A F Chambers

Summary

Affiliation: London Regional Cancer Centre
Country: Canada

Publications

  1. pmc Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis. Clinical implications of experimental studies on metastatic inefficiency
    A F Chambers
    London Regional Cancer Centre, London, Ontario, Canada
    Breast Cancer Res 2:400-7. 2000
  2. ncbi request reprint The metastatic process: basic research and clinical implications
    A F Chambers
    London Regional Cancer Centre, and Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Oncol Res 11:161-8. 1999
  3. ncbi request reprint Clinical targets for anti-metastasis therapy
    A F Chambers
    Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, Canada
    Adv Cancer Res 79:91-121. 2000
  4. ncbi request reprint Dissemination and growth of cancer cells in metastatic sites
    Ann F Chambers
    London Regional Cancer Centre, London, Ontario N6A 4L6, Canada
    Nat Rev Cancer 2:563-72. 2002
  5. ncbi request reprint Preclinical assessment of anti-cancer therapeutic strategies using in vivo videomicroscopy
    A F Chambers
    Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Cancer Metastasis Rev 17:263-9. 1998
  6. ncbi request reprint Osteopontin(OPN)-induced increase in human mammary epithelial cell invasiveness is urokinase (uPA)-dependent
    A B Tuck
    Department of Pathology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 70:197-204. 2001
  7. ncbi request reprint Osteopontin-induced, integrin-dependent migration of human mammary epithelial cells involves activation of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Met)
    A B Tuck
    Department of Pathology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    J Cell Biochem 78:465-75. 2000
  8. ncbi request reprint Tumour metastasis to the liver, and the roles of proteinases and adhesion molecules: new concepts from in vivo videomicroscopy
    A C Groom
    Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London
    Can J Gastroenterol 13:733-43. 1999
  9. ncbi request reprint Comparative analysis of two alternative first exons reported for the mouse osteopontin gene
    E I Behrend
    London Regional Cancer Centre, Ontario, Canada
    J Biol Chem 268:11172-5. 1993
  10. ncbi request reprint Solitary cancer cells as a possible source of tumour dormancy?
    G N Naumov
    Medical Biophysics Department, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C1
    Semin Cancer Biol 11:271-6. 2001

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications59

  1. pmc Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis. Clinical implications of experimental studies on metastatic inefficiency
    A F Chambers
    London Regional Cancer Centre, London, Ontario, Canada
    Breast Cancer Res 2:400-7. 2000
    ..This understanding will be of use in guiding clinical studies to assess the significance of isolated tumour cells and micrometastases in cancer patients...
  2. ncbi request reprint The metastatic process: basic research and clinical implications
    A F Chambers
    London Regional Cancer Centre, and Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Oncol Res 11:161-8. 1999
    ....
  3. ncbi request reprint Clinical targets for anti-metastasis therapy
    A F Chambers
    Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, Canada
    Adv Cancer Res 79:91-121. 2000
    ..A variety of therapeutic approaches to target this phase are under active development, including inhibition of angiogenesis or signal transduction pathways needed to support the growth of metastatic cells...
  4. ncbi request reprint Dissemination and growth of cancer cells in metastatic sites
    Ann F Chambers
    London Regional Cancer Centre, London, Ontario N6A 4L6, Canada
    Nat Rev Cancer 2:563-72. 2002
    ..Inhibition of the growth of metastases in secondary sites offers a promising approach for cancer therapy...
  5. ncbi request reprint Preclinical assessment of anti-cancer therapeutic strategies using in vivo videomicroscopy
    A F Chambers
    Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Cancer Metastasis Rev 17:263-9. 1998
    ....
  6. ncbi request reprint Osteopontin(OPN)-induced increase in human mammary epithelial cell invasiveness is urokinase (uPA)-dependent
    A B Tuck
    Department of Pathology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 70:197-204. 2001
    ..These data thus provide direct evidence that OPN-induced invasion and migration of these cells requires uPA...
  7. ncbi request reprint Osteopontin-induced, integrin-dependent migration of human mammary epithelial cells involves activation of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Met)
    A B Tuck
    Department of Pathology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    J Cell Biochem 78:465-75. 2000
    ..OPN-induced cell migration is thus mediated by different cell surface integrins in MEC lines representing different stages of progression, and involves activation of the HGF receptor, Met...
