G Koren

Summary

Affiliation: The Hospital for Sick Children
Country: Canada

Publications

  1. ncbi Safety and pharmacokinetics of EMLA in the treatment of postburn pruritus in pediatric patients: a pilot study
    E A Kopecky
    Division of Clinial Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Canada
    J Burn Care Rehabil 22:235-42. 2001
  2. ncbi Appraisal of drug therapy for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: I. The placebo effect - methodological and practical considerations
    G Koren
    Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Can J Clin Pharmacol 7:135-7. 2000
  3. ncbi Congenital varicella syndrome in the third trimester
    Gideon Koren
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada
    Lancet 366:1591-2. 2005
  4. ncbi Glyburide and fetal safety; transplacental pharmacokinetic considerations
    G Koren
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, M5G 1X8, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Reprod Toxicol 15:227-9. 2001
  5. ncbi Ethical framework for observational studies of medicinal drug exposure in pregnancy
    Gideon Koren
    Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Teratology 65:191-5. 2002
  6. ncbi Fetal pharmacotherapy
    Gideon Koren
    Department of Paediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Drugs 62:757-73. 2002
  7. ncbi Use of atypical antipsychotics during pregnancy and the risk of neural tube defects in infants
    Gideon Koren
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont, Canada
    Am J Psychiatry 159:136-7. 2002
  8. ncbi Preconception counseling: rational, practice and challenges
    A Walfisch
    Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Minerva Ginecol 63:411-9. 2011
  9. ncbi Attitudes, management and consequences of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy in the United States and Canada
    P Mazzotta
    The Motherisk Program, Department of Pediatrics and Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Int J Gynaecol Obstet 70:359-65. 2000
  10. ncbi Combined analgesia and local anesthesia to minimize pain during circumcision
    A Taddio
    Department of Pharmacy, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 154:620-3. 2000

Detail Information

Publications165 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Safety and pharmacokinetics of EMLA in the treatment of postburn pruritus in pediatric patients: a pilot study
    E A Kopecky
    Division of Clinial Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Canada
    J Burn Care Rehabil 22:235-42. 2001
    ..Skin at the site of EMLA application remained anesthetized for 12 to 13 hours. In this small pilot study, EMLA seems to be a safe, novel treatment for postburn pruritus in burned children when applied to newly healed, intact skin...
  2. ncbi Appraisal of drug therapy for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: I. The placebo effect - methodological and practical considerations
    G Koren
    Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Can J Clin Pharmacol 7:135-7. 2000
    ..Despite that nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is the most common medical problem during pregnancy, the placebo effect in the treatment of this condition has not been properly evaluated...
  3. ncbi Congenital varicella syndrome in the third trimester
    Gideon Koren
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada
    Lancet 366:1591-2. 2005
  4. ncbi Glyburide and fetal safety; transplacental pharmacokinetic considerations
    G Koren
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, M5G 1X8, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Reprod Toxicol 15:227-9. 2001
    ..Out of these physical and pharmacologic characteristics, the very extensive plasma protein binding and short elimination half-life of glyburide appear to be major determinants of its minimal transplacental transfer...
  5. ncbi Ethical framework for observational studies of medicinal drug exposure in pregnancy
    Gideon Koren
    Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Teratology 65:191-5. 2002
    ..The conduct of human research in the teratogenicity of drugs, chemicals, radiation and infections is needed in order to close critical gaps in knowledge...
  6. ncbi Fetal pharmacotherapy
    Gideon Koren
    Department of Paediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Drugs 62:757-73. 2002
    ..With scores of new modalities of fetal therapy likely to be introduced in the next few years, it will be important to adhere to the best possible methodology and execution, in order to address optimally the needs of the fetus...
  7. ncbi Use of atypical antipsychotics during pregnancy and the risk of neural tube defects in infants
    Gideon Koren
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont, Canada
    Am J Psychiatry 159:136-7. 2002
    ..Atypical antipsychotics cause various degrees of weight gain. The authors assessed folate status and obesity among patients with schizophrenia receiving atypical antipsychotics...
