S G Gauthier
Affiliation: McGill University
- Current and future management of Alzheimer's diseaseSerge Gauthier
McGill Center for Studies in Aging, Douglas Institute for Mental Health, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Alzheimers Dement 4:S48-50. 2008..There are multiple research opportunities for better understanding and treatment of this condition. Ongoing cohort studies developed under Leon Thal's leadership will facilitate this process...
- Effects of rivastigmine on common symptomatology of Alzheimer's disease (EXPLORE)Serge Gauthier
McGill Centre for Studies of Aging, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Curr Med Res Opin 26:1149-60. 2010..To evaluate, in a real-world clinical setting, the efficacy of rivastigmine in the management of six symptoms commonly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
- Benefits of combined cholinesterase inhibitor and memantine treatment in moderate-severe Alzheimer's diseaseSerge Gauthier
McGill Centre for Studies in Aging, Alzheimer s Disease Research Unit, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Electronic address
Alzheimers Dement 9:326-31. 2013..Clinical studies and post hoc analyses have investigated the use of combination therapy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We review the evidence for the short- and long-term efficacy of combination therapy in AD...
- A 10-year perspective on donepezilLaksanun Cheewakriengkrai
McGill Center for Studies in Aging, Montreal, Canada
Expert Opin Pharmacother 14:331-8. 2013..If well tolerated, donepezil should be continued in the severe stages of AD as long as the patient appears to benefit from a slower clinical decline...
- Prevention strategies for Alzheimer's diseaseSerge Gauthier
McGill Center for Studies in Aging, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Transl Neurodegener 1:13. 2012..This will be done first in carriers of dominantly inherited early onset AD. As this research takes place networks of memory clinics must prepare to transfer new knowledge to persons interested in a preventive approach to AD...
- Validation of the relevant outcome scale for Alzheimer's disease: a novel multidomain assessment for daily medical practiceVjera A Holthoff
Old Age Psychiatry and Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, University of Technology, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden 01307, Germany
Alzheimers Res Ther 3:27. 2011..The validity and reliability of ROSA as well as sensitivity to changes due to intervention were examined in an open-label, single-arm, multicenter clinical study in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
- Collaborative research between academia and industry using a large clinical trial database: a case study in Alzheimer's diseaseRoy Jones
Research Institute for the Care of Older People, Royal United Hospital, Combe Park, Bath BA1 3NG, UK
Trials 12:233. 2011..We present here a successful example of this type of collaboration in the field of dementia...
- Review of Alzheimer's disease scales: is there a need for a new multi-domain scale for therapy evaluation in medical practice?Philippe Robert
Memory Center, CHU University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, hopital de Cimiez, 4 av Victoria, 06000 Nice, France
Alzheimers Res Ther 2:24. 2010....
- Effects of memantine on behavioural symptoms in Alzheimer's disease patients: an analysis of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) data of two randomised, controlled studiesS Gauthier
MCSA Alzheimer s Disease Research Unit, McGill Centre for Studies in Aging, Quebec, Canada
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 20:459-64. 2005..We have analysed the databases of two randomised studies with regard to the effects of memantine treatment on behavioural symptoms, measured using the 12-item version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI)...
- EXACT: rivastigmine improves the high prevalence of attention deficits and mood and behaviour symptoms in Alzheimer's diseaseS Gauthier
Alzheimer s Disease Research Unit, McGill Centre for Studies of Aging, Montreal, QC, Canada
Int J Clin Pract 61:886-95. 2007..These real-life findings further demonstrate the proven efficacy of rivastigmine in patients with mild-to-moderate AD...
- Mild cognitive impairment is not a clinical entity and should not be treatedSerge Gauthier
Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University and Alzheimer Disease Research Unit, McGill Centre for Studies in Aging, , , Canada
Arch Neurol 62:1164-6; discussion 1167. 2005
- Realizing early treatment benefits in dementiaS G Gauthier
Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders Unit, McGill Centre for Studies in Aging, Douglas Hospital, Verdun PQ, , Canada
Eur J Neurol 12:1-2. 2005
- Alzheimer's disease: the benefits of early treatmentS G Gauthier
Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders Unit, McGill Centre for Studies in Aging, Douglas Hospital, Verdun PQ, Québec H4H 1RS, Canada
Eur J Neurol 12:11-6. 2005..Results of early studies of donepezil in MCI are promising and suggest directions for further research...
