G R Norman

Summary

Affiliation: McMaster University
Country: Canada

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Practice makes perfect: the critical role of mixed practice in the acquisition of ECG interpretation skills
    Rose M Hatala
    Program for Educational Research and Development, Building T 13, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1, Canada
    Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 8:17-26. 2003
  2. ncbi request reprint RCT = results confounded and trivial: the perils of grand educational experiments
    Geoff Norman
    McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Med Educ 37:582-4. 2003
  3. pmc Standardising the process versus improving the methods
    Geoffrey R Norman
    Michael DeGroote Centre for Learning MDCL, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5
    BMJ 332:1008-9. 2006
  4. pmc Medical education: past, present and future
    Geoff Norman
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MDCL 3519, McMaster University, 1200 Main St W, Hamilton, ON L8N3Z5 Canada
    Perspect Med Educ 1:6-14. 2012
  5. doi request reprint Historical factors influencing medical education research productivity
    Geoff Norman
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Canada
    Med Teach 35:269-70. 2013
  6. doi request reprint The minimal relationship between simulation fidelity and transfer of learning
    Geoff Norman
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Med Educ 46:636-47. 2012
  7. doi request reprint The American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based educational guidelines for continuing medical education interventions: a critical review of evidence-based educational guidelines
    Geoff Norman
    Program for Educational Research and Development, Michael G DeGroote Centre for Learning, 1200 Main St W, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Chest 135:834-7. 2009
  8. doi request reprint Likert scales, levels of measurement and the "laws" of statistics
    Geoff Norman
    McMaster University, 1200 Main St W, Hamilton, ON, L8N3Z5, Canada
    Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 15:625-32. 2010
  9. ncbi request reprint Interpretation of changes in health-related quality of life: the remarkable universality of half a standard deviation
    Geoffrey R Norman
    Program for Educational Research and Development, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
    Med Care 41:582-92. 2003
  10. ncbi request reprint Is it simple or simplistic?
    Geoffrey R Norman
    Program for Educational Research and Development, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
    Med Care 41:599-600. 2003

Detail Information

Publications88

  1. ncbi request reprint Practice makes perfect: the critical role of mixed practice in the acquisition of ECG interpretation skills
    Rose M Hatala
    Program for Educational Research and Development, Building T 13, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1, Canada
    Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 8:17-26. 2003
    ..To examine the effect of instructional format on medical students' learning of ECG diagnosis...
  2. ncbi request reprint RCT = results confounded and trivial: the perils of grand educational experiments
    Geoff Norman
    McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Med Educ 37:582-4. 2003
  3. pmc Standardising the process versus improving the methods
    Geoffrey R Norman
    Michael DeGroote Centre for Learning MDCL, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5
    BMJ 332:1008-9. 2006
  4. pmc Medical education: past, present and future
    Geoff Norman
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MDCL 3519, McMaster University, 1200 Main St W, Hamilton, ON L8N3Z5 Canada
    Perspect Med Educ 1:6-14. 2012
    ..I suggest that one approach would be to decouple clinical education from clinical care, to some degree, and supplement with curricula designed around careful sequencing of simulated cases...
  5. doi request reprint Historical factors influencing medical education research productivity
    Geoff Norman
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Canada
    Med Teach 35:269-70. 2013
    ..He suggests that the historical introduction of problem-based learning early in both countries by McMaster and Maastricht, respectively, with a commitment for programmatic and broader research in both institutions has left this legacy...
  6. doi request reprint The minimal relationship between simulation fidelity and transfer of learning
    Geoff Norman
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Med Educ 46:636-47. 2012
    ..This fails to clarify the relationship between simulator fidelity and learning, and whether comparable gains might be achieved at substantially lower cost...