  8. ncbi Preconception counseling: rational, practice and challenges
    A Walfisch
    Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Minerva Ginecol 63:411-9. 2011
    ..In addition, specific topics are reviewed in depth including folic acid supplementation, obesity, depression, seizure disorders, and drug therapy during pregnancy...
  9. ncbi Attitudes, management and consequences of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy in the United States and Canada
    P Mazzotta
    The Motherisk Program, Department of Pediatrics and Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Int J Gynaecol Obstet 70:359-65. 2000
    ..In Canada, a generic form of Bendectin (Diclectin; a doxylamine/pyridoxine combination) has continued to be available, with increasing use over the last few years...
  10. ncbi Combined analgesia and local anesthesia to minimize pain during circumcision
    A Taddio
    Department of Pharmacy, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 154:620-3. 2000
    ..Pain of circumcision is only partially relieved by single modalities, such as penile nerve block, lidocaine-prilocaine cream, and sucrose pacifiers...
  11. ncbi Breast cancer resistance protein: mediating the trans-placental transfer of glyburide across the human placenta
    C Gedeon
    University of Toronto, Department of Pharmacology, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Placenta 29:39-43. 2008
    ..Our study also indicates that BCRP likely effluxes substrates in the fetal to maternal direction in the human placenta...
  12. ncbi Pregnancy outcome following gestational exposure to venlafaxine: a multicenter prospective controlled study
    A Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Psychiatry 158:1728-30. 2001
    ..Because there are no studies available on the safety of venlafaxine during pregnancy, the authors' goal in this study was to determine whether venlafaxine increases the risk for major malformations...
  13. ncbi The safety of higher than standard dose of doxylamine-pyridoxine (Diclectin) for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy
    G Atanackovic
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    J Clin Pharmacol 41:842-5. 2001
    ..If needed, Diclectin can be given at doses higher than 4 tablets/day to normalize for body weight or optimize efficacy...
  14. ncbi Communicating pharmacogenetic research results to breastfeeding mothers taking codeine: a pilot study of perceptions and benefits
    P Madadi
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 88:792-5. 2010
    ..Thirty-three percent of the participants wished to withhold these results from their physicians. Participants' expectations seem to dictate the extent of transparency of pharmacogenetic research results...
  15. ncbi Critical appraisal of drug therapy for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: II. Efficacy and safety of diclectin (doxylamine-B6)
    R Bishai
    The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Can J Clin Pharmacol 7:138-43. 2000
    ..The present review aims to refute the unsubstantiated beliefs that Diclectin is unsafe when used in the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy...
  16. doi The transfer of ethyl glucuronide across the dually perfused human placenta
    J N Matlow
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Placenta 34:369-73. 2013
    ..Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if EtG crosses the human placenta...
  17. doi Adverse effects of antidepressant use in pregnancy: an evaluation of fetal growth and preterm birth
    A Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Depress Anxiety 27:35-8. 2010
    ..To compare the rates of low birth weight, preterm delivery and small for gestational age (SGA), in pregnancy outcomes among women who were exposed and nonexposed to antidepressants during pregnancy...
  18. doi Investigating the potential role of multi-drug resistance protein (MRP) transporters in fetal to maternal glyburide efflux in the human placenta
    C Gedeon
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Obstet Gynaecol 28:485-9. 2008
    ..These results pose other ABC transporters, such as likely candidates for the placental transfer of glyburide...
  19. ncbi The role of the placenta in variability of fetal exposure to cocaine and cannabinoids: a twin study
    R Boskovic
    Department of Pediatrics and Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, The University of Toronto, ON, Canada
    Can J Physiol Pharmacol 79:942-5. 2001
    ..Given that twins are theoretically exposed to similar maternal drug levels, our findings suggest that the placenta may have a major role in modulating the amounts of drug reaching the fetus...
  20. doi Placental P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein: influence of polymorphisms on fetal drug exposure and physiology
    J R Hutson
    Insitute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, 1 King s College Circle, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada
    Placenta 31:351-7. 2010
    ....
  21. ncbi Characteristics of women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy who chose to continue compassionate use of placebo after a randomised trial
    I Matok
    Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Canada
    J Obstet Gynaecol 33:557-60. 2013
    ..Results were similar in the active drug arm. The request to continue compassionate use of either placebo or active drug could be predicted by greater improvement in symptoms of NVP during the trial period...
