Adrienne Einarson

Summary

Affiliation: The Hospital for Sick Children
Country: Canada

Publications

  1. pmc Counseling pregnant women treated with paroxetine. Concern about cardiac malformations
    Adrienne Einarson
    Can Fam Physician 52:593-4. 2006
  2. ncbi request reprint Longitudinal study of depression, anxiety, irritability, and stress in pregnancy following evidence-based counseling on the use of antidepressants
    Lisa O'Brien
    Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto and Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto
    J Psychiatr Pract 13:33-9. 2007
  3. doi request reprint Smoking in pregnancy and lactation: a review of risks and cessation strategies
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 65:325-30. 2009
  4. ncbi request reprint Challenges for healthcare providers in treating women with psychiatric disorders during pregnancy
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 19:e371-5. 2012
  5. ncbi request reprint Do findings differ across research design? The case of antidepressant use in pregnancy and malformations
    Thomas R Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 19:e334-48. 2012
  6. pmc Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among veterinary staff in Ontario, Canada (2002): implications for teratogenic risk
    Samar Shuhaiber
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    BMC Infect Dis 3:8. 2003
  7. pmc A survey of physicians knowledge regarding awareness of maternal alcohol use and the diagnosis of FAS
    Alexandra C Nevin
    The University of Toronto Medical School
    BMC Fam Pract 3:2. 2002
  8. doi request reprint Adverse effects of antidepressant use in pregnancy: an evaluation of fetal growth and preterm birth
    A Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Depress Anxiety 27:35-8. 2010
  9. doi request reprint Evaluation of the risk of congenital cardiovascular defects associated with use of paroxetine during pregnancy
    Adrienne Einarson
    Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toronto, 555 University Ave, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Am J Psychiatry 165:749-52. 2008
  10. ncbi request reprint Incidence of major malformations in infants following antidepressant exposure in pregnancy: results of a large prospective cohort study
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Can J Psychiatry 54:242-6. 2009

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications90

  1. pmc Counseling pregnant women treated with paroxetine. Concern about cardiac malformations
    Adrienne Einarson
    Can Fam Physician 52:593-4. 2006
    ..Failure to treat depression during pregnancy can have severe consequences for both mothers and babies and is the strongest predictor of postpartum depression...
  2. ncbi request reprint Longitudinal study of depression, anxiety, irritability, and stress in pregnancy following evidence-based counseling on the use of antidepressants
    Lisa O'Brien
    Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto and Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto
    J Psychiatr Pract 13:33-9. 2007
    ..Little information exists on the effect of continuation of antidepressants on depressive symptoms during pregnancy...
  3. doi request reprint Smoking in pregnancy and lactation: a review of risks and cessation strategies
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 65:325-30. 2009
    ..Despite documented evidence of harm to fetus and infant, a substantial number of women continue to smoke during pregnancy and lactation...
  4. ncbi request reprint Challenges for healthcare providers in treating women with psychiatric disorders during pregnancy
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 19:e371-5. 2012
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint Do findings differ across research design? The case of antidepressant use in pregnancy and malformations
    Thomas R Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 19:e334-48. 2012
    ..Many studies examining the teratogenic potential of antidepressants have been published. A variety of observational designs have been used with apparent conflicting results, although odds ratios were rarely >2...
  6. pmc Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among veterinary staff in Ontario, Canada (2002): implications for teratogenic risk
    Samar Shuhaiber
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    BMC Infect Dis 3:8. 2003
    ..gondii antibody among veterinary staff, to ascertain whether they have an increased risk through occupational exposure. Our secondary objective was to examine their practices regarding cats, toxoplasma infection, and pregnancy...
  7. pmc A survey of physicians knowledge regarding awareness of maternal alcohol use and the diagnosis of FAS
    Alexandra C Nevin
    The University of Toronto Medical School
    BMC Fam Pract 3:2. 2002
    ..The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to evaluate the experience, knowledge and confidence of family physicians with respect to the diagnosis of FAS and 2) to evaluate physicians awareness of maternal drinking patterns...
