Merrick Zwarenstein

Summary

Affiliation: Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences
Country: Canada

Publications

  1. pmc Making clinical trials more relevant: improving and validating the PRECIS tool for matching trial design decisions to trial purpose
    Kirsty Loudon
    Division of Population Health Sciences, University of Dundee, Kirsty Semple Way, Dundee DD2 4BF, UK
    Trials 14:115. 2013
  2. pmc Researchers' perceptions of ethical challenges in cluster randomized trials: a qualitative analysis
    Andrew D McRae
    Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Calgary, Foothills Medical Centre, Rm C231, 1403 29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 2T9, Canada
    Trials 14:1. 2013
  3. pmc What is the role and authority of gatekeepers in cluster randomized trials in health research?
    Antonio Gallo
    Rotman Institute of Philosophy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B8, Canada
    Trials 13:116. 2012
  4. pmc Implementing nurse-initiated and managed antiretroviral treatment (NIMART) in South Africa: a qualitative process evaluation of the STRETCH trial
    Daniella Georgeu
    Knowledge Translation Unit, University of Cape Town Lung Institute, University of Cape Town, George Street, Mowbray 7700, Cape Town, South Africa
    Implement Sci 7:66. 2012
  5. pmc Effectiveness of a group diabetes education programme in underserved communities in South Africa: pragmatic cluster randomized control trial
    Bob Mash
    Family Medicine and Primary Care, Stellenbosch University, Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    BMC Fam Pract 13:126. 2012
  6. pmc Who is the research subject in cluster randomized trials in health research?
    Andrew D McRae
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Trials 12:183. 2011
  7. pmc Does clinical equipoise apply to cluster randomized trials in health research?
    Ariella Binik
    Rotman Institute of Philosophy, Department of Philosophy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B8, Canada
    Trials 12:118. 2011
  8. pmc Ethical issues posed by cluster randomized trials in health research
    Charles Weijer
    Rotman Institute of Philosophy, Department of Philosophy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B8, Canada
    Trials 12:100. 2011
  9. pmc Making trials matter: pragmatic and explanatory trials and the problem of applicability
    Shaun Treweek
    Division of Clinical and Population Sciences and Education, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK
    Trials 10:37. 2009
  10. pmc Ethical and policy issues in cluster randomized trials: rationale and design of a mixed methods research study
    Monica Taljaard
    Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital, 1053 Carling Avenue, Civic Campus, C409, Ottawa, ON K1Y4E9, Canada
    Trials 10:61. 2009

Detail Information

Publications61

  1. pmc Making clinical trials more relevant: improving and validating the PRECIS tool for matching trial design decisions to trial purpose
    Kirsty Loudon
    Division of Population Health Sciences, University of Dundee, Kirsty Semple Way, Dundee DD2 4BF, UK
    Trials 14:115. 2013
    ..The aim of the study is to: Produce an improved and validated version of the PRECIS tool. Use this tool to compare the internal validity of, and effect estimates from, a set of explanatory and pragmatic trials matched by intervention...
  2. pmc Researchers' perceptions of ethical challenges in cluster randomized trials: a qualitative analysis
    Andrew D McRae
    Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Calgary, Foothills Medical Centre, Rm C231, 1403 29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 2T9, Canada
    Trials 14:1. 2013
    ..This study describes the views and experiences of CRT researchers with respect to: (1) ethical challenges in CRTs; (2) the ethics review process for CRTs; and (3) the need for comprehensive ethics guidelines for CRTs...
  3. pmc What is the role and authority of gatekeepers in cluster randomized trials in health research?
    Antonio Gallo
    Rotman Institute of Philosophy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B8, Canada
    Trials 13:116. 2012
    ..In these settings, permission to access the organization relies on resource implications and adherence to institutional policies...