  22. ncbi Outcomes of infants exposed to multiple antidepressants during pregnancy: results of a cohort study
    A Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 18:e390-6. 2011
    ..A single study has been published documenting an increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes following use of more than one antidepressant during pregnancy...
  23. ncbi Neurodevelopment of adopted children exposed in utero to cocaine: the Toronto Adoption Study
    I Nulman
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ont
    Clin Invest Med 24:129-37. 2001
    ..Follow-up into school years is warranted to evaluate the extent of these effects...
  24. ncbi The role of acetaldehyde in pregnancy outcome after prenatal alcohol exposure
    M L Hard
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Ther Drug Monit 23:427-34. 2001
    ..The similar frequencies of high acetaldehyde levels among alcoholics and the rates of ARBD among alcoholic women provide epidemiologic support to the hypothesis that acetaldehyde may play a major role in the cause of ARBD...
  25. ncbi The role of placental breast cancer resistance protein in the efflux of glyburide across the human placenta
    E Pollex
    The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Placenta 29:743-7. 2008
    ..32+/-0.06 (p=0.04). These data indicate that nicardipine partially blocked the transfer of glyburide across the whole placenta through its inhibition of BCRP. This is the first ex vivo evidence that BCRP actively transports glyburide...
  26. ncbi A novel method for the evaluation of the severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy
    G Koren
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology/Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, The CIBC World Market Children's Miracle Foundation Chair in Child Health Research, University of Toronto, ON, Burlington, Canada
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 94:31-6. 2001
    ..Unlike the Rhode's score, this simple method can be used clinically to evaluate the severity and changes in NVP...
  27. ncbi A method for meta-analysis of epidemiological studies
    T R Einarson
    Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON
    Drug Intell Clin Pharm 22:813-24. 1988
    ..62-1.45. For case-control studies, the summary odds ratio was 1.27 with a 95 percent confidence interval of 0.83-1.94. The corresponding chi-square values were not statistically significant at the p = 0.05 level...
  28. doi Pharmacokinetics of disappearance of cocaine from hair after discontinuation of drug use
    F Garcia-Bournissen
    Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Canada
    Forensic Sci Int 189:24-7. 2009
    ..We aimed to evaluate the kinetics of disappearance of cocaine and its metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BE), from hair after discontinuation of drug use...
  29. doi The fetal safety of thiopurines for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in pregnancy
    J R Hutson
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Obstet Gynaecol 33:1-8. 2013
    ..45; 95% CI 1.07-1.96; p = 0.02); however, when compared with IBD controls, there was no increased risk (RR 1.37; 95% CI 0.92-2.05; p = 0.1). These data provide support for thiopurines having a minimal risk, if any, to the fetus...
  30. ncbi Prenatal exposure to organic solvents and child neurobehavioral performance
    C Till
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 23:235-45. 2001
    ..The findings suggest that maternal occupational exposure to organic solvents during pregnancy is associated with poorer outcome in selective aspects of cognitive and neuromotor functioning in offspring...
  31. pmc The effect of heartburn and acid reflux on the severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy
    Simerpal Kaur Gill
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Can J Gastroenterol 23:270-2. 2009
    ..Heartburn (HB) and acid reflux (RF) in the nonpregnant population can cause nausea and vomiting; therefore, it is plausible that in women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), HB/RF may increase the severity of symptoms...
  32. doi Solid-phase microextraction for the detection of codeine, morphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine in human hair by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
    M Moller
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Forensic Sci Int 196:64-9. 2010
    ....
  33. pmc Maternal and foetal outcome following Hodgkin's disease in pregnancy
    M Lishner
    Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Br J Cancer 65:114-7. 1992
    ..Twenty-year survival of pregnant women with Hodgkin's Disease was not different from that of their matched controls. Pregnant women with Hodgkin's Disease had similar distribution of stages to the controls...
  34. pmc Abrupt discontinuation of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy: fear of teratogenic risk and impact of counselling
    A Einarson
    Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto ON 5G 1X8
    J Psychiatry Neurosci 26:44-8. 2001
    ..To assess the consequences to mother and baby of abruptly discontinuing antidepressant or benzodiazepine medication during pregnancy and to assess the impact of our counselling...
