Adrienne Einarson

Summary

Affiliation: The Hospital for Sick Children
Country: Canada

Publications

  1. doi Use and safety of antipsychotic drugs during pregnancy
    Adrienne Einarson
    Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Canada
    J Psychiatr Pract 15:183-92. 2009
  2. ncbi Prospective, controlled, multicentre study of loperamide in pregnancy
    A Einarson
    The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Can J Gastroenterol 14:185-7. 2000
  3. ncbi Prevalence of depression during pregnancy: systematic review
    Heather A Bennett
    Faculty of Pharmacy and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Obstet Gynecol 103:698-709. 2004
  4. ncbi Glucosamine use in pregnancy: an evaluation of pregnancy outcome
    Anna Sivojelezova
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, The Hospital for Sick Children, The University of Toronto, Canada
    J Womens Health (Larchmt) 16:345-8. 2007
  5. ncbi A multicentre prospective controlled study to determine the safety of trazodone and nefazodone use during pregnancy
    Adrienne Einarson
    Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8
    Can J Psychiatry 48:106-10. 2003
  6. ncbi Risks/safety of psychotropic medication use during pregnancy--Motherisk Update 2008
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario
    Can J Clin Pharmacol 16:e58-65. 2009
  7. ncbi Do we have a knowledge transfer and translation plan at Teratogen Information Services?
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, Population Health Sciences, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, The Hospital for Sick Children, The University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ont, Canada M5G 1X8
    Reprod Toxicol 22:542-5. 2006
  8. ncbi Effects of antibacterials on the unborn child: what is known and how should this influence prescribing
    A Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Paediatr Drugs 3:803-16. 2001
  9. pmc Abrupt discontinuation of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy: fear of teratogenic risk and impact of counselling
    A Einarson
    Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto ON 5G 1X8
    J Psychiatry Neurosci 26:44-8. 2001
  10. ncbi Attitudes and practices of physicians and naturopaths toward herbal products, including use during pregnancy and lactation
    A Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Can J Clin Pharmacol 7:45-9. 2000

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications80

  1. doi Use and safety of antipsychotic drugs during pregnancy
    Adrienne Einarson
    Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Canada
    J Psychiatr Pract 15:183-92. 2009
    ....
  2. ncbi Prospective, controlled, multicentre study of loperamide in pregnancy
    A Einarson
    The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Can J Gastroenterol 14:185-7. 2000
    ..Human data are limited to one surveillance study of Michigan Medicaid patients, with 108 women exposed in the first trimester. In this study there were six major birth defects, three of which were cardiovascular anomalies...
  3. ncbi Prevalence of depression during pregnancy: systematic review
    Heather A Bennett
    Faculty of Pharmacy and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Obstet Gynecol 103:698-709. 2004
    ....
  4. ncbi Glucosamine use in pregnancy: an evaluation of pregnancy outcome
    Anna Sivojelezova
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, The Hospital for Sick Children, The University of Toronto, Canada
    J Womens Health (Larchmt) 16:345-8. 2007
    ..There is no information regarding its use in pregnancy. Our objective was to determine whether GLS treatment in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of major malformations or other adverse outcomes...
  5. ncbi A multicentre prospective controlled study to determine the safety of trazodone and nefazodone use during pregnancy
    Adrienne Einarson
    Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8
    Can J Psychiatry 48:106-10. 2003
    ..Secondary outcomes of interest included rates of spontaneous and therapeutic abortions, rates of premature labour, and birth weight...
  6. ncbi Risks/safety of psychotropic medication use during pregnancy--Motherisk Update 2008
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario
    Can J Clin Pharmacol 16:e58-65. 2009
    ..All pregnancies where a mother has a serious psychiatric disorder should be considered high risk and the mother and fetus must be carefully monitored...
  7. ncbi Do we have a knowledge transfer and translation plan at Teratogen Information Services?
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, Population Health Sciences, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, The Hospital for Sick Children, The University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ont, Canada M5G 1X8
    Reprod Toxicol 22:542-5. 2006
    ..In this brief review/comment, an attempt will be made to help the readers understand the meaning of this new terminology and how it impacts Teratogen Information Services...
