects of polymeric formula vs elemental formula in neonatal piglets with short bowel syndrome
    Zheng Hua
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 38:498-506. 2014
    ..In neonatal piglet models of SBS, with or without ileum, we compared the elemental with the polymeric formula, including the effect on endogenous GLP-2...
  41. doi request reprint Energy expenditure and nutritional status in pediatric patients before and after lung transplantation
    Daina Kalnins
    Transplant Center, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Division of Respiratory Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Electronic address
    J Pediatr 163:1500-2. 2013
    ..Body mass index and weight z-scores improved posttransplantation, but nutritional measurements remained below normal population values...
  42. doi request reprint The role of parenteral lipids in the development of advanced intestinal failure-associated liver disease in infants: a multiple-variable analysis
    Ivan R Diamond
    Group for Improvement of Intestinal Function and Treatment GIFT, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 35:596-602. 2011
    ..9 mg/dL; CB100) in infants...
  43. doi request reprint Novel lipid-based approaches to pediatric intestinal failure-associated liver disease
    Ivan R Diamond
    Child Health Evaluative Sciences Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 166:473-8. 2012
    ..Therefore, there is currently insufficient evidence to support the use of these novel therapies as standard of care in children with no or early IFALD with the goal of preventing the progression of liver disease...
  44. doi request reprint Methionine-adequate cysteine-free diet does not limit erythrocyte glutathione synthesis in young healthy adult men
    Glenda Courtney-Martin
    Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, M5G 1X8 Toronto, Canada
    J Nutr 138:2172-8. 2008
    ..01). In conclusion, this study provides preliminary evidence that consumption of SAA adequate to meet the requirement for protein synthesis does not limit GSH synthesis in healthy adult men receiving an otherwise adequate diet...
  45. ncbi request reprint L-rhamnose and lactulose decrease serum triacylglycerols and their rates of synthesis, but do not affect serum cholesterol concentrations in men
    Janet A Vogt
    Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Centre, St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada
    J Nutr 136:2160-6. 2006
    ..Although these data are consistent with inhibition of TGFA synthesis by SCFA, other aspects of the metabolism of these sugars cannot be ruled out as putative agents of their TG-lowering effects...
  46. ncbi request reprint L-Rhamnose increases serum propionate after long-term supplementation, but lactulose does not raise serum acetate
    Janet A Vogt
    University of Toronto, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 80:1254-61. 2004
    ..It is not known whether short-chain fatty acid concentrations in urine and feces reflect those in blood...
  47. ncbi request reprint The use of bioelectric impedance analysis to measure fluid compartments in subjects with chronic paraplegia
    Andrea C Buchholz
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, ON, Canada
    Arch Phys Med Rehabil 84:854-61. 2003
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint Resting energy expenditure in stroke patients who are dependent on tube feeding: a pilot study
    Ashley Leone
    Department of General Internal Medicine, St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Nutr 29:370-2. 2010
    ..Energy requirements of chronic stroke patients are not known. The purpose was to determine the energy requirements of stable stroke patients who are tube fed...
  49. ncbi request reprint Failure of conventional strategies to improve nutritional status in malnourished adolescents and adults with cystic fibrosis
    Daina Kalnins
    Division of Respiratory Medicine, and Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Pediatr 147:399-401. 2005
    ..1 years) with cystic fibrosis. Energy intake and nutritional status were evaluated over 3 months. There was no significant change in energy intake or percent ideal body weight in either group...
  50. doi request reprint Indicator amino acid oxidation is not affected by period of adaptation to a wide range of lysine intake in healthy young men
    Rajavel Elango
    The Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto M5G 1X8, Canada
    J Nutr 139:1082-7. 2009
    ....
  51. doi request reprint Prevalence of dyslipidemia in adults with cystic fibrosis
    Bronwen Rhodes
    Toronto Adult Cystic Fibrosis Program, St Michael s Hospital, 30 Bond Street, 6th Floor, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 1W8
    J Cyst Fibros 9:24-8. 2010
    ..A high fat calorie diet is advocated for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) however the lipid profiles of individuals with CF, including those with CF-related diabetes (CFRD), are not well studied...