  8. doi request reprint Adverse effects of antidepressant use in pregnancy: an evaluation of fetal growth and preterm birth
    A Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Depress Anxiety 27:35-8. 2010
    ..To compare the rates of low birth weight, preterm delivery and small for gestational age (SGA), in pregnancy outcomes among women who were exposed and nonexposed to antidepressants during pregnancy...
  9. doi request reprint Evaluation of the risk of congenital cardiovascular defects associated with use of paroxetine during pregnancy
    Adrienne Einarson
    Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toronto, 555 University Ave, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Am J Psychiatry 165:749-52. 2008
    ..In this study, the authors sought to determine whether paroxetine was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular defects in infants of women exposed to the drug during the first trimester of pregnancy...
  10. ncbi request reprint Incidence of major malformations in infants following antidepressant exposure in pregnancy: results of a large prospective cohort study
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Can J Psychiatry 54:242-6. 2009
    ..To ascertain if antidepressants, as a group, increase the risk for major malformations, as well as assessing each individual antidepressant...
  11. ncbi request reprint Quality and content of abstracts in papers reporting about drug exposures during pregnancy
    Thomas R Einarson
    Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 76:621-8. 2006
    ..Our objectives were to evaluate the quality of information in abstracts reporting human fetal outcomes following drug exposure during pregnancy...
  12. pmc Prescribing antidepressants to pregnant women: what is a family physician to do?
    Adrienne Einarson
    Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8
    Can Fam Physician 53:1412-4, 1423-5. 2007
  13. ncbi request reprint Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) and depression: cause or effect?
    Pina Bozzo
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital forSick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Clin Invest Med 34:E245. 2011
    ..Several studies have linked depression with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP); however, researchers were unable to determine whether depression was caused by NVP or by a pre-existing condition...
  14. ncbi request reprint Outcomes of infants exposed to multiple antidepressants during pregnancy: results of a cohort study
    A Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 18:e390-6. 2011
    ..A single study has been published documenting an increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes following use of more than one antidepressant during pregnancy...
  15. pmc How physicians perceive and utilize information from a teratogen information service: the Motherisk Program
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children Toronto, Canada
    BMC Med Educ 4:6. 2004
    ..Our primary objective was to evaluate the perception and utilization of information received from us by physicians. Our secondary objective was to examine their information seeking behavior, in particular regarding teratogen information...
  16. ncbi request reprint The safety of psychotropic drug use during pregnancy: a review
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, The University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    MedGenMed 7:3. 2005
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Exposure to mirtazapine during pregnancy: a prospective, comparative study of birth outcomes
    Josephine Djulus
    Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Clin Psychiatry 67:1280-4. 2006
    ..Currently, apart from a few case reports and case series in the literature, there are no studies evaluating the safety of this drug during pregnancy...
  18. ncbi request reprint Pregnancy outcome of women using atypical antipsychotic drugs: a prospective comparative study
    Kate McKenna
    Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Clin Psychiatry 66:444-9; quiz 546. 2005
    ..Atypical antipsychotics have been on the market since the mid-1990s, and to date there are no prospective comparative studies regarding use during pregnancy...
  19. ncbi request reprint Prospective comparative study of the safety and effectiveness of ginger for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy
    Galina Portnoi
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 189:1374-7. 2003
    ..The primary objective of our study was to examine the safety and the secondary objective was to examine the effectiveness of ginger for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP)...
  20. ncbi request reprint Determinants of women's decision making on whether to treat nausea and vomiting of pregnancy pharmacologically
    Anne Baggley
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Midwifery Womens Health 49:350-4. 2004
    ..Of the women who did use Diclectin, the most convincing reassuring information that it was safe to use came from friends and family. Many other factors play a large role in a women's decision making...