  35. ncbi Management of pain from heel lance with lidocaine-prilocaine (EMLA) cream: is it safe and efficacious in preterm infants?
    B Stevens
    Faculties of Nursing and Medicine, University of Toronto, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Ontario, Canada
    J Dev Behav Pediatr 20:216-21. 1999
    ..The authors conclude that EMLA is safe but not efficacious for relieving pain from heel lance in preterm infants...
  36. ncbi Neurodevelopment after in utero amiodarone exposure
    L A Magee
    Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 21:261-5. 1999
    ..There may be neurotoxicity associated with transplacental exposure to amiodarone. Follow-up is warranted, although most mothers were happy with the development of their children...
  37. ncbi Topical skin anesthesia for venous, subcutaneous drug reservoir and lumbar punctures in children
    D L Halperin
    Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Pediatrics 84:281-4. 1989
    ....
  38. ncbi Determinants of the need for hospital care among women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy
    G Atanackovic
    Department of Pediatrics and Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont
    Clin Invest Med 24:90-3. 2001
    ..In addition to treatment of physical symptoms, it is important to address other factors associated with NVP...
  39. doi Adverse placental effect of formic acid on hCG secretion is mitigated by folic acid
    J R Hutson
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada
    Alcohol Alcohol 48:283-7. 2013
    ....
  40. doi The transfer of 6-mercaptopurine in the dually perfused human placenta
    J R Hutson
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Reprod Toxicol 32:349-53. 2011
    ..Active transport is unlikely to play a significant role and drug interactions involving, or polymorphisms in, placental drug efflux transporters are not likely to put the fetus at risk of higher 6-MP exposure...
  41. ncbi Pregnancy outcome following use of large doses of vitamin B6 in the first trimester
    A Shrim
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Obstet Gynaecol 26:749-51. 2006
    ..Within the limits of our sample size, higher than standard doses of vitamin B6 do not appear to be associated with an increased risk for major malformations...
  42. ncbi Existence and severity of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) with different partners
    T R Einarson
    Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    J Obstet Gynaecol 27:360-2. 2007
    ..01). After controlling for number of pregnancies, number of partners was not associated with NVP scores (p = 0.302). NVP severity tends to increase with each successive pregnancy. Different partners have no impact on NVP severity...
  43. ncbi Prospective, controlled, multicentre study of loperamide in pregnancy
    A Einarson
    The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Can J Gastroenterol 14:185-7. 2000
    ..Human data are limited to one surveillance study of Michigan Medicaid patients, with 108 women exposed in the first trimester. In this study there were six major birth defects, three of which were cardiovascular anomalies...
  44. ncbi Discrepancy between CYP2D6 phenotype and genotype derived from post-mortem dextromethorphan blood level
    B Bailey
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, H opital Ste Justine, 3175 Cote St Catherine, Montr eal, Qu ebec, Canada
    Forensic Sci Int 110:61-70. 2000
    ..To describe the death of a toddler after a therapeutic dose of dextromethorphan and its investigation...
  45. ncbi Attitudes and practices of physicians and naturopaths toward herbal products, including use during pregnancy and lactation
    A Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Can J Clin Pharmacol 7:45-9. 2000
    ..The popularity of complementary therapies continues to grow, and physicians are asked increasingly by their patients for information regarding these modalities...
  46. pmc Maternal obesity and risk of neural tube defects
    G Koren
    Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont
    Can Fam Physician 47:1385, 1387. 2001
    ..Adiposity, on the other hand, is associated with increased risk of neural tube defects. Only some of this risk can be reduced by folate supplementation...
  47. doi An assessment of cortisol analysis in hair and its clinical applications
    R Gow
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
    Forensic Sci Int 196:32-7. 2010
    ..This review uses emerging evidence to describe the usefulness of hair analysis for cortisol and discusses the current methods used...