  8. ncbi Effects of antibacterials on the unborn child: what is known and how should this influence prescribing
    A Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Paediatr Drugs 3:803-16. 2001
    ....
  9. pmc Abrupt discontinuation of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy: fear of teratogenic risk and impact of counselling
    A Einarson
    Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto ON 5G 1X8
    J Psychiatry Neurosci 26:44-8. 2001
    ..To assess the consequences to mother and baby of abruptly discontinuing antidepressant or benzodiazepine medication during pregnancy and to assess the impact of our counselling...
  10. ncbi Attitudes and practices of physicians and naturopaths toward herbal products, including use during pregnancy and lactation
    A Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Can J Clin Pharmacol 7:45-9. 2000
    ..The popularity of complementary therapies continues to grow, and physicians are asked increasingly by their patients for information regarding these modalities...
  11. ncbi Pregnancy outcome following gestational exposure to venlafaxine: a multicenter prospective controlled study
    A Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Psychiatry 158:1728-30. 2001
    ..Because there are no studies available on the safety of venlafaxine during pregnancy, the authors' goal in this study was to determine whether venlafaxine increases the risk for major malformations...
  12. ncbi The safety of dextromethorphan in pregnancy : results of a controlled study
    A Einarson
    Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Chest 119:466-9. 2001
    ..We conducted a controlled study of pregnant women who used DM, to examine the possible teratogenic risk in humans...
  13. ncbi Pregnancy outcome of women using atypical antipsychotic drugs: a prospective comparative study
    Kate McKenna
    Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Clin Psychiatry 66:444-9; quiz 546. 2005
    ..Atypical antipsychotics have been on the market since the mid-1990s, and to date there are no prospective comparative studies regarding use during pregnancy...
  14. ncbi Exposure to mirtazapine during pregnancy: a prospective, comparative study of birth outcomes
    Josephine Djulus
    Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Clin Psychiatry 67:1280-4. 2006
    ..Currently, apart from a few case reports and case series in the literature, there are no studies evaluating the safety of this drug during pregnancy...
  15. ncbi Prospective comparative study of the safety and effectiveness of ginger for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy
    Galina Portnoi
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 189:1374-7. 2003
    ..The primary objective of our study was to examine the safety and the secondary objective was to examine the effectiveness of ginger for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP)...
  16. doi Pregnancy outcomes following use of escitalopram: a prospective comparative cohort study
    Chagit Klieger-Grossmann
    Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Clin Pharmacol 52:766-70. 2012
    ..In addition, the higher rates of spontaneous abortions in both antidepressant groups confirmed previous findings...
  17. ncbi Determinants of women's decision making on whether to treat nausea and vomiting of pregnancy pharmacologically
    Anne Baggley
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Midwifery Womens Health 49:350-4. 2004
    ..Of the women who did use Diclectin, the most convincing reassuring information that it was safe to use came from friends and family. Many other factors play a large role in a women's decision making...
  18. doi MotherNature: establishing a Canadian research network for natural health products (NHPs) during pregnancy and lactation
    Gideon Koren
    Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Altern Complement Med 14:369-72. 2008
    ....
  19. ncbi Paroxetine and congenital malformations: meta-Analysis and consideration of potential confounding factors
    Benjamin Bar-Oz
    Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Ther 29:918-26. 2007
    ..Antidepressants have been commonly used by women of childbearing age. Recent studies suggest that paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), might specifically increase teratogenic risk...
  20. ncbi The safety of antidepressant use in pregnancy
    Sanjog Kalra
    The Hospital for Sick Children, The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Expert Opin Drug Saf 4:273-84. 2005
    ..This evidence-based information will be helpful to women and their healthcare providers, when the decision of whether or not to treat with anti-depressants during pregnancy must be made...
  21. ncbi Does paroxetine cause cardiac malformations?
    Lisa O'Brien
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Toronto ON
    J Obstet Gynaecol Can 30:696-701. 2008
    ..Debate has recently arisen about the safety of paroxetine use in pregnancy, prompted by reports of increased risks for cardiac defects following first trimester exposure...