  21. doi request reprint Pregnancy outcomes following use of escitalopram: a prospective comparative cohort study
    Chagit Klieger-Grossmann
    Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Clin Pharmacol 52:766-70. 2012
    ..In addition, the higher rates of spontaneous abortions in both antidepressant groups confirmed previous findings...
  22. ncbi request reprint Paroxetine and congenital malformations: meta-Analysis and consideration of potential confounding factors
    Benjamin Bar-Oz
    Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Ther 29:918-26. 2007
    ..Antidepressants have been commonly used by women of childbearing age. Recent studies suggest that paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), might specifically increase teratogenic risk...
  23. doi request reprint MotherNature: establishing a Canadian research network for natural health products (NHPs) during pregnancy and lactation
    Gideon Koren
    Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Altern Complement Med 14:369-72. 2008
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint The safety of ondansetron for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a prospective comparative study
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, The University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X8
    BJOG 111:940-3. 2004
    ..There is a paucity of information on fetal safety for this indication. The objective of this study is to determine whether this drug increases the baseline rate of major malformations...
  25. ncbi request reprint Does paroxetine cause cardiac malformations?
    Lisa O'Brien
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Toronto ON
    J Obstet Gynaecol Can 30:696-701. 2008
    ..Debate has recently arisen about the safety of paroxetine use in pregnancy, prompted by reports of increased risks for cardiac defects following first trimester exposure...
  26. doi request reprint A pilot study of paternal drug exposure: the Motherisk experience
    Candace Y W Lee
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Reprod Toxicol 29:353-60. 2010
    ..Here, we reviewed for the first time our experience with PEx...
  27. ncbi request reprint Citalopram use in pregnancy: prospective comparative evaluation of pregnancy and fetal outcome
    Anna Sivojelezova
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 193:2004-9. 2005
    ..The safety of this medication in pregnancy has not been fully established. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether citalopram is associated with an increased incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes...
  28. pmc Is maternal use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the third trimester of pregnancy harmful to neonates?
    Gideon Koren
    Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont
    CMAJ 172:1457-9. 2005
  29. ncbi request reprint Glucosamine use in pregnancy: an evaluation of pregnancy outcome
    Anna Sivojelezova
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, The Hospital for Sick Children, The University of Toronto, Canada
    J Womens Health (Larchmt) 16:345-8. 2007
    ..There is no information regarding its use in pregnancy. Our objective was to determine whether GLS treatment in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of major malformations or other adverse outcomes...
  30. pmc FDA pregnancy risk categories and the CPS: do they help or are they a hindrance?
    Ruth Law
    Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto
    Can Fam Physician 56:239-41. 2010
    ..How should I interpret this information, and how does the Motherisk Program evaluate the safety or risks of drug use in pregnancy?..
  31. doi request reprint Providing information regarding exposures in pregnancy: a survey of North American Teratology Information Services
    Rebecca L Hancock
    Department of Child Health Evaluative Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Reprod Toxicol 25:381-7. 2008
    ..Teratology Information Services (TIS) provide information on exposures during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Maintaining ongoing funding is a challenge. The purpose was to gather descriptive information on current TIS operations...
  32. ncbi request reprint Rates of spontaneous and therapeutic abortions following use of antidepressants in pregnancy: results from a large prospective database
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON
    J Obstet Gynaecol Can 31:452-6. 2009
    ..We sought to examine whether use of antidepressants increases the rates of spontaneous abortion (SA) and therapeutic abortion (TA) in women exposed in early pregnancy...
  33. ncbi request reprint Abrupt discontinuation of psychotropic drugs following confirmation of pregnancy: a risky practice
    Adrienne Einarson
    Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON
    J Obstet Gynaecol Can 27:1019-22. 2005
    ..Therefore, it is not good practice to discontinue these medications abruptly upon diagnosis of pregnancy...