  48. ncbi Piracetam therapy does not enhance cognitive functioning in children with down syndrome
    N J Lobaugh
    Imaging Research and Cognitive Neurology Unit, Sunnybrook and Women s College Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Ave, Room S604, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4N 3M5
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 155:442-8. 2001
    ..Piracetam is widely used as a purported means of improving cognitive function in children with Down syndrome. Its efficacy, however, has not been rigorously assessed...
  49. doi Folic acid in pregnancy and fetal outcomes
    Y I Goh
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    J Obstet Gynaecol 28:3-13. 2008
    ..Folic acid has become recognised as an important nutrient during pregnancy. The following review highlights the significant developments in recognising folic acid importance in fetal development...
  50. doi The effectiveness of discontinuing iron-containing prenatal multivitamins on reducing the severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy
    S K Gill
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Obstet Gynaecol 29:13-6. 2009
    ..Our data suggest that avoiding iron-containing prenatal multivitamins in the first trimester is effective in improving NVP symptoms in the majority of pregnant women suffering from morning sickness...
  51. doi Comparing the effectiveness of TWEAK and T-ACE in determining problem drinkers in pregnancy
    M Sarkar
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Fetal Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Alcohol Alcohol 45:356-60. 2010
    ..The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the TWEAK and T-ACE screening tools in identifying problem drinking using traditional cut-points (CP)...
  52. ncbi Prenatal multivitamin supplementation and rates of pediatric cancers: a meta-analysis
    Y I Goh
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, and The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 81:685-91. 2007
    ..Presently, it is not known which constituent(s) among the multivitamins confer this protective effect...
  53. doi Novel methods for the detection of drug and alcohol exposure during pregnancy: implications for maternal and child health
    G Koren
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 83:631-4. 2008
    ..Despite extensive evidence of fetal and neonatal risk, a large number of pregnant women are involved in excessive alcohol and drug abuse, such as with cocaine, methamphetamine, opioids, and cannabinoids...
  54. pmc Discontinuing antidepressants and benzodiazepines upon becoming pregnant. Beware of the risks of abrupt discontinuation
    A Einarson
    Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto
    Can Fam Physician 47:489-90. 2001
    ..If, after receiving appropriate evidence-based information, a woman decides to stop taking the drugs, they should be gradually tapered off to avoid abrupt discontinuation syndrome...
  55. ncbi Treatment of epilepsy in pregnancy
    I Nulman
    Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Drugs 57:535-44. 1999
    ..With proper preconceptional, antenatal and postpartum management up to 95% of these pregnancies have been reported to have favourable outcomes...
  56. ncbi Pregnancy outcome following gestational exposure to echinacea: a prospective controlled study
    M Gallo
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X8
    Arch Intern Med 160:3141-3. 2000
    ..Presently, there is a paucity of information regarding the gestational safety of this herb. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of echinacea in pregnancy when used for upper respiratory tract ailments...
  57. pmc Effects of prenatal exposure to marijuana
    E Kozer
    Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto
    Can Fam Physician 47:263-4. 2001
    ....
  58. ncbi Repeated doses of porcine secretin in the treatment of autism: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial
    W Roberts
    Autism Research Unit, Child Development Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Pediatrics 107:E71. 2001
    ..The present study is the first to test the outcome of repeated doses and to examine whether there is a subgroup of children who are more likely to achieve positive effects...
  59. ncbi Evidence based information on drug use during pregnancy: a survey of community pharmacists in three countries
    D A Lyszkiewicz
    Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Cananda
    Pharm World Sci 23:76-81. 2001
    ..CONCLUSIONS: Community pharmacists do not disseminate evidence-based recommendations when counseling women on drug use in pregnancy, and need further education on resources concerning drugs in pregnancy that are currently available...
  60. ncbi Use of hair analysis for confirmation of self-reported cocaine use in users with negative urine tests
    F Ursitti
    The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 39:361-6. 2001
    ..DISCUSSION: The cocaine hair test appears to be highly sensitive and specific in identifying past cocaine use in the setting of a negative urine test...
  61. ncbi Phase I trial of a twice-daily regimen of amifostine with ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide chemotherapy in children with refractory carcinoma
    M Fouladi
    New Agents and Innovative Therapy Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X8, Canada
    Cancer 92:914-23. 2001
    ..CONCLUSIONS: The recommended pediatric dose of amifostine for a twice-daily regimen is 600 mg/m(2) per dose (1200 mg/m(2)/day) with DLTs of anxiety and somnolence, lower than the previously recommended single dose of 1650 mg/m(2)...