  8. ncbi request reprint Tumour metastasis to the liver, and the roles of proteinases and adhesion molecules: new concepts from in vivo videomicroscopy
    A C Groom
    Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London
    Can J Gastroenterol 13:733-43. 1999
    ..Key targets against which future therapeutic strategies should be directed include the initiation and maintenance of growth of micrometastases, and the activation of dormant solitary cells...
  9. ncbi request reprint Comparative analysis of two alternative first exons reported for the mouse osteopontin gene
    E I Behrend
    London Regional Cancer Centre, Ontario, Canada
    J Biol Chem 268:11172-5. 1993
    ..is present in murine genomic DNA but is not found in cytoplasmic message. Our results also show that OPN RNA molecules from mouse fibroblasts and macrophages do not differ significantly in the regions tested...
  10. ncbi request reprint Solitary cancer cells as a possible source of tumour dormancy?
    G N Naumov
    Medical Biophysics Department, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C1
    Semin Cancer Biol 11:271-6. 2001
    ..Here we review these in vivo techniques and findings. We also discuss the potential clinical implications if dormant solitary cells exist in appreciable numbers in cancer patients...
  11. ncbi request reprint The functional and clinical roles of osteopontin in cancer and metastasis
    K A Furger
    London Regional Cancer Centre, Ontario, Canada
    Curr Mol Med 1:621-32. 2001
    ..We also will discuss recent clinical evidence that suggests that OPN is not only associated with several tumor types, but that levels of OPN in cancer patients' blood or tumors may provide prognostic information...
  12. ncbi request reprint Identification of a serum-inducible messenger RNA (5B10) as the mouse homologue of calcyclin: tissue distribution and expression in metastatic, ras-transformed NIH 3T3 cells
    X J Guo
    Cancer Research Laboratory, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Cell Growth Differ 1:333-8. 1990
    ..In addition, high 5B10 mRNA levels were associated with metastatic ability in a series of ras-transformed cells, in proportion to levels of ras p21 expressed by the cells, implicating 5B10 even more deeply in carcinogenesis...
  13. ncbi request reprint Tumor angiogenesis predicts recurrence in invasive colorectal cancer when controlled for Dukes staging
    C J Engel
    Department of Surgery, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Am J Surg Pathol 20:1260-5. 1996
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Critical steps in hematogenous metastasis: an overview
    A F Chambers
    London Regional Cancer Centre, London, Ontario, Canada
    Surg Oncol Clin N Am 10:243-55, vii. 2001
    ....
  15. ncbi request reprint Site-directed mutagenesis of the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid sequence in osteopontin destroys cell adhesion and migration functions
    J W Xuan
    London Regional Cancer Centre, Ontario, Canada
    J Cell Biochem 57:680-90. 1995
    ..Together these results suggest that the conserved RGD sequence in OPN is required for the majority of the protein's cell attachment and migration-stimulating functions...
  16. ncbi request reprint A human promyelocyte mRNA transiently induced by TPA is homologous to yeast IPP isomerase
    J W Xuan
    Cancer Research Laboratory, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Genomics 20:129-31. 1994
    ..Sequence analysis revealed that this cDNA was likely a human homolog of yeast isopentenyl diphosphate:dimethylallyl diphosphate isomerase, an enzyme important for isoprenoid synthesis and the prenylation of proteins such as ras p21...
  17. ncbi request reprint Changing views of the role of matrix metalloproteinases in metastasis
    A F Chambers
    Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, and London Regional Cancer Centre, Canada
    J Natl Cancer Inst 89:1260-70. 1997
    ..Further clarification of the mechanisms by which MMPs regulate growth of primary and metastatic tumors will be important in the development of novel therapeutic strategies against metastases...
  18. ncbi request reprint Osteopontin expression in a group of lymph node negative breast cancer patients
    A B Tuck
    London Regional Cancer Centre, London Health Sciences Centre, Department of Pathology, University of Western Ontario, Canada
    Int J Cancer 79:502-8. 1998
    ..The results of this pilot study thus suggest that the ability of breast cancer cells to either synthesize OPN or to bind and sequester OPN from the microenvironment may be associated with tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis...
  19. ncbi request reprint The role of osteopontin in breast cancer: clinical and experimental studies
    A B Tuck
    Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 6:419-29. 2001
    ..g. uPA). We also summarize clinical studies that show that OPN levels in tumors and blood are elevated in women with metastatic breast cancer and may offer promise as prognostic markers in breast cancer...