  7. doi request reprint The American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based educational guidelines for continuing medical education interventions: a critical review of evidence-based educational guidelines
    Geoff Norman
    Program for Educational Research and Development, Michael G DeGroote Centre for Learning, 1200 Main St W, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Chest 135:834-7. 2009
    ..In a similar vein, while the role of simulation in continuing medical education is largely unexplored, applications must be considered with clear understanding of what can and cannot be achieved with simulation...
  8. doi request reprint Likert scales, levels of measurement and the "laws" of statistics
    Geoff Norman
    McMaster University, 1200 Main St W, Hamilton, ON, L8N3Z5, Canada
    Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 15:625-32. 2010
    ..Hence, challenges like those above are unfounded, and parametric methods can be utilized without concern for "getting the wrong answer"...
  9. ncbi request reprint Interpretation of changes in health-related quality of life: the remarkable universality of half a standard deviation
    Geoffrey R Norman
    Program for Educational Research and Development, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
    Med Care 41:582-92. 2003
    ..A number of studies have computed the minimally important difference (MID) for health-related quality of life instruments...
  10. ncbi request reprint Is it simple or simplistic?
    Geoffrey R Norman
    Program for Educational Research and Development, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
    Med Care 41:599-600. 2003
  11. ncbi request reprint Hi! How are you? Response shift, implicit theories and differing epistemologies
    Geoffrey Norman
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
    Qual Life Res 12:239-49. 2003
    ..I propose that a partial resolution may arise from a more careful consideration of the goals of HRQL assessment in a particular situation...
  12. ncbi request reprint Research in clinical reasoning: past history and current trends
    Geoffrey Norman
    Michael De Groote Centre for Learning and Discovery, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3Z5, Canada
    Med Educ 39:418-27. 2005
    ..Research in clinical reasoning has been conducted for over 30 years. Throughout this time there have been a number of identifiable trends in methodology and theory...
  13. doi request reprint Are learning portfolios worth the effort? No
    Geoff Norman
    MDCL 3519, McMaster University, 1200 Main St W, Hamilton, ON, Canada 8N 3Z5
    BMJ 337:a514. 2008
  14. ncbi request reprint Doggie diagnosis, diagnostic success and diagnostic reasoning strategies: an alternative view
    Geoffrey R Norman
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology, McMaster University, Room 2C14, Health Sciences Centre, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3Z5, Canada
    Med Educ 37:676-7. 2003
  15. doi request reprint Compliance of medical students with voluntary use of personal data assistants for clerkship assessments
    Geoffrey Norman
    Program for Educational Research and Development, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Teach Learn Med 20:295-301. 2008
    ..For several years, final-year students at McMaster University have been required to complete 10 mini-CEX type assessments per rotation. A similar system was being introduced at Ottawa...
  16. ncbi request reprint Implications of psychology-type theories for full curriculum interventions
    Geoffrey R Norman
    Health Sciences Centre, McMaster University, Ontario, Canada
    Med Educ 39:247-9. 2005
  17. doi request reprint The glass is a little full - of something: revisiting the issue of content specificity of problem solving
    Geoffrey R Norman
    Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Med Educ 42:549-51. 2008
  18. doi request reprint Diagnostic error and clinical reasoning
    Geoffrey R Norman
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Med Educ 44:94-100. 2010
    ..The consensus of this literature is that most errors are cognitive and result from the application of one or more cognitive biases. Such biased reasoning is usually associated with 'System 1' (non-analytic, pattern recognition) thinking...
  19. ncbi request reprint Teaching basic science to optimize transfer
    Geoff Norman
    McMaster University, Canada
    Med Teach 31:807-11. 2009
    ..However a number of strategies to improve transfer can be adopted at the time of initial teaching of the concept, in the use of exemplars to illustrate the concept, and in practice with additional problems...
  20. doi request reprint Predicting doctor performance outcomes of curriculum interventions: problem-based learning and continuing competence
    Geoffrey R Norman
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Med Educ 42:794-9. 2008
    ..The present study examines a peer review programme to determine whether the impact of PBL on continuing competence can be detected in practice...