- Does vascular MCI progress at a different rate than does amnestic MCI?Serge Gauthier
McGill Centre for Studies in Aging, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Int Psychogeriatr 15:257-9. 2003..The issues to be resolved prior to the use of a survival design for conversion from vascular MCI to dementia will be discussed...
- Advances in the pharmacotherapy of Alzheimer's diseaseSerge Gauthier
Alzheimer's Disease Research Unit at the McGill Centre for Studies in Aging, McGill University, Montreal, Que
CMAJ 166:616-23. 2002
- A large, naturalistic, community-based study of rivastigmine in mild-to-moderate AD: the EXTEND StudySerge Gauthier
McGill Centre for Studies in Aging, Douglas Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Curr Med Res Opin 22:2251-65. 2006....
- Mild cognitive impairmentSerge Gauthier
McGill Center for Studies in Aging, Douglas Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Lancet 367:1262-70. 2006..Other definitions and subtypes of mild cognitive impairment need to be studied as potential prodromes of Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia...
- Pharmacotherapy of Parkinson disease dementia and Lewy body dementiaSerge Gauthier
McGill Center for Studies in Aging, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Front Neurol Neurosci 24:135-9. 2009..Primary care practitioners play an essential role in the diagnosis and management of patients with these conditions...
- Improvement in behavioural symptoms in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease by memantine: a pooled data analysisS Gauthier
MCSA Alzheimer s Disease Research Unit, McGill Centre for Studies in Aging, Quebec, Canada
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 23:537-45. 2008..Behavioural disturbances are a common and distressing aspect of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This pooled analysis evaluated the specific benefits of memantine on behavioural disturbances in patients with moderate to severe AD...
- Functional, cognitive and behavioral effects of donepezil in patients with moderate Alzheimer's diseaseS Gauthier
Curr Med Res Opin 18:347-54. 2002..To investigate the efficacy and safety of donepezil in a subgroup of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) of moderate severity from a previous trial...
- Efficacy of donepezil on behavioral symptoms in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's diseaseSerge Gauthier
Alzheimer s Disease Research Unit, McGill Centre for Studies in Aging, Verdun, Quebec, Canada
Int Psychogeriatr 14:389-404. 2002..This subanalysis of a large, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examined the prevalence of behavioral symptoms in moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the effect of treatment with donepezil...
- Can we do better in developing new drugs for Alzheimer's disease?Serge Gauthier
Department of Psychiatry, Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill Center for Studies in Aging, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Alzheimers Dement 5:489-91. 2009....
- Strategies for continued successful treatment of Alzheimer's disease: switching cholinesterase inhibitorsSerge Gauthier
McGill Centre for Studies in Aging, Verdun, Quebec, Canada
Curr Med Res Opin 19:707-14. 2003..The panel also aimed to reach consensus on 'whom to switch', 'when to switch' and 'how to switch'. The key findings from that meeting are reported in this review...
- Effects of donepezil on activities of daily living: integrated analysis of patient data from studies in mild, moderate and severe Alzheimer's diseaseSerge Gauthier
McGill Center for Studies in Aging, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Douglas Hospital, Verdun, QC, Canada
Int Psychogeriatr 22:973-83. 2010....
- Management of behavioral problems in Alzheimer's diseaseSerge Gauthier
Alzheimer s Disease and Related Disorders Unit, McGill Center for Studies in Aging, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, Canada
Int Psychogeriatr 22:346-72. 2010..Pharmacological treatment options, such as antipsychotics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, need careful consideration of the benefits and limitations of each drug class...
- [Treatment of Alzheimer's disease: general methodological aspects]S Gauthier
Unité de recherche sur la maladie d Alzheimer, centre McGill d études sur le vieillissement, Quebec, Canada H4H 1R3
Rev Neurol (Paris) 160:261-4. 2004..A preventive approach based on individual risk assessment may be possible, which will increase the number of consultations for neurologists in the near future...
- Clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia associated with Parkinson's diseaseMurat Emre
Department of Neurology, Behavioral Neurology and Movement Disorders Unit, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
Mov Disord 22:1689-707; quiz 1837. 2007..Based on the characteristic features associated with this condition, clinical diagnostic criteria for probable and possible PD-D are proposed...
- Research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: revising the NINCDS-ADRDA criteriaBruno Dubois
INSERM U610, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris, France
Lancet Neurol 6:734-46. 2007..Validation studies in existing and prospective cohorts are needed to advance these criteria and optimise their sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy...
- Candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms from a genomewide association study of Alzheimer diseaseHao Li
GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
Arch Neurol 65:45-53. 2008..To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with risk and age at onset of Alzheimer disease (AD) in a genomewide association study of 469 438 SNPs...
- Outcomes for assessment of symptomatic and stabilization/disease modifying drugsSerge Gauthier
Alzheimer Disease Research Unit, McGill Centre for Studies in Aging, Verdun, Quebec, Canada
Can J Neurol Sci 34:S23-6. 2007..Delaying progression to disease milestones may offer additional validity to these studies. It is unclear if biological and neuroimaging markers will add to the clinical evidence...
- Clinical trials in Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodiesRichard Camicioli
Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital, Edmonton, AB, Canada
Can J Neurol Sci 34:S109-17. 2007..At present PDD and DLB are distinct entities by definition. Future studies, including clinical trials and biomarker studies, will help to further define the clinical and therapeutic implications of this distinction...
- Current evidence for subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) as the pre-mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage of subsequently manifest Alzheimer's diseaseBarry Reisberg
Int Psychogeriatr 20:1-16. 2008
- Predictors of deterioration in health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease: results from the DATATOP trialConnie Marras
Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Mov Disord 23:653-9; quiz 776. 2008..Our focus in clinical care needs to be broadened beyond assessing and treating Parkinsonism, recognizing the impact of mood, cognition and function on HRQOL...
- Cognitive complaint in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's diseaseFrancis Clément
Centre de recherche de l Institut universitaire de geriatrie de Montreal, Montreal, Canada
J Int Neuropsychol Soc 14:222-32. 2008....
- Task switching capacities in persons with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairmentSylvie Belleville
Research Center, Institut Universitaire de Geriatrie de Montreal, Canada
Neuropsychologia 46:2225-33. 2008..The pattern across condition is coherent with a continuum between those two clinical groups...
- The association between depressive and cognitive symptoms in amnestic mild cognitive impairmentCarol Hudon
Ecole de Psychologie, Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada
Int Psychogeriatr 20:710-23. 2008..Depressive symptoms are frequently observed in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, little is known regarding the cognitive characteristics of this important subgroup...
- Transition from cognitively impaired not demented to Alzheimer's disease: an analysis of changes in functional abilities in a dementia clinic cohortGing Yuek R Hsiung
Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 25:483-90. 2008..We evaluated whether impairments on the Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD) and Functional Rating Scale (FRS) can predict progression to AD...
- Galantamine demonstrates efficacy and safety in elderly patients with Alzheimer diseaseJan Marcusson
Department of Geriatric Medicine, Linkoping University Hospital, Linkoping, Sweden
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 17:S86-91. 2003..Prescribing approved therapies such as galantamine for older patients with AD is recommended...
- Diagnostic procedures for Parkinson's disease dementia: recommendations from the movement disorder society task forceBruno Dubois
INSERM UPMC UMRS 610, Federation of Neurology, AP HP, Salpêtrière Hospital Université Paris6, Paris, France
Mov Disord 22:2314-24. 2007..We accept, however, that further validation of certain tests and modifications in the recommended cut off values will be required through future studies...
- Longitudinal MRI findings from the vitamin E and donepezil treatment study for MCIClifford R Jack
Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Neurobiol Aging 29:1285-95. 2008..000). Results of this study support the feasibility of using MRI as an outcome measure of disease progression in multi center therapeutic trials for MCI...
- Disease progression in vascular cognitive impairment: cognitive, functional and behavioural outcomes in the Consortium to Investigate Vascular Impairment of Cognition (CIVIC) cohort studyKenneth Rockwood
Dalhousie University, Canada
J Neurol Sci 252:106-12. 2007..We compared cognitive, functional, and behavioural outcomes in patients with VCI to patients with no cognitive impairment (NCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
- Efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients with more severe Alzheimer's disease: a subgroup analysis from a randomized, placebo-controlled trialHoward Feldman
Division of Neurology, University of British Columbia, Clinic for Alzheimer s Disease and Related Disorders, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 20:559-69. 2005..Additional analyses examined whether donepezil's treatment effects were consistent across the full range of baseline AD severity studied (sMMSE score 5-17)...