  34. doi request reprint Use and safety of antipsychotic drugs during pregnancy
    Adrienne Einarson
    Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Canada
    J Psychiatr Pract 15:183-92. 2009
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint The effectiveness of Teratology Information Services (TIS)
    Rebecca L Hancock
    Department of Child Health Evaluative Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Reprod Toxicol 23:125-32. 2007
    ..The objective of this review is to highlight published reports of the effectiveness of TIS in improving maternal and neonatal health...
  36. ncbi request reprint Pregnancy outcome of women exposed to bupropion during pregnancy: a prospective comparative study
    Brian Chun-Fai-Chan
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 192:932-6. 2005
    ..The secondary objective was to examine the rates of live births, stillbirths, spontaneous and therapeutic abortions, mean birth weight, and gestational age at birth...
  37. ncbi request reprint The safety of antidepressant use in pregnancy
    Sanjog Kalra
    The Hospital for Sick Children, The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Expert Opin Drug Saf 4:273-84. 2005
    ..This evidence-based information will be helpful to women and their healthcare providers, when the decision of whether or not to treat with anti-depressants during pregnancy must be made...
  38. doi request reprint Knowledge transfer and translation: examining how teratogen information is disseminated
    Ilan Shahin
    University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 91:956-61. 2011
    ..Therefore, it is important to disseminate evidenced-based information to pregnant women and their health care providers, enabling them to make empowered decisions regarding exposures during pregnancy...
  39. doi request reprint International practices in the provision of teratology information: a survey of international teratogen information programmes and comparisons with the North American model
    Rebecca L Hancock
    University of Toronto, Institute of Medical Science, Department of Child Health Evaluative Sciences, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada
    J Eval Clin Pract 16:957-63. 2010
    ..The survey objective was to compare international TIS to North American TIS, with an aim to identify strengths and challenges that can lead to service improvement...
  40. ncbi request reprint Diclectin therapy for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: effects of optimal dosing
    Rada Boskovic
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    J Obstet Gynaecol Can 25:830-3. 2003
    ..1) To quantify rates of suboptimal use of pyridoxine hydrochloride-doxylamine (Diclectin); and (2) to study responses to optimal doses of Diclectin in women previously taking a suboptimal dose...
  41. ncbi request reprint Proceedings from Motherisk Update 2008. Introduction: reproductive mental health
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Can J Clin Pharmacol 16:e1-5. 2009
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Newer antidepressants in pregnancy and rates of major malformations: a meta-analysis of prospective comparative studies
    Thomas R Einarson
    Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ont, Canada
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 14:823-7. 2005
    ..A substantial number of women of childbearing age suffer from depression. Despite this, relatively little is known about the safety of antidepressant use during pregnancy...
  43. ncbi request reprint Risks/safety of psychotropic medication use during pregnancy--Motherisk Update 2008
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario
    Can J Clin Pharmacol 16:e58-65. 2009
    ..All pregnancies where a mother has a serious psychiatric disorder should be considered high risk and the mother and fetus must be carefully monitored...
  44. ncbi request reprint Perception of teratogenic risk and the rated likelihood of pregnancy termination: association with maternal depression
    Asnat Walfisch
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario
    Can J Psychiatry 56:761-7. 2011
    ..Our objectives were to explore the association between maternal depression, teratogenic risk perception, and the rated likelihood to terminate pregnancy. Additionally, we evaluated possible benefits of counselling...
  45. doi request reprint Montelukast use during pregnancy: a multicentre, prospective, comparative study of infant outcomes
    Moumita Sarkar
    The Motherisk Program, Toronto, Canada
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 65:1259-64. 2009
    ..Currently, there are limited prospective, comparative studies in the literature examining the safety of montelukast use in pregnancy...
  46. ncbi request reprint The Motherisk Alcohol and Substance Use Helpline: 10 years of experience and counting
    Eunji Kim
    The Alcohol and Substance use Helpline, The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 17:e269-80. 2010
    ..Thus, further efforts are required to reach out to the subgroup of women at high risk of continuing their harmful behaviors during pregnancy and lactation...