  4. pmc Implementing nurse-initiated and managed antiretroviral treatment (NIMART) in South Africa: a qualitative process evaluation of the STRETCH trial
    Daniella Georgeu
    Knowledge Translation Unit, University of Cape Town Lung Institute, University of Cape Town, George Street, Mowbray 7700, Cape Town, South Africa
    Implement Sci 7:66. 2012
    ..This study was conducted alongside the trial to develop a contextualised understanding of factors affecting the implementation of the programme...
  5. pmc Effectiveness of a group diabetes education programme in underserved communities in South Africa: pragmatic cluster randomized control trial
    Bob Mash
    Family Medicine and Primary Care, Stellenbosch University, Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    BMC Fam Pract 13:126. 2012
    ..The development of an effective education programme should impact on self-care, lifestyle change and adherence to medication; and lead to better control of diabetes, fewer complications and better quality of life...
  6. pmc Who is the research subject in cluster randomized trials in health research?
    Andrew D McRae
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Trials 12:183. 2011
    ..Individuals who are indirectly affected by CRT study interventions, including patients of healthcare providers participating in knowledge translation CRTs, are not human research subjects unless at least one of these conditions is met...
  7. pmc Does clinical equipoise apply to cluster randomized trials in health research?
    Ariella Binik
    Rotman Institute of Philosophy, Department of Philosophy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B8, Canada
    Trials 12:118. 2011
    ..Finally, clinical equipoise provides research ethics committees with formal and procedural guidelines that form an important part of the assessment of the benefits and harms of CRTs in health research...
  8. pmc Ethical issues posed by cluster randomized trials in health research
    Charles Weijer
    Rotman Institute of Philosophy, Department of Philosophy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B8, Canada
    Trials 12:100. 2011
    ..Our hope is that these papers will serve as the basis for the creation of international ethical guidelines for the design and conduct of cluster randomized trials...
  9. pmc Making trials matter: pragmatic and explanatory trials and the problem of applicability
    Shaun Treweek
    Division of Clinical and Population Sciences and Education, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK
    Trials 10:37. 2009
    ..If we want evidence from trials to be used in clinical practice and policy, trialists should make every effort to make their trial widely applicable, which means that more trials should be pragmatic in attitude...
  10. pmc Ethical and policy issues in cluster randomized trials: rationale and design of a mixed methods research study
    Monica Taljaard
    Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital, 1053 Carling Avenue, Civic Campus, C409, Ottawa, ON K1Y4E9, Canada
    Trials 10:61. 2009
    ....
  11. pmc Feedback GAP: study protocol for a cluster-randomized trial of goal setting and action plans to increase the effectiveness of audit and feedback interventions in primary care
    Noah M Ivers
    Women s College Hospital Family Health Team, 76 Grenville Street, Toronto ON, M5 S 1B2, Canada
    Implement Sci 5:98. 2010
    ..abstract:..
  12. pmc Task shifting and integration of HIV care into primary care in South Africa: the development and content of the streamlining tasks and roles to expand treatment and care for HIV (STRETCH) intervention
    Kerry E Uebel
    Knowledge Translation Unit, University of Cape Town Lung Institute, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Implement Sci 6:86. 2011
    ..This paper describes the development and content of an intervention involving these two strategies, as part of the Streamlining Tasks and Roles to Expand Treatment and Care for HIV (STRETCH) pragmatic randomised controlled trial...
  13. pmc A knowledge translation collaborative to improve the use of therapeutic hypothermia in post-cardiac arrest patients: protocol for a stepped wedge randomized trial
    Katie N Dainty
    RESCU Research Program, Keenan Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St, Michael s Hospital Toronto, Canada
    Implement Sci 6:4. 2011
    ..Despite the strong evidence for its efficacy and the apparent simplicity of this intervention, recent surveys show that therapeutic hypothermia is delivered inconsistently, incompletely, and often with delay...