  22. doi A pilot study of paternal drug exposure: the Motherisk experience
    Candace Y W Lee
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Reprod Toxicol 29:353-60. 2010
    ..Here, we reviewed for the first time our experience with PEx...
  23. doi Evaluation of the risk of congenital cardiovascular defects associated with use of paroxetine during pregnancy
    Adrienne Einarson
    Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toronto, 555 University Ave, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Am J Psychiatry 165:749-52. 2008
    ..In this study, the authors sought to determine whether paroxetine was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular defects in infants of women exposed to the drug during the first trimester of pregnancy...
  24. ncbi Citalopram use in pregnancy: prospective comparative evaluation of pregnancy and fetal outcome
    Anna Sivojelezova
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 193:2004-9. 2005
    ..The safety of this medication in pregnancy has not been fully established. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether citalopram is associated with an increased incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes...
  25. pmc Is maternal use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the third trimester of pregnancy harmful to neonates?
    Gideon Koren
    Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont
    CMAJ 172:1457-9. 2005
  26. ncbi Abrupt discontinuation of psychotropic drugs following confirmation of pregnancy: a risky practice
    Adrienne Einarson
    Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON
    J Obstet Gynaecol Can 27:1019-22. 2005
    ..Therefore, it is not good practice to discontinue these medications abruptly upon diagnosis of pregnancy...
  27. ncbi The safety of ondansetron for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a prospective comparative study
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, The University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X8
    BJOG 111:940-3. 2004
    ..There is a paucity of information on fetal safety for this indication. The objective of this study is to determine whether this drug increases the baseline rate of major malformations...
  28. pmc Prescribing antidepressants to pregnant women: what is a family physician to do?
    Adrienne Einarson
    Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8
    Can Fam Physician 53:1412-4, 1423-5. 2007
  29. doi Providing information regarding exposures in pregnancy: a survey of North American Teratology Information Services
    Rebecca L Hancock
    Department of Child Health Evaluative Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Reprod Toxicol 25:381-7. 2008
    ..Teratology Information Services (TIS) provide information on exposures during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Maintaining ongoing funding is a challenge. The purpose was to gather descriptive information on current TIS operations...
  30. ncbi Incidence of major malformations in infants following antidepressant exposure in pregnancy: results of a large prospective cohort study
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Can J Psychiatry 54:242-6. 2009
    ..To ascertain if antidepressants, as a group, increase the risk for major malformations, as well as assessing each individual antidepressant...
  31. ncbi Rates of spontaneous and therapeutic abortions following use of antidepressants in pregnancy: results from a large prospective database
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON
    J Obstet Gynaecol Can 31:452-6. 2009
    ..We sought to examine whether use of antidepressants increases the rates of spontaneous abortion (SA) and therapeutic abortion (TA) in women exposed in early pregnancy...
  32. ncbi Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) and depression: cause or effect?
    Pina Bozzo
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital forSick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Clin Invest Med 34:E245. 2011
    ..Several studies have linked depression with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP); however, researchers were unable to determine whether depression was caused by NVP or by a pre-existing condition...
  33. ncbi Diclectin therapy for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: effects of optimal dosing
    Rada Boskovic
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    J Obstet Gynaecol Can 25:830-3. 2003
    ..1) To quantify rates of suboptimal use of pyridoxine hydrochloride-doxylamine (Diclectin); and (2) to study responses to optimal doses of Diclectin in women previously taking a suboptimal dose...
  34. ncbi Pregnancy outcome of women exposed to bupropion during pregnancy: a prospective comparative study
    Brian Chun-Fai-Chan
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 192:932-6. 2005
    ..The secondary objective was to examine the rates of live births, stillbirths, spontaneous and therapeutic abortions, mean birth weight, and gestational age at birth...
  35. ncbi Significant changes in antipsychotic drug use during pregnancy
    Kate McKenna
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Vet Hum Toxicol 46:44-6. 2004
    ..Since the introduction of atypical antipsychotics, more women requiring antipsychotic drug therapy have been planning or becoming pregnant. This increase may have substantial public health implications...