  21. pmc The need for needs assessment in continuing medical education
    Geoffrey R Norman
    Building T 13, McMaster University, 1280 Main St W, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4K1
    BMJ 328:999-1001. 2004
  22. ncbi request reprint From theory to application and back again: implications of research on medical expertise for psychological theory
    Geoffrey Norman
    Program for Educational Research and Development, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON
    Can J Exp Psychol 59:35-40. 2005
    ....
  23. doi request reprint Commentary: Breaking the mold of normative clinical decision making: is it adaptive, suboptimal, or somewhere in between?
    Geoff Norman
    Program for Educational Research and Development, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Acad Med 85:393-4. 2010
    ....
  24. doi request reprint Assessment steers learning down the right road: impact of progress testing on licensing examination performance
    Geoff Norman
    McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
    Med Teach 32:496-9. 2010
    ..The immediate effect of introducing objective tests was a reduction in failure rate on the licensing examination from 19% to 4.5%. Various reasons for this improvement in performance are discussed...
  25. ncbi request reprint The relation between the minimally important difference and patient benefit
    Geoffrey R Norman
    Program for Educational Research and Development, McMaster University, Building T 13, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    COPD 2:69-73. 2005
    ..Effect size- and anchor-based approaches provide equivalent information in this situation. There appears to be little utility in the notion of the MID as an absolute indicator of clinically important treatment effects...
  26. ncbi request reprint The mathematical relationship among different forms of responsiveness coefficients
    G R Norman
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MDCL 3519, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8N 3Z5, Canada
    Qual Life Res 16:815-22. 2007
    ..These differences are completely predictable when the underlying analytical form of each coefficient is explicated...
  27. ncbi request reprint How specific is case specificity?
    Geoffrey Norman
    Health Sciences Centre, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Med Educ 40:618-23. 2006
    ..variance results from differences between cases compared with differences between items within cases? What is the optimal number of cases and questions within cases to maximise test reliability given some fixed period of examination time?..
  28. ncbi request reprint The power of the plural: effect of conceptual analogies on successful transfer
    Geoffrey Norman
    MDCL 3519, McMaster University, 1200 Main St W, Hamilton ON L8N 3Z5, Canada
    Acad Med 82:S16-8. 2007
    ..Students who know a concept will typically only be able to access it to solve new problems 10% to 30% of the time. However, one solution is to have students work through parallel, apparently different problems...
  29. ncbi request reprint The privileged status of prestigious terminology: impact of "medicalese" on clinical judgments
    Geoffrey R Norman
    McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
    Acad Med 78:S82-4. 2003
    ..Health professionals frequently use medical terminology like dyspnea or nasopharyngitis. These two studies examine how the use of medical terms affects the judgments of seriousness, prevalence, and disease; and diagnostic judgments...
  30. ncbi request reprint Non-analytical models of clinical reasoning: the role of experience
    Geoff Norman
    McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Med Educ 41:1140-5. 2007
    ..This paper aims to summarise the evidence supporting the role of experience-based, non-analytic reasoning (NAR) or pattern recognition as a central feature of expert medical diagnosis...
  31. ncbi request reprint Relation of distribution- and anchor-based approaches in interpretation of changes in health-related quality of life
    G R Norman
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Med Care 39:1039-47. 2001
    ....
  32. doi request reprint Dual processing and diagnostic errors
    Geoff Norman
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, ON, Canada
    Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 14:37-49. 2009
    ..Further, I review evidence that instructions directed at encouraging the clinician to explicitly use both strategies can lead to consistent reduction in error rates...
  33. ncbi request reprint What does two disciplines of scientific psychology have to say to medical education?
    Geoff Norman
    Program for Educational Research and Development, Room 1M7 Health Sciences Centre, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8N 3Z5, Canada
    Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 7:57-62. 2002
  34. pmc Problem-based learning makes a difference. But why?