  14. pmc Diagnostic accuracy of an integrated respiratory guideline in identifying patients with respiratory symptoms requiring screening for pulmonary tuberculosis: a cross-sectional study
    Rene G English
    Knowledge Translation Unit, University of Cape Town Lung Institute, George Street, Mowbray, 7700, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Pulm Med 6:22. 2006
    ....
  15. pmc Translating research into policy and practice in developing countries: a case study of magnesium sulphate for pre-eclampsia
    Morten Aaserud
    Norwegian Knowledge Centre for Health Services, Box 7004 St Olavs Plass, N 0130 Oslo, Norway
    BMC Health Serv Res 5:68. 2005
    ..The objective of this study was to examine the factors that might affect the translation of randomised controlled trial (RCT) findings into policies and practice in developing countries...
  16. pmc Building capacity for antiretroviral delivery in South Africa: a qualitative evaluation of the PALSA PLUS nurse training programme
    J Stein
    University of Cape Town Lung Institute, George St, Mowbray 7700, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Health Serv Res 8:240. 2008
    ..The evaluation was conducted alongside a randomized controlled trial measuring the effects of the PALSA PLUS nurse-training (Trial reference number ISRCTN24820584)...
  17. pmc Outreach education for integration of HIV/AIDS care, antiretroviral treatment, and tuberculosis care in primary care clinics in South Africa: PALSA PLUS pragmatic cluster randomised trial
    Merrick Zwarenstein
    Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    BMJ 342:d2022. 2011
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Effectiveness of pre-licensure interprofessional education and post-licensure collaborative interventions
    Merrick Zwarenstein
    Institute for Clinical and Evaluative Sciences and Knowledge Translation Program, Continuing Education and Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada
    J Interprof Care 19:148-65. 2005
    ....
  19. ncbi request reprint In-service interprofessional education improves inpatient care and patient satisfaction
    Merrick Zwarenstein
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Knowledge Translation Programme, Department of Health Policy Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Canada
    J Interprof Care 17:401-2. 2003
  20. pmc Improving the reporting of pragmatic trials: an extension of the CONSORT statement
    Merrick Zwarenstein
    Health Services Sciences, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    BMJ 337:a2390. 2008
    ..In the meantime we recommend that those who support, conduct, and report pragmatic trials should use this extension of the CONSORT statement to facilitate the use of trial results in decisions about health care...
  21. doi request reprint Health impact of hospital restrictions on seriously ill hospitalized patients: lessons from the Toronto SARS outbreak
    Therese A Stukel
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Med Care 46:991-7. 2008
    ..Restrictions on non-urgent hospital care imposed to control the 2003 Toronto severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak led to substantial disruptions in hospital clinical practice, admission, and transfer patterns...
  22. doi request reprint Interprofessional interaction, negotiation and non-negotiation on general internal medicine wards
    Scott Reeves
    Keenan Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, Canada
    J Interprof Care 23:633-45. 2009
    ..The paper draws on Strauss' (1978) negotiated order theory to provide a theoretical lens to help illuminate the nature of interaction and negotiation in GIM...
  23. doi request reprint An intervention to improve interprofessional collaboration and communications: a comparative qualitative study
    Kathleen Rice
    Health Services Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Canada
    J Interprof Care 24:350-61. 2010
    ....
  24. pmc From PALSA PLUS to PALM PLUS: adapting and developing a South African guideline and training intervention to better integrate HIV/AIDS care with primary care in rural health centers in Malawi
    Michael J Schull
    Dignitas International, 2 Adelaide Street West, Suite 200, Toronto, M5H 1L6, Canada
    Implement Sci 6:82. 2011
    ..We adapted it to align with Malawi's national treatment protocols, more varied healthcare workforce, and weaker health system infrastructure...
  25. pmc Evaluating a streamlined clinical tool and educational outreach intervention for health care workers in Malawi: the PALM PLUS case study
    Sumeet Sodhi
    Dignitas International, 2 Adelaide Street West, Suite 200, Toronto, M5H 1L6, Canada
    BMC Int Health Hum Rights 11:S11. 2011
    ..Our success in developing and rolling out PALM PLUS in Malawi suggests that it is possible to adapt and implement this intervention for use in other resource-limited settings...