  62. ncbi Pregnancy outcome after cyclosporine therapy during pregnancy: a meta-analysis
    B Bar Oz
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology/Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Transplantation 71:1051-5. 2001
    ..95-2.44 based on 1 study)]. CONCLUSIONS: CsA does not appear to be a major human teratogen. It may be associated with increased rates of prematurity. More research is needed to evaluate whether cyclosporine increases teratogenic risk...
  63. ncbi Long-term neurodevelopment of children exposed to maternal nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and diclectin
    Irena Nulman
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Pediatr 155:45-50, 50.e1-2. 2009
    ..To determine the effects of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) and its treatment with diclectin on child neurodevelopment...
  64. doi Long-term developmental outcome of children of women with epilepsy, unexposed or exposed prenatally to antiepileptic drugs: a meta-analysis of cohort studies
    Ryan Banach
    Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Drug Saf 33:73-9. 2010
    ..Clinicians should inform families of the potential cognitive adverse effects of valproic acid. More studies are needed to corroborate these findings...
  65. ncbi Pregnancy outcome of women using atypical antipsychotic drugs: a prospective comparative study
    Kate McKenna
    Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Clin Psychiatry 66:444-9; quiz 546. 2005
    ..Atypical antipsychotics have been on the market since the mid-1990s, and to date there are no prospective comparative studies regarding use during pregnancy...
  66. doi The transfer of pravastatin in the dually perfused human placenta
    J Zarek
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Placenta 34:719-21. 2013
    ..Combined with its rapid elimination half-life of 2 h and 50% protein binding, the transfer of pravastatin from maternal to fetal compartments is substantially more limited than observed in the perfusion experiments. ..
  67. pmc Neurodevelopment of children exposed in utero to treatment of maternal malignancy
    I Nulman
    Motherisk Program Division of Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Br J Cancer 85:1611-8. 2001
    ..The goal of this report was to summarize all related issues into one review to facilitate both practitioners' and patients' access to known data on fetal risks and safety...
  68. ncbi Glutathione stability in whole blood: effects of various deproteinizing acids
    D Stempak
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Ther Drug Monit 23:542-9. 2001
    ..Although immediate sample preparation is preferred, 15% PCA can maintain sample integrity for 4 weeks after storage at -80 degrees C...
  69. doi Adherence and tolerability of iron-containing prenatal multivitamins in pregnant women with pre-existing gastrointestinal conditions
    S Kaur Gill
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Obstet Gynaecol 29:594-8. 2009
    ..Supplementing with small tablets of low dose iron PMS should be considered...
  70. ncbi Heavily smoking women who cannot quit in pregnancy: evidence of pharmacokinetic predisposition
    P Selby
    Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology/Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Ther Drug Monit 23:189-91. 2001
    ..7 ng/mL. The data suggest that pregnant women who cannot quit heavy smoking in the second trimester form a selective group with pharmacokinetic predisposition to a high rate of nicotine metabolism...
  71. ncbi Hypothetical framework for a relationship between maternal thyroid function, nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, and congenital heart disease
    S Vohra
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada
    Med Hypotheses 56:392-4. 2001
    ..We propose a case-control study of children presenting for echocardiography to elicit specific information regarding the pregnancy...
  72. pmc Occupational exposure to inhaled anesthetic. Is it a concern for pregnant women?
    S Shuhaiber
    Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto
    Can Fam Physician 46:2391-2. 2000
    ..Two of my pregnant patients are exposed to inhaled anesthetic on the job. One is an anesthetist, and the other is a veterinarian. They have both expressed concern about this exposure. How should I advise them?..
  73. ncbi Elevated content of cortisol in hair of patients with severe chronic pain: a novel biomarker for stress
    S H M van Uum
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada
    Stress 11:483-8. 2008
    ..1: 27.2-200 pg/mg) (P < 0.01). We conclude that hair cortisol contents are increased in patients with major chronic stress. Measurement of cortisol levels in hair constitutes a novel biomarker of prolonged stress...