    Geoffrey Norman
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont
    CMAJ 178:61-2. 2008
  35. pmc Research in medical education: three decades of progress
    Geoff Norman
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5
    BMJ 324:1560-2. 2002
  36. doi request reprint Do CIs give you confidence?
    Geoffrey R Norman
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, 1280 Main St W, MDCL 3519, Hamilton, ON, L8N3Z5, Canada
    Chest 141:17-9. 2012
    ..This article describes the conceptual basis for the P value and the CI. We show that both are derived from the same underlying concepts and provide useful, but similar information...
  37. doi request reprint Fifty years of medical education research: waves of migration
    Geoff Norman
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Med Educ 45:785-91. 2011
    ..As the field has matured, the nature of the questions posed and the disciplinary bases of its practitioners have evolved...
  38. doi request reprint Chaos, complexity and complicatedness: lessons from rocket science
    Geoff Norman
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Med Educ 45:549-59. 2011
    ....
  39. pmc A conceptual framework may be of limited value
    Geoff Norman
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada
    BMJ 329:1032. 2004
  40. ncbi request reprint Coordination of analytic and similarity-based processing strategies and expertise in dermatological diagnosis
    C Kulatunga-Moruzi
    Department of Psychology, McMaster University Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Teach Learn Med 13:110-6. 2001
    ..CONCLUSIONS: The relative reliance on analytic and similarity-based processes is amenable to instruction and dependent on expertise...
  41. ncbi request reprint Defensible assessment of the competency of the practicing physician
    J P Cunnington
    Phsician Review Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Acad Med 72:9-12. 1997
    ..The result of these changes in the assessment tools is a more standardized and structured program of assessing physicians' competencies...
  42. ncbi request reprint Knowledge and practices regarding tuberculosis: a survey of final-year medical students from Canada, India and Uganda
    J Emili
    Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Ontario, Canada
    Med Educ 35:530-6. 2001
    ..Tuberculosis is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide and is responsible for the largest number of deaths from a single infectious cause...
  43. ncbi request reprint Introducing progress testing in McMaster University's problem-based medical curriculum: psychometric properties and effect on learning
    J M Blake
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Acad Med 71:1002-7. 1996
    ..This paper reports on four years' experience with a progress test, the Personal Progress Index (PPI), at the McMaster University Faculty of Health Sciences...
  44. ncbi request reprint Issues in cognitive psychology: implications for professional education
    G Regehr
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine, Ontario, Canada
    Acad Med 71:988-1001. 1996
    ..Instead, experience with cases provides an alternative method of reasoning that is independent of, but equally useful to, analytical rules...
  45. ncbi request reprint Application of generalizability theory confirmed lower reliability of the standard gamble than the feeling thermometer
    Holger J Schunemann
    Department of Epidemiology, INFORMA Unit CLARITY Research Group, Italian National Cancer Institute Regina Elena, Via Elio Chianesi 53, 00144 Rome, Italy
    J Clin Epidemiol 60:1256-62. 2007
    ..Further, lack of interrater reliability may compromise the use of CMS in interpreting health state ratings. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of CMS ratings for the SG and the FT...
  46. ncbi request reprint Found in translation: the impact of familiar symptom descriptions on diagnosis in novices
    Meredith Young
    Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Med Educ 41:1146-51. 2007
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint Competence and cognitive difficulty in physicians: a follow-up study
    John Turnbull
    McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Acad Med 81:915-8. 2006
    ..The authors wished to determine whether such physicians had neuropsychological impairment sufficient to explain their incompetence and their failure to improve after remedial continuing medical education (CME)...
  48. ncbi request reprint Impact of a clinical scenario on accuracy of electrocardiogram interpretation
    R Hatala
    Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont, Canada
    J Gen Intern Med 14:126-9. 1999
    ....
  49. ncbi request reprint Comparison of the standard gamble, rating scale, AQLQ and SF-36 for measuring quality of life in asthma
    E F Juniper
    Dept of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University Faculty of Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Eur Respir J 18:38-44. 2001
    ..Poor correlation between the standard gamble and the rating scale indicates that utilities cannot be derived from rating scale data...