  26. doi request reprint Communication channels in general internal medicine: a description of baseline patterns for improved interprofessional collaboration
    Lesley Gotlib Conn
    Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Qual Health Res 19:943-53. 2009
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Nurse-physician relations and quality of nursing care: findings from a national survey of nurses
    Chris Kenaszchuk
    Keenan Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Can J Nurs Res 42:120-36. 2010
    ..The analysis highlights the importance of interprofessional working relations to nurse-perceived quality of patient care in Canadian hospitals...
  28. ncbi request reprint Providers' perceptions of barriers to the management of type 2 diabetes in remote Aboriginal settings
    Onil K Bhattacharyya
    Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, ON M5B 1M8, Canada
    Int J Circumpolar Health 70:552-63. 2011
    ..To examine providers' perspectives of the barriers to providing diabetes care in remote First Nation communities in the Sioux Lookout Zone (SLZ) of Northwestern Ontario, Canada...
  29. ncbi request reprint Interprofessional information work: innovations in the use of the chart on internal medicine teams
    Lorelei Lingard
    Department of Paediatrics, Wilson Centre for Research in Education, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Interprof Care 21:657-67. 2007
    ....
  30. pmc Interprofessional communication with hospitalist and consultant physicians in general internal medicine: a qualitative study
    Lesley Gotlib Conn
    Department of Surgery, St, Michael s Hospital, 30 Bond St, Toronto, ON M5B 1W8, Canada
    BMC Health Serv Res 12:437. 2012
    ....
  31. doi request reprint Consensus on interprofessional collaboration in hospitals: statistical agreement of ratings from ethnographic fieldwork and measurement scales
    Chris Kenaszchuk
    Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Eval Clin Pract 18:93-9. 2012
    ....
  32. pmc Understanding the relationship between the perceived characteristics of clinical practice guidelines and their uptake: protocol for a realist review
    Monika Kastner
    Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St, Michael s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Implement Sci 6:69. 2011
    ....
  33. pmc Validity and reliability of a multiple-group measurement scale for interprofessional collaboration
    Chris Kenaszchuk
    Keenan Research Centre in Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, Canada
    BMC Health Serv Res 10:83. 2010
    ..The paper investigates validity and reliability of data from nurses evaluating interprofessional collaboration of physicians and shows initial results for other rater/target combinations...
  34. doi request reprint A pragmatic-explanatory continuum indicator summary (PRECIS): a tool to help trial designers
    Kevin E Thorpe
    Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Clin Epidemiol 62:464-75. 2009
    ..To propose a tool to assist trialists in making design decisions that are consistent with their trial's stated purpose...
  35. doi request reprint Nursing emotion work and interprofessional collaboration in general internal medicine wards: a qualitative study
    Karen Lee Miller
    Candidate Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Adv Nurs 64:332-43. 2008
    ..This paper is a report of a study to examine nursing emotion work and interprofessional collaboration in order to understand and improve collaborative nursing practice...
  36. pmc Delayed educational reminders for long-term medication adherence in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (DERLA-STEMI): protocol for a pragmatic, cluster-randomized controlled trial
    Noah M Ivers
    Family Practice Health Centre, Women s College Research Institute, Women s College Hospital, 76 Grenville Ave Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Implement Sci 7:54. 2012
    ..Discontinuation of cardiac medications in such patients is associated with increased mortality...
  37. doi request reprint Association of ICU or hospital admission with unintentional discontinuation of medications for chronic diseases
    Chaim M Bell
    Department of Health Policy, Management, and Evaluation, Keenan Research Centre in Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute at St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    JAMA 306:840-7. 2011
    ..The intensive care unit (ICU) may pose an even greater risk because of the focus on acute events and the presence of multiple transitions in care...
