Paul W Frankland

Summary

Affiliation: The Hospital for Sick Children
Country: Canada

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Regenerating your senses: multiple roles for neurogenesis in the adult brain
    Paul W Frankland
    Neurosciences and Mental Health Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G1X8
    Nat Neurosci 11:1124-6. 2008
  2. pmc What is the Most Sensitive Measure of Water Maze Probe Test Performance?
    Hamid R Maei
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children Toronto, ON, Canada
    Front Integr Neurosci 3:4. 2009
  3. pmc Development and validation of a sensitive entropy-based measure for the water maze
    Hamid R Maei
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children Toronto, ON, Canada
    Front Integr Neurosci 3:33. 2009
  4. pmc Identification of a functional connectome for long-term fear memory in mice
    Anne L Wheeler
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    PLoS Comput Biol 9:e1002853. 2013
  5. pmc Impact of early adverse experience on complexity of adult-generated neurons
    A T Leslie
    Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Transl Psychiatry 1:e35. 2011
  6. doi request reprint Hippocampal neurogenesis and forgetting
    Paul W Frankland
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3GM, Canada Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada Electronic address
    Trends Neurosci 36:497-503. 2013
  7. doi request reprint Neurogenic evangelism: comment on Urbach et al. (2013)
    Paul W Frankland
    Frankland, Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Departments of Psychology and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X8
    Behav Neurosci 127:126-9. 2013
  8. pmc A pain in the ACC
    Paul W Frankland
    Mol Pain 1:14. 2005
  9. pmc Fast track to the medial prefrontal cortex
    Paul W Frankland
    Programs in Integrative Biology and Brain and Behaviour, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X8
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:509-10. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint The organization of recent and remote memories
    Paul W Frankland
    Program in Integrative Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1XB
    Nat Rev Neurosci 6:119-30. 2005

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications54

  1. doi request reprint Regenerating your senses: multiple roles for neurogenesis in the adult brain
    Paul W Frankland
    Neurosciences and Mental Health Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G1X8
    Nat Neurosci 11:1124-6. 2008
  2. pmc What is the Most Sensitive Measure of Water Maze Probe Test Performance?
    Hamid R Maei
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children Toronto, ON, Canada
    Front Integr Neurosci 3:4. 2009
    ..The relative superiority of P over other commonly used measures suggests that it is the most appropriate measure to employ in both low- and high-throughput water maze screens...
  3. pmc Development and validation of a sensitive entropy-based measure for the water maze
    Hamid R Maei
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children Toronto, ON, Canada
    Front Integr Neurosci 3:33. 2009
    ..Together, these data indicate that H offers greater sensitivity than existing measures, most likely because it exploits the richness of the precise positional information of the mouse throughout the probe test...
  4. pmc Identification of a functional connectome for long-term fear memory in mice
    Anne L Wheeler
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    PLoS Comput Biol 9:e1002853. 2013
    ..This network is concurrently integrated and segregated and therefore has small-world properties, and contains hub-like regions in the prefrontal cortex and thalamus that may play privileged roles in memory expression...
  5. pmc Impact of early adverse experience on complexity of adult-generated neurons
    A T Leslie
    Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Transl Psychiatry 1:e35. 2011
    ....
  6. doi request reprint Hippocampal neurogenesis and forgetting
    Paul W Frankland
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3GM, Canada Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada Electronic address
    Trends Neurosci 36:497-503. 2013
    ....
  7. doi request reprint Neurogenic evangelism: comment on Urbach et al. (2013)
    Paul W Frankland
    Frankland, Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Departments of Psychology and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X8
    Behav Neurosci 127:126-9. 2013
    ..These results suggest that ongoing adult neurogenesis is not necessary for many forms of hippocampus-dependent learning, and in this commentary, I discuss the implications of these types of results for the field...
  8. pmc A pain in the ACC
    Paul W Frankland
    Mol Pain 1:14. 2005
    ..In a new study in Molecular Pain, Tang and colleagues use a novel set of approaches to characterize the role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the formation of Pavlovian fear memories...
  9. pmc Fast track to the medial prefrontal cortex
    Paul W Frankland
    Programs in Integrative Biology and Brain and Behaviour, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X8
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:509-10. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint The organization of recent and remote memories
    Paul W Frankland
    Program in Integrative Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1XB
    Nat Rev Neurosci 6:119-30. 2005
    ..However, recent studies have begun to shed light on how remote memories are organized in the cortex, and the molecular and cellular events that underlie their consolidation...