  50. ncbi request reprint The adult learner: a mythical species
    G R Norman
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Acad Med 74:886-9. 1999
    ..Uncritical reliance on the principles of adult learning may have detrimental consequences, particularly in the domain of maintenance of competence...
  51. ncbi request reprint Assessing the measurement properties of a clinical reasoning exercise
    T J Wood
    Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Teach Learn Med 12:196-200. 2000
    ....
  52. ncbi request reprint The paradox of evidence-based medicine. Commentary on Gupta (2003), A critical appraisal of evidence-based medicine: some ethical considerations. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 9, 111-121
    Geoff Norman
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    J Eval Clin Pract 9:129-32. 2003
  53. ncbi request reprint Interactive voice response to assess residents' laparoscopic skills: an instrument validation study
    Karen Fung Kee Fung
    Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 189:674-8. 2003
    ..The study was undertaken to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Interactive Voice Response (IVR) instrument to assess laparoscopic surgical skills of residents...
  54. ncbi request reprint Does clinical experience make up for failure to keep up to date?
    G R Norman
    McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Equine Vet J 39:319-21. 2007
  55. ncbi request reprint Patients undergoing knee surgery provided accurate ratings of preoperative quality of life and function 2 weeks after surgery
    Dianne Bryant
    School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Western Ontario, Elborn College, Room 1438, London, Ontario N6G 1H1, Canada
    J Clin Epidemiol 59:984-93. 2006
    ..To evaluate patients' ability to recall their preoperative self-reported quality of life, function, and general health 2 weeks postoperatively...
  56. ncbi request reprint Medical expertise and mashed potatoes
    Geoff Norman
    McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Med Educ 36:1167-8. 2002
  57. ncbi request reprint Impact of field of study, college and year on calculation of cumulative grade point average
    Carla Trail
    McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
    Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 13:253-61. 2008
    ..7 to 84.6; however it is not clear whether this reflects candidate ability or institutional policy, so attempts to correct for institution may be difficult...
  58. ncbi request reprint Multiple mini-interviews predict clerkship and licensing examination performance
    Harold I Reiter
    Department of Oncology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Med Educ 41:378-84. 2007
    ..The Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) has previously been shown to have a positive correlation with early medical school performance. Data have matured to allow comparison with clerkship evaluations and national licensing examinations...
  59. ncbi request reprint Virtual reality and brain anatomy: a randomised trial of e-learning instructional designs
    Anthony J Levinson
    McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Med Educ 41:495-501. 2007
    ..Computer-aided instruction is used increasingly in medical education and anatomy instruction with limited research evidence to guide its design and deployment...
  60. ncbi request reprint Validity of admissions measures in predicting performance outcomes: a comparison of those who were and were not accepted at McMaster
    Chan Kulatunga-Moruzi
    Department of Psychology, McMaster University, Hamilton ON, L8S 4K1, Canada
    Teach Learn Med 14:43-8. 2002
    ..Further, it leaves unanswered the question of how those applicants rejected by the process would fare had they been admitted...
  61. ncbi request reprint It all make sense: biomedical knowledge, causal connections and memory in the novice diagnostician
    Nicole N Woods
    Department of Surgery, The Wilson Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 2C4
    Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 12:405-15. 2007
    ..43%). Together, the studies suggest that knowledge of underlying causal mechanisms can aid student memory for diagnostic categories and that use of causal knowledge changes over time...
  62. ncbi request reprint The role of biomedical knowledge in diagnosis of difficult clinical cases
    Nicole N Woods
    Department of Surgery, The Wilson Centre, University of Toronto, 200 Elizabeth Street, Eaton South 1 565, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5G 2C4
    Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 12:417-26. 2007
    ..The results of the two studies provide additional support for the critical role of biomedical knowledge in diagnosis of difficult clinical cases...