- Drugs for Alzheimer's disease and related dementiasSerge Gauthier
BMJ 330:857-8. 2005
- Treatment of vascular dementia--evidence from clinical trials with cholinesterase inhibitorsTimo Erkinjuntti
Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
J Neurol Sci 226:63-6. 2004..Controlled clinical trials with donepezil, galantamine and rivastigmine in VaD, as well as in patients with AD plus CVD, have demonstrated improvements in cognition, behavior and activities of daily living...
- The benefits of apolipoprotein E epsilon4 screening to researchSerge Gauthier
Alzheimer's Disease Research Unit, McGill Centre for Studies in Aging, Verdun, Que
CMAJ 171:881. 2004
- Treatment of vascular dementia-evidence from clinical trials with cholinesterase inhibitorsTimo Erkinjuntti
Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland
Neurol Res 26:603-5. 2004..Controlled clinical trials with donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine in VaD, as well as in patients with AD plus CVD, have demonstrated improvement in cognition, behavior and activities of daily living...
- Emerging therapies for vascular dementia and vascular cognitive impairmentTimo Erkinjuntti
Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Stroke 35:1010-7. 2004..CONCLUSIONS: From a public health viewpoint, recognition of VCI before the development of dementia and correction of vascular burden on the brain may lead to a global decrease of incident dementia...
- Mild cognitive impairment can be distinguished from Alzheimer disease and normal aging for clinical trialsMichael Grundman
Alzheimer s Disease Cooperative Study, Department of Neurosciences, University of California San Diego, 8950 Villa La Jolla Drive, Suite 227, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Arch Neurol 61:59-66. 2004..The Memory Impairment Study (MIS) is a multicenter clinical trial in patients with MCI designed to evaluate whether vitamin E or donepezil is effective at delaying the time to a clinical diagnosis of AD...
- Dementia with Lewy bodiesIan McKeith
Institute for Ageing and Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
Lancet Neurol 3:19-28. 2004..Clear guidance on the management of DLB is urgently needed. Virtually unrecognised 20 years ago, DLB could within this decade be one of the most treatable neurodegenerative disorders of late life...
- The Consortium to Investigate Vascular Impairment of Cognition: methods and first findingsKenneth Rockwood
Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada
Can J Neurol Sci 30:237-43. 2003..Even for patients who do, the proportion identified with VaD varies widely. Criteria based on empirical analyses need to be developed and validated...
- Alzheimer's disease: the pharmacological pathwayHerve Allain
Laboratoire de Pharmacologie Experimentale et Clinique, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes I, CS 34317, 35043 Rennes Cedex, France
Fundam Clin Pharmacol 17:419-28. 2003..The rapidity at which these compounds will be at our disposal is highly dependent on the policy of the pharmaceutical companies...
- Vascular cognitive impairmentJohn T O'Brien
Institute for Aging and Health, Newcastle General Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
Lancet Neurol 2:89-98. 2003..Clinical trials in vascular cognitive impairment are in their infancy but support the value of therapeutic interventions for symptomatic treatment...
- Efficacy of donepezil on maintenance of activities of daily living in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease and the effect on caregiver burdenHoward Feldman
Division of Neurology, UBC Hospital, Clinic for Alzheimer s Disease and Related Disorders, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
J Am Geriatr Soc 51:737-44. 2003....
- Clinical and radiographic subtypes of vascular cognitive impairment in a clinic-based cohort studyKenneth Rockwood
Dalhousie University, Canada
J Neurol Sci 240:7-14. 2006..There is a need for empirical studies to define criteria for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) subtypes. In this paper, we report the predictive validity of a subtype classification scheme based on clinical and radiographic features...
- Emergent complications following donepezil switchover to galantamine in three cases of dementia with Lewy bodiesNadeem H Bhanji
Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Allan Memorial Institute, McGill University Health Centre, 1025 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 1A1
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 17:552-5. 2005..In this study, complications (insomnia, dyskinesias, agitation, and delirium) occurred in three patients switched from donepezil to galantamine. The authors describe evidence-based recommendations for ChEI switchover in DLB...
- Progress in clinical neurosciences: Canadian guidelines for the development of antidementia therapies: a conceptual summaryHoward H Feldman
Division of Neurology, University of British Columbia, Clinic for Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Can J Neurol Sci 33:6-26. 2006..They are intended to provide a common point of reference and guidance in Canada for therapeutic development of the dementias...
- Cognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia: potential benefits of cholinesterase inhibitor adjunctive therapyFlorian Ferreri
Alzheimer's Disease Research Unit, McGill Centre for Studies in Aging, Douglas Hospital, Verdun, , Que
J Psychiatry Neurosci 31:369-76. 2006..Nevertheless, further studies with appropriate trial designs and outcome measures in homogenous schizophrenia populations are warranted...