  11. pmc Stability of recent and remote contextual fear memory
    Paul W Frankland
    Program in Neuroscience and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X8
    Learn Mem 13:451-7. 2006
    ..Furthermore, the dissociation between the effects of systemically and centrally administered ANI on remote memory suggests that stability is due, in part, to the distributed nature of remote contextual fear memories...
  12. pmc Starting at the endophenotype: A role for alpha-CaMKII in schizophrenia?
    Paul W Frankland
    Mol Brain 1:5. 2008
    ....
  13. doi request reprint Functional convergence of developmentally and adult-generated granule cells in dentate gyrus circuits supporting hippocampus-dependent memory
    Scellig S D Stone
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Hippocampus 21:1348-62. 2011
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint MEF2 negatively regulates learning-induced structural plasticity and memory formation
    Christina J Cole
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Nat Neurosci 15:1255-64. 2012
    ..These bidirectional effects indicate that MEF2 is a key regulator of plasticity and that relieving the suppressive effects of MEF2-mediated transcription permits memory formation...
  15. doi request reprint Posttraining ablation of adult-generated neurons degrades previously acquired memories
    Maithe Arruda-Carvalho
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    J Neurosci 31:15113-27. 2011
    ..These retrograde effects suggest that adult-generated neurons form a critical and enduring component of hippocampal memory traces...
  16. pmc p63 Regulates adult neural precursor and newly born neuron survival to control hippocampal-dependent Behavior
    Gonzalo I Cancino
    Programs in Cell Biology, Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, and Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    J Neurosci 33:12569-85. 2013
    ..These results indicate that p63 regulates the numbers of adult NPCs and adult-born neurons as well as neural stem cell-dependent cognitive functions, and that it does so, at least in part, by inhibiting p53-dependent cell death. ..
  17. ncbi request reprint Hippocampal neurogenesis regulates forgetting during adulthood and infancy
    Katherine G Akers
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada
    Science 344:598-602. 2014
    ..Consistent with reduced levels of postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis, infant guinea pigs and degus did not exhibit forgetting. However, increasing neurogenesis after memory formation induced infantile amnesia in these species. ..
  18. doi request reprint Age-dependent effects of hippocampal neurogenesis suppression on spatial learning
    Alonso Martinez-Canabal
    Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Hippocampus 23:66-74. 2013
    ..These findings suggest that during juvenility, suppression of neurogenesis may alter hippocampal development, whereas during adulthood and aging, pre-existing neurons may compensate for the lack of new hippocampal neurons...
  19. ncbi request reprint Preferential incorporation of adult-generated granule cells into spatial memory networks in the dentate gyrus
    Nohjin Kee
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Nat Neurosci 10:355-62. 2007
    ..This preferential recruitment supports the idea that new neurons make a unique contribution to memory processing in the dentate gyrus...
  20. ncbi request reprint Chronic over-expression of TGFβ1 alters hippocampal structure and causes learning deficits
    Alonso Martinez-Canabal
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Hippocampus 23:1198-211. 2013
    ..Together, our data indicate that chronic upregulation of TGFβ1 negatively impacts hippocampal structure and, even in the absence of disease, impairs hippocampus-dependent learning...
  21. ncbi request reprint Imaging activation of adult-generated granule cells in spatial memory
    Nohjin Kee
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Nat Protoc 2:3033-44. 2007
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex in the expression of remote spatial memory
    Cátia M Teixeira
    Program in Neuroscience and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X8
    J Neurosci 26:7555-64. 2006
    ..Together, our data provide evidence that circuits supporting spatial memory are reorganized in a time-dependent manner, and establish that activity in neurons intrinsic to the ACC is critical for processing remote spatial memories...
  23. doi request reprint Maze training in mice induces MRI-detectable brain shape changes specific to the type of learning
    Jason P Lerch
    Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Neuroimage 54:2086-95. 2011
    ....
  24. pmc Impaired spatial and contextual memory formation in galectin-1 deficient mice
    Masanori Sakaguchi
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mol Brain 4:33. 2011
    ..Together, these data reveal a role for galectin-carbohydrate signalling in hippocampal memory function...
  25. ncbi request reprint The precision of remote context memories does not require the hippocampus
    Szu Han Wang
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada
    Nat Neurosci 12:253-5. 2009
    ..Spared discrimination in hippocampal-lesioned mice indicated that precise, remote context memories may be supported by extra-hippocampal brain regions...
  26. doi request reprint Increasing CRTC1 function in the dentate gyrus during memory formation or reactivation increases memory strength without compromising memory quality
    Melanie J Sekeres
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    J Neurosci 32:17857-68. 2012
    ..CREB overexpression produced strikingly similar effects. Therefore, increasing CRTC1 or CREB function is sufficient to enhance the strength of new, as well as established reactivated, memories without compromising memory quality...