  63. ncbi request reprint Validation of the SETOC instrument -- Student evaluation of teaching in outpatient clinics
    Rukhsana W Zuberi
    Department of Family Medicine, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, PO Box 3500, 74800, Karachi, Pakistan
    Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 12:55-69. 2007
    ....
  64. ncbi request reprint The relationship between interviewers' characteristics and ratings assigned during a multiple mini-interview
    Kevin W Eva
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Acad Med 79:602-9. 2004
    ..To assess the consistency of ratings assigned by health sciences faculty members relative to community members during an innovative admissions protocol called the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI)...
  65. ncbi request reprint Using comprehensive feature lists to bias medical diagnosis
    Chan Kulatunga-Moruzi
    Department of Psychology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 30:563-72. 2004
    ..Reasons that the initial consideration of a list of features, all of which are present in the photograph, would decrease diagnostic accuracy are discussed...
  66. ncbi request reprint An admissions OSCE: the multiple mini-interview
    Kevin W Eva
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Programme for Educational Research and Development, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Med Educ 38:314-26. 2004
    ....
  67. ncbi request reprint Self and peer assessment in tutorials: application of a relative-ranking model
    Harold I Reiter
    Department of Medicine, Health Sciences Centre, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
    Acad Med 77:1134-9. 2002
    ..This study tested the applicability of an innovative relative-ranking procedure to problem-based learning tutorials...
  68. ncbi request reprint Expert-novice differences in memory: a reformulation
    Kevin W Eva
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, T 13, Room 101, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4K1
    Teach Learn Med 14:257-63. 2002
    ..One of the most discriminating measures of expertise in multiple domains has been performance on memory tasks. In medicine, however, the relation between expertise and memory is more equivocal...
  69. ncbi request reprint A critical look at transition ratings
    Gordon H Guyatt
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Room 2C12, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    J Clin Epidemiol 55:900-8. 2002
    ..Investigators using transition scores should ensure their validity by exploring relationships with pre and post scores of corresponding domain scores...
  70. ncbi request reprint Is there any real virtue of virtual reality?: the minor role of multiple orientations in learning anatomy from computers
    Amit X Garg
    McMaster U niversity, 1280 Main Street, W Hamilton ON L8K 4T1, Canada
    Acad Med 77:S97-9. 2002
  71. ncbi request reprint Believing is seeing: the influence of a diagnostic hypothesis on the interpretation of clinical features
    Vicki R LeBlanc
    Center for Research in Education at the University Health Network, University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine, Ontario, Canada
    Acad Med 77:S67-9. 2002
  72. ncbi request reprint Methods to explain the clinical significance of health status measures
    Gordon H Guyatt
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University and Health Sciences Center, Hamilton, Ontario
    Mayo Clin Proc 77:371-83. 2002
    ..No single approach to interpretability is perfect. Use of multiple strategies is likely to enhance the interpretability of any particular instrument...
  73. ncbi request reprint Adapting the Key Features Examination for a clinical clerkship
    Rose Hatala
    Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Med Educ 36:160-5. 2002
    ..A written test of clinical decision-making, the Key Features Examination, was developed for use in clerkship...
  74. ncbi request reprint How can I know what I don't know? Poor self assessment in a well-defined domain
    Kevin W Eva
    Program for Educational Research and Development, Room 101, Building T 13, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada
    Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 9:211-24. 2004
    ..Previous test score was a much better predictor of current test performance than were individuals' expectations...
  75. ncbi request reprint The ability of the multiple mini-interview to predict preclerkship performance in medical school
    Kevin W Eva
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Programme for Educational Research and Development, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Acad Med 79:S40-2. 2004
    ..An innovative protocol, the Multiple Mini-Interview, has recently been shown to be feasible, acceptable, and reliable. This article presents a first assessment of the technique's validity...