  52. ncbi request reprint Physical activity levels are low in free-living adults with chronic paraplegia
    Andrea C Buchholz
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto and The Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Obes Res 11:563-70. 2003
    ..To compare physical activity levels (PALs) of free-living adults with chronic paraplegia with World Health Organization recommendations and to compare energy expenditure between persons with complete vs. incomplete paraplegia...
  53. ncbi request reprint The rationale for the use of parenteral omega-3 lipids in children with short bowel syndrome and liver disease
    Ivan R Diamond
    Group for Improvement of Intestinal Function and Treatment GIFT, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5G 1X8
    Pediatr Surg Int 24:773-8. 2008
    ..The early clinical experience with omega3FAs in SBS and PNALD is briefly reviewed and the implications of such, and future directions are considered...
  54. ncbi request reprint Individual amino acid requirements in humans: an update
    Rajavel Elango
    The Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 11:34-9. 2008
    ..To discuss recent amino acid requirement studies in adult humans and school-age children, primarily determined using the indicator amino acid oxidation technique...
  55. ncbi request reprint The in vivo sparing of methionine by cysteine in sulfur amino acid requirements in animal models and adult humans
    Ronald O Ball
    Department of Nutritional Science and Pediatrics, The University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    J Nutr 136:1682S-1693S. 2006
    ..Our goal is to objectively review the data for the reader in a logical and comprehensive manner and propose methods that may avoid difficulties in future studies...
  56. ncbi request reprint Branched-chain amino acid needs in children with mild-to-moderate chronic cholestatic liver disease
    Diana R Mager
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    J Nutr 136:133-9. 2006
    ..Total BCAA estimated average requirements using the IAAO were significantly higher than mean requirements established previously for healthy children (P < 0.05)...
  57. doi request reprint Measurement of homocysteine and related metabolites in human plasma and urine by liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry
    Mahroukh Rafii
    The Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Ontario, Canada
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 877:3282-91. 2009
    ..It has the greatest potential of being accepted and utilized as a dedicated homocysteine and its related metabolite Standard reference method (SRM)...
  58. doi request reprint Role of glucagon-like peptide-2 deficiency in neonatal short-bowel syndrome using neonatal piglets
    Zheng Hua
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Pediatr Res 73:742-9. 2013
    ..We compared endogenous GLP-2 production and adaptation in neonatal animals with SBS, with and without ileum...
  59. ncbi request reprint Effect of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) on branched-chain amino acid requirement
    Diana R Mager
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, The Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G IX8
    Pediatr Res 59:829-34. 2006
    ....
  60. doi request reprint Omega-3 lipids for intestinal failure associated liver disease
    Ivan R Diamond
    Group for Improvement of Intestinal Function and Treatment GIFT, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Semin Pediatr Surg 18:239-45. 2009
    ..Mechanisms explaining their effects will be considered as will future research directions...
  61. ncbi request reprint Long-term effects of histidine depletion on whole-body protein metabolism in healthy adults
    Wantanee Kriengsinyos
    Department of Nutritional Sciences and Paediatrics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada M5S 3E2
    J Nutr 132:3340-8. 2002
    ..The extensive metabolic accommodation, together with decreases in Hb, albumin and transferrin during histidine depletion, leaves unresolved the issue of whether histidine is a dietary essential amino acid in healthy adults...
  62. ncbi request reprint Indicator amino acid oxidation: concept and application
    Rajavel Elango
    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X8
    J Nutr 138:243-6. 2008
    ..The recent application of IAAO to determine MA of amino acids and protein requirements is also very novel...
  63. ncbi request reprint Energy expenditure in chronic spinal cord injury
    Andrea C Buchholz
    Department of Family Relations and Applied Nutrition, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 7:635-9. 2004
    ....
  64. doi request reprint Is it necessary to measure resting energy expenditure in clinical practice in children?
    Yaseer A Shakur
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Pediatr 152:437-9. 2008
    ..2). Bland-Altman analysis also suggested poor agreement between MREE and PREE (mean bias, 43.2 kcal; range, -645 to 1118.1 kcal). Our findings suggest that resting energy expenditure should be measured in chronically ill children...