  27. doi request reprint Ontogeny of contextual fear memory formation, specificity, and persistence in mice
    Katherine G Akers
    Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5G 1X8
    Learn Mem 19:598-604. 2012
    ....
  28. doi request reprint Stimulation of entorhinal cortex promotes adult neurogenesis and facilitates spatial memory
    Scellig S D Stone
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G1X8
    J Neurosci 31:13469-84. 2011
    ..Furthermore, because the beneficial effects of EC stimulation were prevented by blocking neurogenesis, this suggests a causal relationship between stimulation-induced promotion of adult neurogenesis and enhanced spatial memory...
  29. doi request reprint Metformin activates an atypical PKC-CBP pathway to promote neurogenesis and enhance spatial memory formation
    Jing Wang
    Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada
    Cell Stem Cell 11:23-35. 2012
    ..Thus, metformin, by activating an aPKC-CBP pathway, recruits neural stem cells and enhances neural function, thereby providing a candidate pharmacological approach for nervous system therapy...
  30. doi request reprint Uncoupling the D1-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex promotes NMDA-dependent long-term potentiation and working memory
    Qiang Nai
    Department of Neuroscience, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Clarke Division, Toronto, ON M5T 1R8, Canada
    Biol Psychiatry 67:246-54. 2010
    ..In this study, we explored the effects of the D1-NR1 interaction on NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) and working memory by using the TAT-conjugated interfering peptide (TAT-D1-t2)...
  31. doi request reprint Selective erasure of a fear memory
    Jin Hee Han
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, Canada
    Science 323:1492-6. 2009
    ..These results establish a causal link between a specific neuronal subpopulation and memory expression, thereby identifying critical neurons within the memory trace...
  32. doi request reprint Disrupting Jagged1-Notch signaling impairs spatial memory formation in adult mice
    Derya Sargin
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X8
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 103:39-49. 2013
    ..These results provide the first in vivo evidence that Jag1-Notch signaling is critical for memory formation in the adult brain...
  33. doi request reprint Reprint of: disrupting Jagged1-Notch signaling impairs spatial memory formation in adult mice
    Derya Sargin
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X8 Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X8 Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X8 Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X8
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 105:20-30. 2013
    ..These results provide the first in vivo evidence that Jag1-Notch signaling is critical for memory formation in the adult brain. ..
  34. ncbi request reprint Dorsal hippocampal CREB is both necessary and sufficient for spatial memory
    Melanie J Sekeres
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Learn Mem 17:280-3. 2010
    ....
  35. doi request reprint Inactivation of the anterior cingulate cortex blocks expression of remote, but not recent, conditioned taste aversion memory
    Hoi Ki Ding
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto M5G 1X8, Canada
    Learn Mem 15:290-3. 2008
    ..These data suggest that the ACC may play a conserved role in remote memory, regardless of memory strength or content...
  36. doi request reprint Changes in context-specificity during memory reconsolidation: selective effects of hippocampal lesions
    Gordon Winocur
    Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre, Toronto, Ontario M6A 2E1, Canada
    Learn Mem 16:722-9. 2009
    ..These findings, which relate loss of reactivated memories after hippocampal destruction (or inactivation) to changes in memory representation, are interpreted as consistent with the transformation hypothesis of memory processing...
  37. doi request reprint Adolescent cocaine exposure causes enduring macroscale changes in mouse brain structure
    Anne L Wheeler
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    J Neurosci 33:1797-803a. 2013
    ..These results suggest that altered brain structure following 1 month of abstinence may contribute to these persistent drug-related behaviors, and identify cocaine exposure as the cause of these morphological changes...
  38. pmc Treatment of inflammatory and neuropathic pain by uncoupling Src from the NMDA receptor complex
    Xue Jun Liu
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Nat Med 14:1325-32. 2008
    ....
  39. pmc Spine growth in the anterior cingulate cortex is necessary for the consolidation of contextual fear memory
    Gisella Vetere
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X8
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:8456-60. 2011
    ..Together, these data strengthen the causal link between cortical structural remodeling and memory consolidation and, further, identify MEF2 as a key regulator of these processes...
  40. ncbi request reprint PTG protein depletion rescues malin-deficient Lafora disease in mouse
    Julie Turnbull
    Program in Genetics and Genome Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Ann Neurol 75:442-6. 2014
    ..Glycogen synthesis downregulation is a potential therapy for the fatal adolescence onset epilepsy Lafora disease...