  36. ncbi Newer antidepressants in pregnancy and rates of major malformations: a meta-analysis of prospective comparative studies
    Thomas R Einarson
    Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ont, Canada
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 14:823-7. 2005
    ..A substantial number of women of childbearing age suffer from depression. Despite this, relatively little is known about the safety of antidepressant use during pregnancy...
  37. ncbi Longitudinal study of depression, anxiety, irritability, and stress in pregnancy following evidence-based counseling on the use of antidepressants
    Lisa O'Brien
    Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto and Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto
    J Psychiatr Pract 13:33-9. 2007
    ..Little information exists on the effect of continuation of antidepressants on depressive symptoms during pregnancy...
  38. ncbi The effectiveness of Teratology Information Services (TIS)
    Rebecca L Hancock
    Department of Child Health Evaluative Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Reprod Toxicol 23:125-32. 2007
    ..The objective of this review is to highlight published reports of the effectiveness of TIS in improving maternal and neonatal health...
  39. ncbi Proceedings from Motherisk Update 2008. Introduction: reproductive mental health
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Can J Clin Pharmacol 16:e1-5. 2009
    ....
  40. doi Smoking in pregnancy and lactation: a review of risks and cessation strategies
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 65:325-30. 2009
    ..Despite documented evidence of harm to fetus and infant, a substantial number of women continue to smoke during pregnancy and lactation...
  41. doi International practices in the provision of teratology information: a survey of international teratogen information programmes and comparisons with the North American model
    Rebecca L Hancock
    University of Toronto, Institute of Medical Science, Department of Child Health Evaluative Sciences, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada
    J Eval Clin Pract 16:957-63. 2010
    ..The survey objective was to compare international TIS to North American TIS, with an aim to identify strengths and challenges that can lead to service improvement...
  42. ncbi Challenges for healthcare providers in treating women with psychiatric disorders during pregnancy
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 19:e371-5. 2012
    ....
  43. ncbi Perception of teratogenic risk and the rated likelihood of pregnancy termination: association with maternal depression
    Asnat Walfisch
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario
    Can J Psychiatry 56:761-7. 2011
    ..Our objectives were to explore the association between maternal depression, teratogenic risk perception, and the rated likelihood to terminate pregnancy. Additionally, we evaluated possible benefits of counselling...
  44. doi Knowledge transfer and translation: examining how teratogen information is disseminated
    Ilan Shahin
    University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 91:956-61. 2011
    ..Therefore, it is important to disseminate evidenced-based information to pregnant women and their health care providers, enabling them to make empowered decisions regarding exposures during pregnancy...
  45. ncbi The Motherisk Alcohol and Substance Use Helpline: 10 years of experience and counting
    Eunji Kim
    The Alcohol and Substance use Helpline, The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 17:e269-80. 2010
    ..Thus, further efforts are required to reach out to the subgroup of women at high risk of continuing their harmful behaviors during pregnancy and lactation...
  46. pmc Risks of untreated depression during pregnancy
    Lori Bonari
    Motherisk Team, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont
    Can Fam Physician 50:37-9. 2004
    ....
  47. doi Montelukast use during pregnancy: a multicentre, prospective, comparative study of infant outcomes
    Moumita Sarkar
    The Motherisk Program, Toronto, Canada
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 65:1259-64. 2009
    ..Currently, there are limited prospective, comparative studies in the literature examining the safety of montelukast use in pregnancy...
  48. ncbi Introduction: reproductive mental health--Motherisk update 2008
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Can J Clin Pharmacol 16:e1-5. 2009
    ....
  49. ncbi Effectiveness of bupropion for smoking cessation during pregnancy
    Brian Chan
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    J Addict Dis 24:19-23. 2005
    ..047). Bupropion appears to be effective for smoking cessation therapy during pregnancy...
  50. ncbi Antidepressant use during pregnancy and the rates of spontaneous abortions: a meta-analysis
    Michiel E H Hemels
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Ann Pharmacother 39:803-9. 2005
    ....
  51. pmc New antidepressants in pregnancy
    Adrienne Einarson
    Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont
    Can Fam Physician 50:227-9. 2004
    ....