  65. doi request reprint Absence of the interstitial cells of Cajal in a child with chronic pseudoobstruction
    Marie Chantal Struijs
    Group for Improvement of Intestinal Function and Treatment GIFT, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada M5G 1X8
    J Pediatr Surg 43:e25-9. 2008
    ..This report highlights that abnormalities of the ICCs in intestinal pseudoobstruction should be considered early in the diagnostic workup of children with intestinal pseudoobstruction...
  66. ncbi request reprint Amino acid requirements of infants and children
    Paul B Pencharz
    Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont, Canada
    Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program 58:109-16; discussion 116-9. 2006
    ..We have recently shown that the maintenance requirements for branched chain amino acids are similar in children and adults, thereby validating the factorial approach...
  67. ncbi request reprint Nutritional consequences of interspecies differences in arginine and lysine metabolism
    Ronald O Ball
    Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, and The Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G
    J Nutr 137:1626S-1641S. 2007
    ..A thorough understanding of the factors contributing to the lysine and arginine requirements in different species will be useful in our understanding of human amino acid requirements...
  68. doi request reprint Probing pyruvate metabolism in normal and mutant fibroblast cell lines using 13C-labeled mass isotopomer analysis and mass spectrometry
    Roya Riazi
    Genetic and Genomic Biology, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ont, Canada
    Mol Genet Metab 98:349-55. 2009
    ..These data illustrate the usefulness of this approach in identifying unexpected metabolic consequences of genetic defects related to pyruvate metabolism...
  69. pmc The effect of duration of exercise at the ventilation threshold on subjective appetite and short-term food intake in 9 to 14 year old boys and girls
    Natalie C Bozinovski
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Fitzgerald Building, 150 College St, Toronto, ON M5S 3E2, Canada
    Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 6:66. 2009
    ..abstract:..
  70. doi request reprint Arginine can be synthesized from enteral proline in healthy adult humans
    Chris Tomlinson
    Department of Paediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    J Nutr 141:1432-6. 2011
    ..Therefore, as in newborns, proline must now be considered a dietary precursor for arginine in healthy adults...
  71. doi request reprint Resting energy expenditure in children newly diagnosed with stage IV neuroblastoma
    Gloria J Green
    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X8
    Pediatr Res 63:332-6. 2008
    ..Because REE is not increased in NBIV, it is concluded that malnutrition seen in NBIV is not due to increased energy needs, but is likely due to decreased intake because of the intra-abdominal mass and malignant malaise...
  72. ncbi request reprint Effect of television viewing at mealtime on food intake after a glucose preload in boys
    Nick Bellissimo
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2, Canada
    Pediatr Res 61:745-9. 2007
    ..In conclusion, TVV while eating a meal contributes to increased energy intake by delaying normal mealtime satiation and reducing satiety signals from previously consumed foods...
  73. ncbi request reprint High-throughput and simultaneous measurement of homocysteine and cysteine in human plasma and urine by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry
    Mahroukh Rafii
    Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X8
    Anal Biochem 371:71-81. 2007
    ..Our method is suitable for rapid measurements, and the reported urinary values in children will help to develop a pediatric reference range for clinical use...
  74. ncbi request reprint Nutritional issues in infants with cancer
    Mary A Barron
    Department of Clinical Dietetics, Division of Haematology Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Pediatr Blood Cancer 49:1093-6. 2007
    ..Malnutrition is of particular concern in infants and young children due to limited reserves and the effect undernutrition can play on a patient's weight gain, growth, immune function and overall well-being...
  75. ncbi request reprint Citrulline is an effective arginine precursor in enterally fed neonatal piglets
    Kristine L Urschel
    Nutritional Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    J Nutr 136:1806-13. 2006
    ..05). These data indicate that citrulline, but not ornithine or proline, is an effective arginine precursor, and that either citrulline formation or availability appears to limit arginine synthesis in neonatal piglets...
  76. doi request reprint Changing the paradigm: omegaven for the treatment of liver failure in pediatric short bowel syndrome
    Ivan R Diamond
    The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 48:209-15. 2009
    ..Parenteral omega-3 fatty acids, such as Omegaven, may benefit patients with pediatric short bowel syndrome (SBS) who develop parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD)...