  41. ncbi request reprint Patterns across multiple memories are identified over time
    Blake A Richards
    1 Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 2 Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 3 Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 4 Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 5 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 6 Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Nat Neurosci 17:981-6. 2014
    ..These results indicate that pattern identification occurs over time, which can lead to conflicts between new information and existing knowledge that must be resolved, in part, by computations carried out in the mPFC. ..
  42. doi request reprint Suppression of adult neurogenesis impairs population coding of similar contexts in hippocampal CA3 region
    Yosuke Niibori
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X8
    Nat Commun 3:1253. 2012
    ..These data provide a neural basis for impaired spatial discrimination following ablation of adult neurogenesis, and support the proposal that adult neurogenesis regulates the efficiency of a pattern separation process in the hippocampus...
  43. doi request reprint Infantile amnesia: a neurogenic hypothesis
    Sheena A Josselyn
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada M5G 1X8
    Learn Mem 19:423-33. 2012
    ..We propose that high neurogenesis levels negatively regulate the ability to form enduring memories, most likely by replacing synaptic connections in preexisting hippocampal memory circuits...
  44. pmc Fetal alcohol exposure leads to abnormal olfactory bulb development and impaired odor discrimination in adult mice
    Katherine G Akers
    Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, and Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mol Brain 4:29. 2011
    ..Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investigate relationships between brain abnormalities and specific behavioral alterations during adulthood...
  45. ncbi request reprint The conjunctive trace
    Blake A Richards
    Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1X8
    Hippocampus 23:207-12. 2013
    ....
  46. pmc Activation of LVGCCs and CB1 receptors required for destabilization of reactivated contextual fear memories
    Akinobu Suzuki
    Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1 1 1 Sakuragaoka, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo 156 8502, Japan
    Learn Mem 15:426-33. 2008
    ..These experiments begin to reveal mechanisms underlying the destabilization of previously consolidated memories following reactivation and indicate the importance of activation of LVGCCs and CB1 in this process...
  47. ncbi request reprint The involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex in remote contextual fear memory
    Paul W Frankland
    Departments of Neurobiology, Psychiatry, Psychology and Brain Research Institute, UCLA, 695 Charles Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1761, USA
    Science 304:881-3. 2004
    ..Accordingly, reversible inactivation of this structure in normal mice disrupts remote memory without affecting recent memory...
  48. ncbi request reprint Memory reconsolidation and extinction have distinct temporal and biochemical signatures
    Akinobu Suzuki
    Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo 156 8502, Japan
    J Neurosci 24:4787-95. 2004
    ..These studies demonstrate the dynamic nature of memory processing after retrieval and represent a first step toward a molecular dissection of underlying mechanisms...
  49. ncbi request reprint Consolidation of CS and US representations in associative fear conditioning
    Paul W Frankland
    Departments of Neurobiology, Psychology and Psychiatry, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 1761, USA
    Hippocampus 14:557-69. 2004
    ..Together, these data suggest that this approach is particularly suited for the characterization of molecular and cellular processes underlying the formation of stimulus representations...
  50. ncbi request reprint A pharmacogenetic inducible approach to the study of NMDA/alphaCaMKII signaling in synaptic plasticity
    Masuo Ohno
    Department of Neurobiology, Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles 90095 1761, USA
    Curr Biol 12:654-6. 2002
    ..This ability to temporally induce recessive mutant phenotypes could be applicable to a broad range of problems and genetic systems...
  51. ncbi request reprint The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor lovastatin reverses the learning and attention deficits in a mouse model of neurofibromatosis type 1
    Weidong Li
    Department of Neurobiology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Curr Biol 15:1961-7. 2005
    ..Therefore, these results demonstrate that lovastatin may prove useful in the treatment of Neurofibromatosis Type 1...
  52. ncbi request reprint Pharmacologically regulated induction of silent mutations (PRISM): combined pharmacological and genetic approaches for learning and memory
    Paul W Frankland
    Department of Neurobiology, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    Neuroscientist 9:104-9. 2003
    ..This approach is easily set up and can be used to study the functional interactions between molecules in signaling pathways...
  53. ncbi request reprint Distinct influences of neonatal epidermal growth factor challenge on adult neurobehavioral traits in four mouse strains
    Manavu Tohmi
    Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Asahimachi dori 1 757, Niigata, 951 8585, Japan
    Behav Genet 35:615-29. 2005
    ..Genetic components regulating brain ErbB1 signaling strongly influence the direction and strength of behavioral responses stemming from the neonatal neurotrophic perturbation...