  74. doi Detection and quantification of fatty acid ethyl esters in meconium by headspace-solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
    J R Hutson
    Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 877:8-12. 2009
    ..Using 50mg of meconium, the detection limits of FAEEs ranged from 0.05 to 0.16 nmol/g and had good reproducibility making it ideal for routine analysis of clinical samples...
  75. ncbi A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of eutectic lidocaine/prilocaine cream 5% (EMLA) for analgesia prior to cryotherapy of warts in children and adults
    A K Gupta
    Department of Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Science Center, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Pediatr Dermatol 15:129-33. 1998
    ..Further studies are needed to better understand the site and age specificity of the anesthetic properties of lidocaine/prilocaine cream 5% when used to reduce the pain experienced during cryotherapy of warts...
  76. ncbi Management of paracetamol overdose: current controversies
    E Kozer
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Drug Saf 24:503-12. 2001
    ..Unless severe maternal toxicity develops, paracetamol overdose does not appear to increase the risk for adverse pregnancy outcome...
  77. ncbi Effects of antibacterials on the unborn child: what is known and how should this influence prescribing
    A Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Paediatr Drugs 3:803-16. 2001
    ....
  78. ncbi The safety of dextromethorphan in pregnancy : results of a controlled study
    A Einarson
    Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Chest 119:466-9. 2001
    ..We conducted a controlled study of pregnant women who used DM, to examine the possible teratogenic risk in humans...
  79. ncbi Incidence of major malformations in infants following antidepressant exposure in pregnancy: results of a large prospective cohort study
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Can J Psychiatry 54:242-6. 2009
    ..To ascertain if antidepressants, as a group, increase the risk for major malformations, as well as assessing each individual antidepressant...
  80. pmc Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Evidence-based treatment algorithm
    Zina Levichek
    Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont
    Can Fam Physician 48:267-8, 277. 2002
    ..What should my priority be? ANSWER: An algorithm used by Motherisk to manage thousands of patients takes a hierarchical approach to this condition. This approach is evidence based with regard to fetal safety as well as efficacy...
  81. ncbi A multicentre prospective controlled study to determine the safety of trazodone and nefazodone use during pregnancy
    Adrienne Einarson
    Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8
    Can J Psychiatry 48:106-10. 2003
    ..Secondary outcomes of interest included rates of spontaneous and therapeutic abortions, rates of premature labour, and birth weight...
  82. ncbi Variables associated with medication errors in pediatric emergency medicine
    Eran Kozer
    Division of Emergency Services, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Pediatrics 110:737-42. 2002
    ..The objective of this study was to describe the incidence and type of drug errors in a pediatric ED and determine factors associated with risk of errors...
  83. ncbi The teratogenicity of drugs for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: perceived versus true risk
    Gideon Koren
    Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 186:S248-52. 2002
    ..The hierarchical use of medication is based on strength of evidence of fetal safety...
  84. ncbi How high can we go with phenytoin?
    Eran Kozer
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Pediatric Laboratory Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X8
    Ther Drug Monit 24:386-9. 2002
    ..Clinicians should be careful not to treat "numbers" (i.e., serum concentrations), but rather the patient's clinical condition, with a careful balance between therapeutic advantage and adverse effects...
  85. ncbi Prospective comparative study of the safety and effectiveness of ginger for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy
    Galina Portnoi
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 189:1374-7. 2003
    ..The primary objective of our study was to examine the safety and the secondary objective was to examine the effectiveness of ginger for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP)...
  86. pmc Methamphetamine detection in maternal and neonatal hair: implications for fetal safety
    F Garcia-Bournissen
    G Koren, The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, 8th Floor, Black Wing, Toronto, Canada ON, USA
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 92:F351-5. 2007
    ..Methamphetamine misuse is a serious health problem of epidemic proportions. Use of this drug, particularly during pregnancy, is difficult to ascertain. Sparse information is available on gestational exposure...
  87. ncbi The reproductive effects of beta interferon therapy in pregnancy: a longitudinal cohort
    R Boskovic
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Neurology 65:807-11. 2005
    ..To determine whether interferon therapy during human pregnancy increases reproductive risks in women...