  47. ncbi request reprint Introduction: reproductive mental health--Motherisk update 2008
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Can J Clin Pharmacol 16:e1-5. 2009
    ....
  48. pmc Trimethoprim-sulfonamide combination therapy in early pregnancy
    Anna Sivojelezova
    Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont
    Can Fam Physician 49:1085-6. 2003
    ..If clinically possible, physicians are advised to use alternative antimicrobial medications for treatment of urinary tract infections during early pregnancy...
  49. pmc New antidepressants in pregnancy
    Adrienne Einarson
    Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont
    Can Fam Physician 50:227-9. 2004
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint Antidepressant use during pregnancy and the rates of spontaneous abortions: a meta-analysis
    Michiel E H Hemels
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Ann Pharmacother 39:803-9. 2005
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint Effectiveness of bupropion for smoking cessation during pregnancy
    Brian Chan
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    J Addict Dis 24:19-23. 2005
    ..047). Bupropion appears to be effective for smoking cessation therapy during pregnancy...
  52. doi request reprint Public preferences for counseling regarding antidepressant use during pregnancy: a discrete choice experiment
    Rebecca L Hancock-Howard
    OptumInsight, Burlington, Ontario, Canada
    Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 94:532-9. 2012
    ..Attributes reflected counseling via a telephone Teratology Information Service (TIS) or a visit to a general practitioner (GP)...
  53. ncbi request reprint Negative impact of non-evidence-based information received by women taking antidepressants during pregnancy from health care providers and others
    Eva Mulder
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON
    J Obstet Gynaecol Can 34:66-71. 2012
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint Perinatal risks of untreated depression during pregnancy
    Lori Bonari
    The Hospital for Sick Children and the Department of of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario
    Can J Psychiatry 49:726-35. 2004
    ..To review the literature on the perinatal risks involved in untreated depression during pregnancy...
  55. pmc Risks of untreated depression during pregnancy
    Lori Bonari
    Motherisk Team, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont
    Can Fam Physician 50:37-9. 2004
    ....
  56. ncbi request reprint Ruminative worrying during pregnancy: a case series
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada, and The Women s Life Center of The Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    J Obstet Gynaecol Can 28:724-7. 2006
    ..Most women worry to some extent during pregnancy about exposure to agents that might harm their babies...
  57. doi request reprint Antidepressant use in pregnancy and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN): a systematic review
    Geert W 't Jong
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Reprod Toxicol 34:293-7. 2012
    ..An association between PPHN and antidepressant use in pregnancy has been reported...
  58. ncbi request reprint Pregnant women's perception of risk with use of the H1N1 vaccine
    Sachi Sakaguchi
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario
    J Obstet Gynaecol Can 33:460-7. 2011
    ..We wished to explore pregnant women's perception of risk and the factors associated with deciding whether or not to receive the vaccine...
  59. pmc Safety of triptans for migraine headaches during pregnancy and breastfeeding
    Silvia Duong
    Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Canada
    Can Fam Physician 56:537-9. 2010
    ..She indicates that she is planning on breastfeeding her baby and might need to continue treatment. How safe are the medications from this class of drugs during pregnancy and breastfeeding?..
  60. ncbi request reprint Significant changes in antipsychotic drug use during pregnancy
    Kate McKenna
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Vet Hum Toxicol 46:44-6. 2004
    ..Since the introduction of atypical antipsychotics, more women requiring antipsychotic drug therapy have been planning or becoming pregnant. This increase may have substantial public health implications...
  61. pmc Treatment of heartburn and acid reflux associated with nausea and vomiting during pregnancy
    Ruth Law
    Leslie DanFaculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Can Fam Physician 56:143-4. 2010
    ..Should these symptoms also be treated and, if so, which acid-reducing medications are safe for use during pregnancy?..