  76. ncbi request reprint Using a sampling strategy to address psychometric challenges in tutorial-based assessments
    Kevin W Eva
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Program for Educational Research and Development, MDCL 3510, McMaster University, L8N 3Z5, Hamilton, ON, Canada
    Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 12:19-33. 2007
    ..The current study was performed in an attempt to assess the psychometric characteristics of tutorial-based evaluation upon adopting a multiple sampling approach that requires minimal recording of observations...
  77. ncbi request reprint Speed kills? Speed, accuracy, encapsulations and causal understanding
    Nicole N Woods
    The Wilson Centre, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Med Educ 40:973-9. 2006
    ....
  78. ncbi request reprint Innovations in problem-based learning: what can we learn from recent studies?
    Silvia Mamede
    Innovare Institute, Av Alvaro Correia, 455, 802 A, Fortaleza, CEP 60 165 230, Ceara, Brazil
    Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 11:403-22. 2006
    ..The contributions provided by the papers are discussed in the light of pertinent literature and also in relation to their companion articles in this issue when indicated...
  79. ncbi request reprint Standard setting in a small scale OSCE: a comparison of the Modified Borderline-Group Method and the Borderline Regression Method
    Timothy J Wood
    Medical Council of Canada and Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, K1G 3H7, ON, Ottawa, Canada
    Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 11:115-22. 2006
    ..The current study uses confidence intervals to analyze the precision of cut scores derived from both approaches when applied to a small scale OSCE...
  80. ncbi request reprint Validity of admissions measures in predicting performance outcomes: the contribution of cognitive and non-cognitive dimensions
    Chan Kulatunga-Moruzi
    Department of Psychology, McMaster University, Hamilton ON, L8S 4K1, Canada
    Teach Learn Med 14:34-42. 2002
    ..g. interpersonal, communication, ethical) remain elusive, in part because of the absence of a sound criterion measure...
  81. ncbi request reprint Heuristics and biases--a biased perspective on clinical reasoning
    Kevin W Eva
    McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada
    Med Educ 39:870-2. 2005
  82. ncbi request reprint Clinical experience and quality of health care
    Geoffrey R Norman
    Ann Intern Med 143:85-6; author reply 86-7; discussion 87. 2005
  83. ncbi request reprint Does clinical experience make up for failure to keep up to date?
    Geoffrey R Norman
    McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    ACP J Club 142:A8-9. 2005
  84. pmc Need for expertise based randomised controlled trials
    P J Devereaux
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street, West Hamilton ON, Canada L8N 3Z5
    BMJ 330:88. 2005
  85. ncbi request reprint The value of basic science in clinical diagnosis: creating coherence among signs and symptoms
    Nicole N Woods
    Department of Psychology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada
    Med Educ 39:107-12. 2005
    ..We investigated whether learning basic science mechanisms may have mnemonic value in helping students remember signs and symptoms, in comparison with learning the relation between symptoms and diagnoses directly...
  86. ncbi request reprint Limiting the playing field: does restricting the number of possible diagnoses reduce errors due to diagnosis-specific feature identification?
    Vicki R LeBlanc
    University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine, Centre for Research in Education at the University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Med Educ 38:17-24. 2004
    ....
  87. ncbi request reprint The value of basic science in clinical diagnosis
    Nicole N Woods
    University of Toronto, Wilson Centre, 200 Elizabeth Street, Eaton South 1 565, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 2C4
    Acad Med 81:S124-7. 2006
    ..There has been no experimental demonstration of its value in helping students recall and organize clinical information. This study examines how causal knowledge may lead to better recall and diagnostic skill over time...
  88. ncbi request reprint "Precision" and "accuracy": two terms that are neither
    David L Streiner
    Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care, Department of Psychiatry, Kunin Lunenfeld Applied Research Unit, University of Toronto, 3560 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario M6A 2E1, Canada
    J Clin Epidemiol 59:327-30. 2006
    ..In some publications, the terms "precision" and "accuracy" are used as if they were synonyms for "reliability" and "validity."..