  52. pmc Trimethoprim-sulfonamide combination therapy in early pregnancy
    Anna Sivojelezova
    Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont
    Can Fam Physician 49:1085-6. 2003
    ..If clinically possible, physicians are advised to use alternative antimicrobial medications for treatment of urinary tract infections during early pregnancy...
  53. doi Public preferences for counseling regarding antidepressant use during pregnancy: a discrete choice experiment
    Rebecca L Hancock-Howard
    OptumInsight, Burlington, Ontario, Canada
    Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 94:532-9. 2012
    ..Attributes reflected counseling via a telephone Teratology Information Service (TIS) or a visit to a general practitioner (GP)...
  54. ncbi Negative impact of non-evidence-based information received by women taking antidepressants during pregnancy from health care providers and others
    Eva Mulder
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON
    J Obstet Gynaecol Can 34:66-71. 2012
    ....
  55. pmc The use of CAM by women suffering from nausea and vomiting during pregnancy
    Taras Hollyer
    Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine, Toronto, Canada
    BMC Complement Altern Med 2:5. 2002
    ..Our primary objective was to examine the prevalence of CAM usage by women suffering from NVP. Our secondary objective was to ascertain if women had any supervision in the use of these treatments...
  56. pmc How physicians perceive and utilize information from a teratogen information service: the Motherisk Program
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children Toronto, Canada
    BMC Med Educ 4:6. 2004
    ..Our primary objective was to evaluate the perception and utilization of information received from us by physicians. Our secondary objective was to examine their information seeking behavior, in particular regarding teratogen information...
  57. ncbi Perinatal risks of untreated depression during pregnancy
    Lori Bonari
    The Hospital for Sick Children and the Department of of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario
    Can J Psychiatry 49:726-35. 2004
    ..To review the literature on the perinatal risks involved in untreated depression during pregnancy...
  58. pmc Taking ginger for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy
    Kiran Chandra
    Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont
    Can Fam Physician 48:1441-2. 2002
    ..On the other hand, its efficacy has been documented in two randomized, blinded controlled trials...
  59. ncbi Ruminative worrying during pregnancy: a case series
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada, and The Women s Life Center of The Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    J Obstet Gynaecol Can 28:724-7. 2006
    ..Most women worry to some extent during pregnancy about exposure to agents that might harm their babies...
  60. ncbi Do findings differ across research design? The case of antidepressant use in pregnancy and malformations
    Thomas R Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 19:e334-48. 2012
    ..Many studies examining the teratogenic potential of antidepressants have been published. A variety of observational designs have been used with apparent conflicting results, although odds ratios were rarely >2...
  61. doi Antidepressant use in pregnancy and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN): a systematic review
    Geert W 't Jong
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Reprod Toxicol 34:293-7. 2012
    ..An association between PPHN and antidepressant use in pregnancy has been reported...
  62. pmc Safety of triptans for migraine headaches during pregnancy and breastfeeding
    Silvia Duong
    Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Canada
    Can Fam Physician 56:537-9. 2010
    ..She indicates that she is planning on breastfeeding her baby and might need to continue treatment. How safe are the medications from this class of drugs during pregnancy and breastfeeding?..
  63. ncbi The safety of psychotropic drug use during pregnancy: a review
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, The University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    MedGenMed 7:3. 2005
    ....
  64. pmc Treatment of heartburn and acid reflux associated with nausea and vomiting during pregnancy
    Ruth Law
    Leslie DanFaculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Can Fam Physician 56:143-4. 2010
    ..Should these symptoms also be treated and, if so, which acid-reducing medications are safe for use during pregnancy?..
  65. ncbi The safety of drugs for the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy
    Simerpal K Gill
    The Hospital for Sick Children, The Motherisk Program, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X8, Canada
    Expert Opin Drug Saf 6:685-94. 2007
    ..Also included is a treatment algorithm that can assist the healthcare provider in treating this condition in pregnant safely and effectively...
  66. doi Outcome following high-dose methotrexate in pregnancies misdiagnosed as ectopic
    Laila Nurmohamed
    Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 205:533.e1-3. 2011
    ..The objective of this study was to report the outcomes of intrauterine pregnancies misdiagnosed as ectopic and exposed to methotrexate, a major teratogen...