  88. ncbi Determinants of women's decision making on whether to treat nausea and vomiting of pregnancy pharmacologically
    Anne Baggley
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Midwifery Womens Health 49:350-4. 2004
    ..Of the women who did use Diclectin, the most convincing reassuring information that it was safe to use came from friends and family. Many other factors play a large role in a women's decision making...
  89. ncbi Evaluation of the risk of congenital cardiovascular defects associated with use of paroxetine during pregnancy
    Adrienne Einarson
    Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toronto, 555 University Ave, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Am J Psychiatry 165:749-52. 2008
    ..In this study, the authors sought to determine whether paroxetine was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular defects in infants of women exposed to the drug during the first trimester of pregnancy...
  90. ncbi The safety of ondansetron for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a prospective comparative study
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, The University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X8
    BJOG 111:940-3. 2004
    ..There is a paucity of information on fetal safety for this indication. The objective of this study is to determine whether this drug increases the baseline rate of major malformations...
  91. ncbi Pregnancy outcome after first-trimester exposure to metformin: a meta-analysis
    Cameron Gilbert
    Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, The University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Fertil Steril 86:658-63. 2006
    ....
  92. ncbi Diclectin therapy for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: effects of optimal dosing
    Rada Boskovic
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    J Obstet Gynaecol Can 25:830-3. 2003
    ..1) To quantify rates of suboptimal use of pyridoxine hydrochloride-doxylamine (Diclectin); and (2) to study responses to optimal doses of Diclectin in women previously taking a suboptimal dose...
  93. ncbi Use of proton pump inhibitors during pregnancy and rates of major malformations: a meta-analysis
    Shekoufeh Nikfar
    The Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Dig Dis Sci 47:1526-9. 2002
    ..72-1.94. In conclusion, proton pump inhibitors do not present a major teratogenic risk when used in recommend doses. These data are reassuring for the countless patients who have used these agents in the early part of their pregnancies...
  94. ncbi The way women perceive teratogenic risk
    Gideon Koren
    The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Can J Clin Pharmacol 14:e10-6. 2007
  95. ncbi Binge alcohol consumption by non-alcohol-dependent women during pregnancy affects child behaviour, but not general intellectual functioning; a prospective controlled study
    I Nulman
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology, Departments of Pediatrics and Psychology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X8
    Arch Womens Ment Health 7:173-81. 2004
    ....
  96. ncbi Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: results of a survey that identified interventions used by women to alleviate their symptoms
    K Chandra
    Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 24:71-5. 2003
    ..Lifestyle changes including validation, supportive counseling and dietary adjustments are important components, that can be used to counsel women with NVP, concomitantly with safe and effective treatment...
  97. ncbi Pre-emptive therapy for severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum
    G Koren
    Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children Toronto, University of Toronto, Canada
    J Obstet Gynaecol 24:530-3. 2004
    ..Women who have experienced severe NVP in a previous pregnancy may benefit from taking antiemetics before, or immediately at the start of symptoms in a subsequent pregnancy...
  98. ncbi Designing pregnancy centered medications: drugs which do not cross the human placenta
    C Gedeon
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Canada
    Placenta 27:861-8. 2006
    ....
  99. ncbi Effects of maternal occupational exposure to organic solvents on offspring visual functioning: a prospective controlled study
    C Till
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3G3
    Teratology 64:134-41. 2001
    ..The importance of routine visual function screening in risk assessment after prenatal exposure to chemicals warrants further attention...
  100. ncbi Adverse effects in neonates exposed to SSRIs and SNRI in late gestation--Motherisk Update 2008
    Gideon Koren
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto
    Can J Clin Pharmacol 16:e66-7. 2009
    ..Preliminary evidence suggests that the very early respiratory symptoms may not be part of discontinuation but rather part of a reversible form of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN)...
  101. ncbi Risks of statin use during pregnancy: a systematic review
    Aleksey Kazmin
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    J Obstet Gynaecol Can 29:906-8. 2007
    ..Nevertheless, given the scarcity of available data, it is still advisable to avoid use of these drugs in patients who are planning pregnancy in order to reduce the risks as much as possible...