  77. ncbi request reprint Differences in resting metabolic rate between paraplegic and able-bodied subjects are explained by differences in body composition
    Andrea C Buchholz
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Ontario
    Am J Clin Nutr 77:371-8. 2003
    ..Little is known about the relation between body composition and energy metabolism in paraplegia...
  78. doi request reprint Folate is absorbed across the colon of adults: evidence from cecal infusion of (13)C-labeled [6S]-5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid
    Susanne Aufreiter
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 90:116-23. 2009
    ..It is well known that the microflora in the colon produce large quantities of folate that approach or exceed recommended dietary intakes; however, there is no direct evidence of the bioavailability of this pool in humans...
  79. ncbi request reprint Special problems of nutrition in the pregnancy of teenagers
    Paul B Pencharz
    Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Ontario, Canada
    Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program 55:213-7; discussion 217-20. 2005
  80. ncbi request reprint L-Rhamnose increases serum propionate in humans
    Janet A Vogt
    University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 80:89-94. 2004
    ..The unabsorbed sugar lactulose produces mainly acetate when fermented in vitro, whereas L-rhamnose yields propionate...
  81. ncbi request reprint Phenylalanine kinetics differ between formula-fed and human milk-fed preterm infants
    Pauline B Darling
    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    J Nutr 134:2540-5. 2004
    ....
  82. ncbi request reprint Combining unprotected pancreatic enzymes with pH-sensitive enteric-coated microspheres does not improve nutrient digestion in patients with cystic fibrosis
    Daina Kalnins
    Division of Respiratory Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X8
    J Pediatr 146:489-93. 2005
    ..To assess the efficacy of combining unprotected powder enzymes and oral enteric-coated microsphere (ECM) and to ECM alone in treating nutrient maldigestion in patients with cystic fibrosis...
  83. doi request reprint Arginine synthesis from enteral glutamine in healthy adults in the fed state
    Chris Tomlinson
    Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 555 University Ave, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 301:E267-73. 2011
    ..Hence, studies using [2-(15)N]glutamine will overestimate arginine synthesis rates...
  84. ncbi request reprint Enteral tryptophan requirement determined by oxidation of gastrically or intravenously infused phenylalanine is not different from the parenteral requirement in neonatal piglets
    Suzan Cvitkovic
    Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2P5
    Pediatr Res 55:630-6. 2004
    ..Furthermore, in spite of a splanchnic extraction of 27% of the phenylalanine dose, the route of isotope infusion does not affect the tryptophan requirement as determined by indicator amino acid oxidation...
  85. ncbi request reprint Development of the indicator amino acid oxidation technique to determine the availability of amino acids from dietary protein in pigs
    Soenke Moehn
    Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    J Nutr 135:2866-70. 2005
    ..This method can determine the metabolic availability of amino acids of a feedstuff within 2 wk...
  86. ncbi request reprint Oral and intravenous tracer protocols of the indicator amino acid oxidation method provide the same estimate of the lysine requirement in healthy men
    Wantanee Kriengsinyos
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Canada M5S 3E2
    J Nutr 132:2251-7. 2002
    ....
  87. ncbi request reprint The branched-chain amino acid requirement of parenterally fed neonatal piglets is less than the enteral requirement
    Rajavel Elango
    Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2P5
    J Nutr 132:3123-9. 2002
    ..64 g/(kg. d) for parenterally and enterally fed piglets, respectively. Thus, the parenteral requirement for total BCAA is 56% of the enteral requirement, suggesting that 44% of total BCAA is extracted by first-pass splanchnic metabolism...
  88. ncbi request reprint The indicator amino acid oxidation method identified limiting amino acids in two parenteral nutrition solutions in neonatal piglets
    Janet A Brunton
    Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2P5
    J Nutr 137:1253-9. 2007
    ..Similarly, SAA added to NP lowered lysine oxidation by approximately 30% (P < 0.01). The application of the IAAO technique facilitates rapid evaluation of the amino acids that are limiting to protein synthesis in parenteral solutions...