  67. ncbi Motherisk-PUQE (pregnancy-unique quantification of emesis and nausea) scoring system for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy
    Gideon Koren
    Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 186:S228-31. 2002
    ..We sought to establish a simple and clinically relevant method for evaluation of the severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy that can be used for both clinical practice and research...
  68. pmc Safety of hair products during pregnancy: personal use and occupational exposure
    Angela Chua-Gocheco
    Motherisk Team, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont
    Can Fam Physician 54:1386-8. 2008
    ..Several of my pregnant patients who are hairdressers have asked me if exposure to products they use is harmful to their unborn babies. They also want to know if their pregnant clients' personal use of hair products should be of concern...
  69. ncbi Pregnant women's perception of risk with use of the H1N1 vaccine
    Sachi Sakaguchi
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario
    J Obstet Gynaecol Can 33:460-7. 2011
    ..We wished to explore pregnant women's perception of risk and the factors associated with deciding whether or not to receive the vaccine...
  70. ncbi Herbal medicine use in pregnancy: a new frontier in clinical teratology
    Michael Gallo
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 68:499-500. 2003
  71. pmc Update on motherisk updates. Seven years of questions and answers
    Adrienne Einarson
    Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont
    Can Fam Physician 48:1301-4. 2002
    ..Most questions are about drug exposures. The three classes of drugs asked about most often are antidepressants, antiepileptics, and antihistamines...
  72. ncbi Quality and content of abstracts in papers reporting about drug exposures during pregnancy
    Thomas R Einarson
    Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 76:621-8. 2006
    ..Our objectives were to evaluate the quality of information in abstracts reporting human fetal outcomes following drug exposure during pregnancy...
  73. pmc Electric shock during pregnancy
    Ran D Goldman
    Motherisk Team at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont, Canada
    Can Fam Physician 49:297-8. 2003
    ..In this case, it appears the current did not travel through her abdomen. Recommendations for fetal monitoring after electrocution have been published...
  74. pmc Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Evidence-based treatment algorithm
    Zina Levichek
    Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont
    Can Fam Physician 48:267-8, 277. 2002
    ..What should my priority be? ANSWER: An algorithm used by Motherisk to manage thousands of patients takes a hierarchical approach to this condition. This approach is evidence based with regard to fetal safety as well as efficacy...
  75. ncbi A prospective-controlled study of pregnant veterinary staff exposed to inhaled anesthetics and x-rays
    Samaer Shuhaiber
    Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Int J Occup Med Environ Health 15:363-73. 2002
    ..4%) cases in the control group. These results suggest that Ontario female veterinary staff exposed to inhaled anesthetics and/or radiation do not seem to be at an increased risk for major malformations above baseline risk...
  76. pmc Physicians' participation in research
    Shauna Tsuchiya
    CMAJ 176:1861. 2007
  77. pmc Cancer in pregnancy: Motherisk on-line question and answer forum
    Sandy Grupp
    Can Fam Physician 53:1891-2. 2007
    ..Questions about the safety of chemotherapeutic drugs before and during pregnancy and about possible exacerbation of previous cancer by pregnancy are most common...
  78. pmc Counseling pregnant women treated with paroxetine. Concern about cardiac malformations
    Adrienne Einarson
    Can Fam Physician 52:593-4. 2006
    ..Failure to treat depression during pregnancy can have severe consequences for both mothers and babies and is the strongest predictor of postpartum depression...
  79. pmc A survey of physicians knowledge regarding awareness of maternal alcohol use and the diagnosis of FAS
    Alexandra C Nevin
    The University of Toronto Medical School
    BMC Fam Pract 3:2. 2002
    ..The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to evaluate the experience, knowledge and confidence of family physicians with respect to the diagnosis of FAS and 2) to evaluate physicians awareness of maternal drinking patterns...
  80. ncbi Re: use of contemporary antidepressants during breastfeeding: a proposal for a specific safety index
    Adrienne Einarson
    Drug Saf 30:643; author reply 643-4. 2007