  20. pmc Plasma osteopontin as a biomarker of prostate cancer aggression: relationship to risk category and treatment response
    J W Thoms
    Departments of Radiation Oncology, Surgery and Biostatistics, University of Toronto and Ontario Cancer Institute Princess Margaret Hospital University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Br J Cancer 107:840-6. 2012
    ..This study aims to assess whether plasma osteopontin was a biomarker of increasing progression within prostate cancer (PCa) prognostic groups and whether it reflected treatment response to local and systemic therapies...
  21. ncbi request reprint Volume measurement variability in three-dimensional high-frequency ultrasound images of murine liver metastases
    L A Wirtzfeld
    Biomedical Engineering Graduate Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B9, Canada
    Phys Med Biol 51:2367-81. 2006
    ..These results enable design of more efficient imaging studies by using the measured variability to estimate the time required to observe a significant change in tumour volume...
  22. ncbi request reprint Alternative splicing of PSP94 (prostatic secretory protein of 94 amino acids) mRNA in prostate tissue
    J W Xuan
    Department of Surgery, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Oncogene 11:1041-7. 1995
    ..Our results suggest the possible existence of a novel PSP protein that originates from alternative splicing of PSP94 mRNA in urogenital tissues...
  23. ncbi request reprint Osteopontin expression in salivary gland tumours
    M R Darling
    Department of Pathology, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, Room 4015 DSB, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C1
    Oral Oncol 42:363-9. 2006
    ..The results of this study indicate that OPN expression is present in normal salivary gland tissue, and is increased in certain salivary gland tumours, but further investigation is necessary to clarify its role...
  24. doi request reprint New clinical and experimental approaches for studying tumor dormancy: does tumor dormancy offer a therapeutic target?
    Paul Goss
    Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    APMIS 116:552-68. 2008
    ..A better understanding of mechanisms responsible for tumor dormancy and recurrence will be important for improving care of patients at risk for late-developing metastases...
  25. ncbi request reprint Therapeutic targets for antimetastatic therapy
    Benjamin D Hedley
    Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, N6A 4L6, Canada
    Expert Opin Ther Targets 8:527-36. 2004
    ..This review discusses potential biological targets, as defined by the steps in the metastatic process, for antimetastatic therapies and provides examples of clinical strategies for preventing or treating successful metastasis...
  26. ncbi request reprint In vivo videomicroscopy reveals differential effects of the vascular-targeting agent ZD6126 and the anti-angiogenic agent ZD6474 on vascular function in a liver metastasis model
    Hemanth J Varghese
    Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
    Angiogenesis 7:157-64. 2004
    ..Understanding differences in the modes of action of VTAs and anti-angiogenic agents will be important in optimizing their clinical application and in developing appropriate combination strategies...
  27. ncbi request reprint Dormancy of solitary metastatic cells
    Jason L Townson
    Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario and the London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario, Canada
    Cell Cycle 5:1744-50. 2006
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint The role of apoptosis in tumor progression and metastasis
    Jason L Townson
    Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada N6A 4L6
    Curr Mol Med 3:631-42. 2003
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint Persistence of solitary mammary carcinoma cells in a secondary site: a possible contributor to dormancy
    George N Naumov
    Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5C1 Canada
    Cancer Res 62:2162-8. 2002
    ..If such cells are present in patients, they could contribute to tumor recurrence and would not be susceptible to current therapeutic strategies targeting proliferating cells...
  30. ncbi request reprint Breast cancer metastasis progression as revealed by intravital videomicroscopy
    Ian C MacDonald
    Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON, N6A 5C1, Canada
    Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 6:1271-9. 2006
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint Tumor dormancy and the role of metastasis suppressor genes in regulating ectopic growth
    Benjamin D Hedley
    University of Western Ontario, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, London Regional Cancer Program, Department of Oncology, London, Ontario, Canada
    Future Oncol 2:627-41. 2006
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint In vivo MRI of cancer cell fate at the single-cell level in a mouse model of breast cancer metastasis to the brain
    Chris Heyn
    Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada
    Magn Reson Med 56:1001-10. 2006
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint In vivo inhibition of growth of human tumor lines by flavonoid fractions from cranberry extract
    Peter J Ferguson
    London Regional Cancer Program, Health Sciences Centre, 790 Commissioners Road East, London, Ontario, Canada
    Nutr Cancer 56:86-94. 2006
    ..05) and also induce cell death within 24 to 48 h of exposure (P < 0.05). These results indicate the presence of a potential anticancer constituent in the flavonoid-containing fractions from cranberry extracts...