  38. doi request reprint The effectiveness of interprofessional education: key findings from a new systematic review
    Scott Reeves
    Keenan Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute and Centre for Faculty Development, St Michael s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario Canada
    J Interprof Care 24:230-41. 2010
    ....
  39. doi request reprint A scoping review to improve conceptual clarity of interprofessional interventions
    Scott Reeves
    Keenan Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, Canada
    J Interprof Care 25:167-74. 2011
    ..This study offers an initial step in mapping out the interprofessional field and outlines possible ways forward for future research and practice...
  40. pmc Allocation techniques for balance at baseline in cluster randomized trials: a methodological review
    Noah M Ivers
    Family Practice Health Centre, Women s College Hospital, 76 Grenville Street, Toronto, ON, M5S1B2, Canada
    Trials 13:120. 2012
    ....
  41. pmc Evaluation of a toolkit to improve cardiovascular disease screening and treatment for people with type 2 diabetes: protocol for a cluster-randomized pragmatic trial
    Baiju R Shah
    University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Trials 11:44. 2010
    ..This study will evaluate the impact of the strategy to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) screening, prevention and treatment for people with diabetes...
  42. ncbi request reprint Structuring communication relationships for interprofessional teamwork (SCRIPT): a Canadian initiative aimed at improving patient-centred care
    Scott Reeves
    University of Toronto, Ontarion, Canada
    J Interprof Care 21:111-4. 2007
  43. pmc Deficiencies in the quality of diabetes care: comparing specialist with generalist care misses the point
    Baiju R Shah
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, ON, Canada
    J Gen Intern Med 22:275-9. 2007
    ..The development of such interventions to help all physicians implement better quality care could greatly benefit people with diabetes...
  44. doi request reprint A substantial and confusing variation exists in handling of baseline covariates in randomized controlled trials: a review of trials published in leading medical journals
    Peter C Austin
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, G1 06, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada
    J Clin Epidemiol 63:142-53. 2010
    ..Furthermore, some have advocated for the use of regression adjustment to estimate the effect of treatment after adjusting for potential imbalances in prognostically important baseline covariates between treatment groups...
  45. ncbi request reprint Surge capacity associated with restrictions on nonurgent hospital utilization and expected admissions during an influenza pandemic: lessons from the Toronto severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak
    Michael J Schull
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4N 3M5
    Acad Emerg Med 13:1228-31. 2006
    ..One proposed strategy to increase hospital surge capacity is to restrict elective hospitalizations, yet the degree to which this measure would meet the anticipated is unknown...
  46. doi request reprint Improving the clarity of the interprofessional field: implications for research and continuing interprofessional education
    Joanne Goldman
    Keenan Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Contin Educ Health Prof 29:151-6. 2009
    ..Emerging review findings regarding participants and settings, interventions, and outcomes are reported. The article provides implications from this review and discusses them in relation to continuing IPE and future research...
  47. ncbi request reprint Prioritizing performance measurement for emergency department care: consensus on evidence-based quality of care indicators
    Michael J Schull
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, ON, Canada
    CJEM 13:300-9, E28-43. 2011
    ..We sought to develop a consensus on a prioritized and parsimonious set of evidence-based quality of care indicators for EDs...
  48. doi request reprint Electronic prescribing in an ambulatory care setting: a cluster randomized trial
    Katie N Dainty
    St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada
    J Eval Clin Pract 18:761-7. 2012
    ..Medication errors resulting in preventable adverse drug events most commonly occur at the ordering stage. Electronic prescribing may prevent such errors but its impact has not been rigorously evaluated...
  49. pmc Strengthening health human resources and improving clinical outcomes through an integrated guideline and educational outreach in resource-poor settings: a cluster-randomized trial
    Michael J Schull
    Dignitas International, 2 Adelaide Street West, Suite 200, Toronto, M5H 1L6, Canada
    Trials 11:118. 2010
    ..This study will test an adapted primary care health care worker training and guideline intervention, Practical Approach to Lung Health and HIV/AIDS Malawi (PALM PLUS), on staff retention and satisfaction, and quality of patient care...