- Working memory and control of attention in persons with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairmentSylvie Belleville
Research CenterInstitut Universitaire de Geriatrie de Montreal, Montreal, PQ, Canada
Neuropsychology 21:458-69. 2007..These data suggest that control of attention tasks can track AD at a preclinical stage and that impairment increases gradually during the preclinical phase of AD...
- Improvement of episodic memory in persons with mild cognitive impairment and healthy older adults: evidence from a cognitive intervention programSylvie Belleville
Institut Universitaire de Geriatrie de Montreal, Montreal, Canada
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 22:486-99. 2006..These results suggest that persons with MCI can improve their performance on episodic memory when provided with cognitive training...
- Efficacy of galantamine in probable vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease combined with cerebrovascular disease: a randomised trialTimo Erkinjuntti
Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Lancet 359:1283-90. 2002..We investigated the effects of galantamine in patients with a diagnosis of probable vascular dementia or Alzheimer's disease combined with cerebrovascular disease...
- Use of memantine to treat Alzheimer's diseaseSerge Gauthier
CMAJ 175:501-2. 2006
- Memory for gist and detail information in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairmentCarol Hudon
Centre de recherche de l Institut universitaire de geriatrie de Montreal, PQ, Canada
Neuropsychology 20:566-77. 2006..The discrepancy in MCI participants might be explained by differences in the degree of sensitivity of the experimental procedures and/or by the differences in the cognitive processes these procedures assessed...
- Pharmacotherapy of Alzheimer diseaseDennis Seow
Alzheimer Disease Research Unit, McGill Centre for Studies in Aging, Montreal, Quebec
Can J Psychiatry 52:620-9. 2007..To systematically review published clinical trials of the pharmacotherapy of Alzheimer disease (AD)...
- Recognition and management of neuropsychiatric complications in Parkinson's diseaseFlorian Ferreri
Alzheimer's Disease Research Unit, McGill Centre for Studies in Aging, Douglas Hospital, Verdun, Quebec, Canada
CMAJ 175:1545-52. 2006..In this article, we review the key clinical features of neuropsychiatric complications in Parkinson's disease as well as what is known about their epidemiologic characteristics, risk factors, pathophysiologic features and management...
- Expression of melanotransferrin isoforms in human serum: relevance to Alzheimer's diseaseRichard R Desrosiers
Laboratoire de Medecine Moleculaire, Hopital Sainte Justine, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C P 8888, Succursale Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3P8
Biochem J 374:463-71. 2003..These data also indicate that human serum melanotransferrin levels are unchanged in subjects with Alzheimer's disease...
- Reliability and validity of the Safety Assessment Scale for people with dementia living at homeCourval Louise de Poulin
Department of Family Medicine, McGill University, Cote des Neiges, Montreal
Can J Occup Ther 73:67-75. 2006..With the recent funding changes in health care services, more seniors with dementia are cared for in their homes and the nature of their condition puts them at higher risk for accidents and injuries...
- Cholinesterase inhibitors in late-stage Alzheimer's diseaseSerge Gauthier
Lancet Neurol 5:468-9. 2006
- REM sleep behavior disorder and REM sleep without atonia in probable Alzheimer diseaseJean Francois Gagnon
Centre d Etude du Sommeil et des Rythmes Biologiques, Hopital du Sacre Coeur de Montreal, Qudbec, Canada
Sleep 29:1321-5. 2006..To determine the frequency of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and REM sleep without atonia among patients with Alzheimer disease and control subjects...
- Managing discontinuation syndrome in patients with dementiaSerge Gauthier
McGill Center for Studies in Aging, , Que
J Psychiatry Neurosci 31:72. 2006
- A roadmap for the prevention of dementia: the inaugural Leon Thal SymposiumZaven S Khachaturian
Alzheimers Dement 4:156-63. 2008
- Revised research diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's diseaseSerge Gauthier
Lancet Neurol 7:668-70. 2008
- Alzhemed: a potential treatment for Alzheimer's diseasePaul S Aisen
Department of Neurology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057, USA
Curr Alzheimer Res 4:473-8. 2007..These findings will be discussed in the context of two large-scale randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase III clinical trials that are currently being conducted to test the long-term safety and efficacy of Alzhemed...