  34. pmc Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) inhibits osteopontin transcription by abrogating NF-kappaB activation
    Rajeev S Samant
    Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama, USA
    Mol Cancer 6:6. 2007
    ..BRMS1 is a member of mSin3-HDAC transcription co-repressor complex and has been shown to suppress the metastasis of breast cancer and melanoma cells in animal models. Hence we hypothesized that BRMS1 regulates OPN expression...
  35. ncbi request reprint The biology of metastasis to a sanctuary site
    Diane Palmieri
    Women s Cancers Section, Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 13:1656-62. 2007
    ..Specific, new approaches to combat brain metastatic disease are needed...
  36. ncbi request reprint Ineffectiveness of doxorubicin treatment on solitary dormant mammary carcinoma cells or late-developing metastases
    George N Naumov
    Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 82:199-206. 2003
    ..This study has important clinical implications for patients being treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy...
  37. ncbi request reprint Brain metastases of breast cancer
    Diane Palmieri
    Women s Cancers Section, Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Breast Dis 26:139-47. 2006
    ..New therapies with permeability for the blood-brain barrier are needed to counteract both types of tumor cells...
  38. doi request reprint Experimental metastasis assays in the chick embryo
    Sylvia M Wilson
    London Regional Cancer Centre, London, Ontario, Canada
    Curr Protoc Cell Biol . 2004
    ..These assays provide a cost-effective, readily accessible, and rapid approach for studying the process of cancer metastasis...
  39. doi request reprint Downregulation of osteopontin contributes to metastasis suppression by breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1
    Benjamin D Hedley
    London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada
    Int J Cancer 123:526-34. 2008
    ..These studies clarify one mechanism by which BRMS1 can suppress metastasis...
  40. pmc Inhibition of metastatic outgrowth from single dormant tumor cells by targeting the cytoskeleton
    Dalit Barkan
    Laboratory of Cell Biology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Cancer Res 68:6241-50. 2008
    ..Targeting this process may provide therapeutic strategies for inhibition of the dormant-to-proliferative metastatic switch...
  41. doi request reprint Distinct karyotypes in three breast cancer cell lines --21PTCi, 21NTCi, and 21MT-1 --derived from the same patient and representing different stages of tumor progression
    Jie Xu
    Cytogenetics Laboratory, London Health Sciences Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
    Cancer Genet Cytogenet 186:33-40. 2008
    ..These three cell lines, with their different karyotypes and biologic characteristics, provide a vital tool for further study of the genetic and epigenetic events involved in transitions between premalignant and malignant phenotypes...
  42. ncbi request reprint Activated ras regulates the proliferation/apoptosis balance and early survival of developing micrometastases
    Hemanth J Varghese
    Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5C1 Canada
    Cancer Res 62:887-91. 2002
    ....
  43. pmc Osteopontin knockdown suppresses tumorigenicity of human metastatic breast carcinoma, MDA-MB-435
    Lalita A Shevde
    University of South Alabama Mitchell Cancer Institute, Mobile, AL 36688 0002, USA
    Clin Exp Metastasis 23:123-33. 2006
    ..Thus, in addition to the widely reported roles of OPN in late stages of tumor progression, these results provide functional evidence that OPN contributes to breast tumor growth as well...
  44. ncbi request reprint Osteopontin induction of hyaluronan synthase 2 expression promotes breast cancer malignancy
    Amy C Cook
    Department of Pathology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1, Canada
    J Biol Chem 281:24381-9. 2006
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint Evaluating the role of serine protease inhibition in the management of tumor micrometastases
    Joe B Putnam
    University of Texas, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA
    Oncology (Williston Park) 17:9-30; quiz 31-2. 2003
  46. ncbi request reprint Transcriptional regulation of osteopontin and the metastatic phenotype: evidence for a Ras-activated enhancer in the human OPN promoter
    David T Denhardt
    Nelson Laboratories, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 88854, USA
    Clin Exp Metastasis 20:77-84. 2003
    ..In this communication we address two issues: (1) How does OPN facilitate the metastatic phenotype? (2) What mechanisms are responsible for the increase in OPN transcription in metastatic cells?..
  47. ncbi request reprint Correlation of osteopontin protein expression and pathological stage across a wide variety of tumor histologies
    Domenico Coppola
    Department of Pathology, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, Florida, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 10:184-90. 2004
    ..Although various studies have assessed OPN protein levels in several tumor types, a broad survey of OPN expression in human neoplasia under the same experimental conditions has not been carried out...