  89. ncbi request reprint Regulation of sulfur amino acid metabolism in men in response to changes in sulfur amino acid intakes
    Marco Di Buono
    Department of Nutritional Sciences and Paediatrics, University of Toronto, Canada M5S 3E2
    J Nutr 133:733-9. 2003
    ..We conclude that Cys sparing occurs through an increase in the fraction of the homocysteine pool destined for RM relative to TS (RM:TS)...
  90. ncbi request reprint Indicator amino acid oxidation responds rapidly to changes in lysine or protein intake in growing and adult pigs
    Soenke Moehn
    Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2P5
    J Nutr 134:836-41. 2004
    ....
  91. ncbi request reprint The methionine requirement is lower in neonatal piglets fed parenterally than in those fed enterally
    Anna K Shoveller
    Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2P5
    J Nutr 133:1390-7. 2003
    ..These data show that the parenteral Met requirement is approximately 69% of the enteral requirement and suggest that extraction of SAA by first-pass splanchnic metabolism may be responsible for this difference...
  92. ncbi request reprint Dietary cysteine reduces the methionine requirement by an equal proportion in both parenterally and enterally fed piglets
    Anna K Shoveller
    Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2P5
    J Nutr 133:4215-24. 2003
    ..Therefore, dietary cysteine is equally effective in sparing dietary methionine whether fed enterally or parenterally...
  93. ncbi request reprint Parenteral and enteral routes of feeding in neonatal piglets require different ratios of branched-chain amino acids
    Rajavel Elango
    Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2P5
    J Nutr 134:72-8. 2004
    ..6%), +leucine (2%) and +valine (6.6%). The ratio of 1:1.8:1.2 of isoleucine/leucine/valine is appropriate for enteral feeding, but during parenteral feeding, isoleucine was first limiting and valine was second limiting...
  94. ncbi request reprint Arginine synthesis does not occur during first-pass hepatic metabolism in the neonatal piglet
    Kristine L Urschel
    Dept of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, Univ of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2P5
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 288:E1244-51. 2005
    ..20%). Collectively, these findings show that first-pass hepatic metabolism is not a site of net arginine synthesis and that piglets conserve dietary arginine in times of deficiency by decreasing hydrolysis and increasing recycling...
  95. ncbi request reprint The balance of dietary sulfur amino acids and the route of feeding affect plasma homocysteine concentrations in neonatal piglets
    Anna K Shoveller
    Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2P5
    J Nutr 134:609-12. 2004
    ..These dramatic and rapid alterations in plasma tHcy warrant further studies of sulfur amino acid metabolism in neonatal animals...
  96. ncbi request reprint Arginine synthesis is regulated by dietary arginine intake in the enterally fed neonatal piglet
    Dana Lee Wilkinson
    Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2P5
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 287:E454-62. 2004
    ..This study demonstrates that dietary arginine is an important regulator of endogenous arginine synthesis in the neonatal piglet and that proline, but not glutamate, is an important precursor for arginine synthesis in the neonate...
  97. ncbi request reprint Adequate oral threonine is critical for mucin production and gut function in neonatal piglets
    Garson K Law
    Dept of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, Univ of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2P5
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 292:G1293-301. 2007
    ..Overall, our results suggest that adequate dietary threonine was critical in the production of mucus and that a parenteral threonine supply can ameliorate most of the symptoms of oral threonine deficiency...
  98. ncbi request reprint N-acetylcysteine is a highly available precursor for cysteine in the neonatal piglet receiving parenteral nutrition
    Anna K Shoveller
    Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5
    JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 30:133-42. 2006
    ..Thus, developing a method to supply CYS in PN for neonates is needed. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is stable in solution and safe for use in humans; therefore, NAC may be a means of supplying parenteral CYS...
  99. pmc Pattern of carbon dioxide production and retention is similar in adult pigs when fed hourly, but not when fed a single meal
    Soenke Moehn
    Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2P5 Canada
    BMC Physiol 4:11. 2004
    ..Oxygen consumption, CO2 production and 14CO2 recovery (ie fraction not retained) were determined during primed, constant intravenous infusions of NaH14CO3...
  100. ncbi request reprint Enzymatic decarboxylation of tyrosine and phenylalanine to enhance volatility for high-precision isotopic analysis
    Bassem I Ziadeh
    Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850, USA
    Anal Chem 74:479-83. 2002
    ....