  62. ncbi request reprint A multicentre prospective controlled study to determine the safety of trazodone and nefazodone use during pregnancy
    Adrienne Einarson
    Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8
    Can J Psychiatry 48:106-10. 2003
    ..Secondary outcomes of interest included rates of spontaneous and therapeutic abortions, rates of premature labour, and birth weight...
  63. doi request reprint Outcome following high-dose methotrexate in pregnancies misdiagnosed as ectopic
    Laila Nurmohamed
    Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 205:533.e1-3. 2011
    ..The objective of this study was to report the outcomes of intrauterine pregnancies misdiagnosed as ectopic and exposed to methotrexate, a major teratogen...
  64. pmc Update on motherisk updates. Seven years of questions and answers
    Adrienne Einarson
    Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont
    Can Fam Physician 48:1301-4. 2002
    ..Most questions are about drug exposures. The three classes of drugs asked about most often are antidepressants, antiepileptics, and antihistamines...
  65. pmc The use of CAM by women suffering from nausea and vomiting during pregnancy
    Taras Hollyer
    Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine, Toronto, Canada
    BMC Complement Altern Med 2:5. 2002
    ..Our primary objective was to examine the prevalence of CAM usage by women suffering from NVP. Our secondary objective was to ascertain if women had any supervision in the use of these treatments...
  66. ncbi request reprint Motherisk-PUQE (pregnancy-unique quantification of emesis and nausea) scoring system for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy
    Gideon Koren
    Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 186:S228-31. 2002
    ..We sought to establish a simple and clinically relevant method for evaluation of the severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy that can be used for both clinical practice and research...
  67. pmc Taking ginger for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy
    Kiran Chandra
    Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont
    Can Fam Physician 48:1441-2. 2002
    ..On the other hand, its efficacy has been documented in two randomized, blinded controlled trials...
  68. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of depression during pregnancy: systematic review
    Heather A Bennett
    Faculty of Pharmacy and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Obstet Gynecol 103:698-709. 2004
    ....
  69. ncbi request reprint The incidence of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP): a comparison between depressed women treated with antidepressants and non-depressed women
    Pina Bozzo
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Invest Med 29:347-50. 2006
    ..In many cases NVP causes changes i n family, social, o roccupational functioning. Several studies have linked NVP with depression; however, whether depression preceded or resulted from NVP, has not been established...
  70. ncbi request reprint The safety of drugs for the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy
    Simerpal K Gill
    The Hospital for Sick Children, The Motherisk Program, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X8, Canada
    Expert Opin Drug Saf 6:685-94. 2007
    ..Also included is a treatment algorithm that can assist the healthcare provider in treating this condition in pregnant safely and effectively...
  71. ncbi request reprint The relationship between stress and hair cortisol in healthy pregnant women
    Sanjog Kalra
    The Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, ON, Canada
    Clin Invest Med 30:E103-7. 2007
    ..Stress has been shown to cause a large range of adverse fetal effects. This pilot study is the first attempt to examine cortisol level in the hair of pregnant women and assess its potential as a biomarker of gestational stress...
  72. pmc Safety of hair products during pregnancy: personal use and occupational exposure
    Angela Chua-Gocheco
    Motherisk Team, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont
    Can Fam Physician 54:1386-8. 2008
    ..Several of my pregnant patients who are hairdressers have asked me if exposure to products they use is harmful to their unborn babies. They also want to know if their pregnant clients' personal use of hair products should be of concern...
  73. ncbi request reprint Do we have a knowledge transfer and translation plan at Teratogen Information Services?
    Adrienne Einarson
    The Motherisk Program, Population Health Sciences, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, The Hospital for Sick Children, The University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ont, Canada M5G 1X8
    Reprod Toxicol 22:542-5. 2006
    ..In this brief review/comment, an attempt will be made to help the readers understand the meaning of this new terminology and how it impacts Teratogen Information Services...