  48. ncbi request reprint Osteopontin identified as colon cancer tumor progression marker
    Deepak Agrawal
    Department of Cell Biology, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
    C R Biol 326:1041-3. 2003
    ..Osteopontin is a secreted glycoprotein known to bind integrins and CD44. Its actual molecular function remains elusive but its increased expression correlates strongly with tumor progression...
  49. ncbi request reprint A flavonoid fraction from cranberry extract inhibits proliferation of human tumor cell lines
    Peter J Ferguson
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada
    J Nutr 134:1529-35. 2004
    ..05) and induce cells to undergo apoptosis (P < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. Fr6 is potentially a source of a novel anticancer agent...
  50. ncbi request reprint Osteopontin-induced migration of human mammary epithelial cells involves activation of EGF receptor and multiple signal transduction pathways
    Alan B Tuck
    Department of Pathology, London Health Sciences Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
    Oncogene 22:1198-205. 2003
    ..A number of potential targets are thus provided for strategies aimed at blocking the malignancy-promoting effects of OPN...
  51. ncbi request reprint Cancer spread and micrometastasis development: quantitative approaches for in vivo models
    Ian C MacDonald
    Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Bioessays 24:885-93. 2002
    ..Furthermore, solitary tumor cells may remain dormant for long periods of time in secondary sites. These findings suggest that metastatic growth and angiogenesis are prime targets for anti-metastatic therapy...
  52. ncbi request reprint Detection and quantification of circulating tumor cells in mouse models of human breast cancer using immunomagnetic enrichment and multiparameter flow cytometry
    Alison L Allan
    London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario, Canada
    Cytometry A 65:4-14. 2005
    ..The purpose of this study was to optimize the sensitivity of multiparameter flow cytometry for detection of human tumor cells in mouse models of breast cancer...
  53. ncbi request reprint Dietary genistein reduces metastasis in a postsurgical orthotopic breast cancer model
    Sharon A Vantyghem
    Department of Pathology, University of Western Ontario, Canada
    Cancer Res 65:3396-403. 2005
    ..The availability of well-characterized, clinically relevant animal models for studying factors that regulate metastatic outgrowth postsurgery will provide an important tool for developing new systemic adjuvant therapies...
  54. ncbi request reprint Osteopontin induces multiple changes in gene expression that reflect the six "hallmarks of cancer" in a model of breast cancer progression
    Amy C Cook
    Department of Pathology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
    Mol Carcinog 43:225-36. 2005
    ..This study provides the first evidence that OPN can lead to numerous gene expression changes that influence multiple aspects of tumor progression and malignant growth...
  55. ncbi request reprint Plasma osteopontin: associations with survival and metastasis to bone in men with hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma
    Sebastien J Hotte
    Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, London Regional Cancer Center, 790 Commmissioners Road East, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 4L6
    Cancer 95:506-12. 2002
    ..Plasma OPN levels have been associated with tumor burden and survival in patients with metastatic breast carcinoma. The authors explored these associations in men with hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma (HRPC)...
  56. ncbi request reprint Osteopontin identified as lead marker of colon cancer progression, using pooled sample expression profiling
    Deepak Agrawal
    Department of Cell Biology, Interdisciplinary Oncology, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, University of South Florida, Tampa 33612, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 94:513-21. 2002
    ..Gene expression profiling techniques offer the opportunity to discover such markers. We investigated the feasibility of sample pooling strategy in combination with a novel analysis algorithm to identify markers...
  57. ncbi request reprint Enhanced cell surface CD44 variant (v6, v9) expression by osteopontin in breast cancer epithelial cells facilitates tumor cell migration: novel post-transcriptional, post-translational regulation
    Subarna A Khan
    Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Nelson Laboratories, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Clin Exp Metastasis 22:663-73. 2005
    ..Our data provide evidence that in 21NT cells OPN enhances CD44s mRNA expression, increases cell surface expression of CD44 variant forms without a change in mRNA levels, and stimulates cell migration...
  58. ncbi request reprint Molecular mechanisms of metastasis
    Dave S B Hoon
    Department of Molecular Oncology, John Wayne Cancer Institute, Santa Monica, CA 90404, USA
    Cancer Metastasis Rev 25:203-20. 2006
    ..The hope is that further unraveling of the direct and indirect molecular events of lymphatic metastasis will lead to new approaches in developing effective therapeutics...
  59. ncbi request reprint Tumor dormancy and cancer stem cells: implications for the biology and treatment of breast cancer metastasis
    Alison L Allan
    London Regional Cancer Program, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
    Breast Dis 26:87-98. 2006
    ....