  50. ncbi request reprint Knowledge translation and interprofessional collaboration: Where the rubber of evidence-based care hits the road of teamwork
    Merrick Zwarenstein
    Knowledge Translation Centre at St Michael s Hospital and Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Ontario
    J Contin Educ Health Prof 26:46-54. 2006
    ..Routes are suggested by which interprofessional education and collaboration interventions might affect knowledge translation and evidence-based practice...
  51. ncbi request reprint Using qualitative interviews within medical education research: why we must raise the 'quality bar'
    Scott Reeves
    Wilson Centre for Research in Education, 200 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada
    Med Educ 40:291-2. 2006
  52. doi request reprint A multifaceted intervention for quality improvement in a network of intensive care units: a cluster randomized trial
    Damon C Scales
    Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    JAMA 305:363-72. 2011
    ..Evidence-based practices improve intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes, but eligible patients may not receive them. Community hospitals treat most critically ill patients but may have few resources dedicated to quality improvement...
  53. doi request reprint Methodologies to evaluate the effectiveness of knowledge translation interventions: a primer for researchers and health care managers
    Onil K Bhattacharyya
    Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael s Hospital, Ontario, Canada
    J Clin Epidemiol 64:32-40. 2011
    ..Given the large variation in impact and costs, this review aims to highlight the importance of evaluating knowledge translation (KT) interventions by managers and researchers...
  54. pmc Development of a minimization instrument for allocation of a hospital-level performance improvement intervention to reduce waiting times in Ontario emergency departments
    Chad Andrew Leaver
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, 2075 Bayview Ave, Toronto, Canada
    Implement Sci 4:32. 2009
    ..A minimization algorithm will ensure balanced allocation of the intervention with respect to these factors in study hospitals...
  55. pmc Effect of widespread restrictions on the use of hospital services during an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome
    Michael J Schull
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ont
    CMAJ 176:1827-32. 2007
    ..We describe the impact of these restrictions on health care utilization and suggest lessons for future epidemics...
  56. ncbi request reprint Controlled trial of an intervention to improve cholesterol management in diabetes patients in remote Aboriginal communities
    Onil Bhattacharyya
    Keenan Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, ON, M5B 1M8, Canada
    Int J Circumpolar Health 69:333-43. 2010
    ..The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of prioritizing care with audit and feedback on cholesterol management of diabetic patients...
  57. doi request reprint The doctor-nurse game in the age of interprofessional care: a view from Canada
    Scott Reeves
    Nurs Inq 15:1-2. 2008
  58. ncbi request reprint Working together but apart: barriers and routes to nurse--physician collaboration
    Merrick Zwarenstein
    St Bartholomew School of Nursing and Midwifery, City University, London, United Kingdom
    Jt Comm J Qual Improv 28:242-7, 209. 2002
    ..The authors argue that the aircraft safety model may be of limited relevance for health care and suggest strategies for greater collaboration between nurses and physicians in the care of patients...
  59. ncbi request reprint Health systems research training enhances workplace research skills: a qualitative evaluation
    Jolene Adams
    Public Health Programme, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa
    J Contin Educ Health Prof 23:210-20. 2003
    ....
  60. ncbi request reprint The Trial Protocol Tool: The PRACTIHC software tool that supported the writing of protocols for pragmatic randomized controlled trials
    Shaun Treweek
    Tayside Centre for General Practice, University of Dundee, DD2 4BF Dundee, UK
    J Clin Epidemiol 59:1127-33. 2006
    ..To develop a tool that would make it easier for researchers, especially those in low- and middle-income countries, to write research protocols for pragmatic randomized controlled trials...
  61. pmc Scope of EPOC is clarified
    Laura M McAuley
    BMJ 327:106. 2003