  74. ncbi request reprint Herbal medicine use in pregnancy: a new frontier in clinical teratology
    Michael Gallo
    The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 68:499-500. 2003
  75. pmc Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Evidence-based treatment algorithm
    Zina Levichek
    Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont
    Can Fam Physician 48:267-8, 277. 2002
    ..What should my priority be? ANSWER: An algorithm used by Motherisk to manage thousands of patients takes a hierarchical approach to this condition. This approach is evidence based with regard to fetal safety as well as efficacy...
  76. pmc Vaginal yeast infections during pregnancy
    Derrick Soong
    Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto
    Can Fam Physician 55:255-6. 2009
    ..My pregnant patients often present with symptomatic vaginal yeast infections. Are the medications commonly used for the management of yeast infections safe to use during pregnancy?..
  77. pmc Electric shock during pregnancy
    Ran D Goldman
    Motherisk Team at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont, Canada
    Can Fam Physician 49:297-8. 2003
    ..In this case, it appears the current did not travel through her abdomen. Recommendations for fetal monitoring after electrocution have been published...
  78. ncbi request reprint A prospective-controlled study of pregnant veterinary staff exposed to inhaled anesthetics and x-rays
    Samaer Shuhaiber
    Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Int J Occup Med Environ Health 15:363-73. 2002
    ..4%) cases in the control group. These results suggest that Ontario female veterinary staff exposed to inhaled anesthetics and/or radiation do not seem to be at an increased risk for major malformations above baseline risk...
  79. ncbi request reprint Re: use of contemporary antidepressants during breastfeeding: a proposal for a specific safety index
    Adrienne Einarson
    Drug Saf 30:643; author reply 643-4. 2007
  80. ncbi request reprint Comment: paroxetine use during pregnancy: is it safe?
    Wende Wood
    Ann Pharmacother 40:2281-2. 2006
  81. pmc Cancer in pregnancy: Motherisk on-line question and answer forum
    Sandy Grupp
    Can Fam Physician 53:1891-2. 2007
    ..Questions about the safety of chemotherapeutic drugs before and during pregnancy and about possible exacerbation of previous cancer by pregnancy are most common...
  82. ncbi request reprint Pregnancy and antidepressant counseling
    Adrienne Einarson
    Am J Psychiatry 161:2137. 2004
  83. ncbi request reprint Defective alleles may not have contributed to adverse effects
    Adrienne Einarson
    Ther Drug Monit 28:142-3; author reply 143. 2006
  84. ncbi request reprint SSRIs and birth defects
    Vivien Burt
    Epidemiology 18:410-1; author reply 412-3. 2007
  85. pmc Treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: an updated algorithm
    Adrienne Einarson
    Can Fam Physician 53:2109-11. 2007
    ..There are safe and effective treatments available. We have updated Motherisk's NVP algorithm to include recent relevant published data, and we describe some other strategies that deal with secondary symptoms related to NVP...
  86. ncbi request reprint Smoking habits, nicotine use, and congenital malformations
    Adrienne Einarson
    Obstet Gynecol 107:1167; author reply 1168. 2006
  87. ncbi request reprint Problems with maternal antidepressant treatment and neonatal outcomes study
    Thomas R Einarson
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:866; author reply 867-8. 2007
  88. pmc Effects and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease during pregnancy
    Harvinder Brar
    Can Fam Physician 54:981-3. 2008
    ..There are limited data on the use of infliximab during pregnancy, although no pattern of defects or complications has been reported to date...
  89. pmc Use of warfarin during pregnancy
    Shirin Abadi
    Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ont
    Can Fam Physician 48:695-7. 2002
    ..Unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin could be substituted when appropriate because these agents do not cross the placenta and are considered the anticoagulant drugs of choice during pregnancy...
  90. pmc Physicians' participation in research
    Shauna Tsuchiya
    CMAJ 176:1861. 2007