J Sawynok

Summary

Affiliation: Dalhousie University
Country: Canada

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Contributions of peripheral, spinal, and supraspinal actions to analgesia
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, 5850 College Street, P O Box 15000, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4R2 Electronic address
    Eur J Pharmacol 734:114-21. 2014
  2. ncbi request reprint Spinal and peripheral adenosine A₁ receptors contribute to antinociception by tramadol in the formalin test in mice
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Eur J Pharmacol 714:373-8. 2013
  3. doi request reprint Chaoyi Fanhuan Qigong and fibromyalgia: methodological issues and two case reports
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    J Altern Complement Med 19:383-6. 2013
  4. doi request reprint Caffeine inhibits antinociception by acetaminophen in the formalin test by inhibiting spinal adenosine A₁ receptors
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Eur J Pharmacol 674:248-54. 2012
  5. ncbi request reprint Topical and peripherally acting analgesics
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Pharmacol Rev 55:1-20. 2003
  6. ncbi request reprint Peripheral interactions between dextromethorphan, ketamine and amitriptyline on formalin-evoked behaviors and paw edema in rats
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Halifax, Canada B3H 4H7
    Pain 102:179-86. 2003
  7. ncbi request reprint Antinociception by tricyclic antidepressants in the rat formalin test: differential effects on different behaviours following systemic and spinal administration
    J Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4H7, Canada
    Pain 93:51-9. 2001
  8. pmc Antidepressants as analgesics: an overview of central and peripheral mechanisms of action
    J Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS
    J Psychiatry Neurosci 26:21-9. 2001
  9. ncbi request reprint Amitriptyline enhances extracellular tissue levels of adenosine in the rat hindpaw and inhibits adenosine uptake
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5
    Eur J Pharmacol 518:116-22. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint Modulation of formalin-induced behaviors and edema by local and systemic administration of dextromethorphan, memantine and ketamine
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4H7
    Eur J Pharmacol 450:153-62. 2002

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications57

  1. ncbi request reprint Contributions of peripheral, spinal, and supraspinal actions to analgesia
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, 5850 College Street, P O Box 15000, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4R2 Electronic address
    Eur J Pharmacol 734:114-21. 2014
    ..This review considers methods used for compartmental analysis, and results of such site analysis for several major classes of analgesic drugs that are in current use. ..
  2. ncbi request reprint Spinal and peripheral adenosine A₁ receptors contribute to antinociception by tramadol in the formalin test in mice
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Eur J Pharmacol 714:373-8. 2013
    ..5HT₇ receptors in the spinal cord do not appear to be involved in the recruitment of A₁ receptor mechanisms when tramadol is given systemically in this model...
  3. doi request reprint Chaoyi Fanhuan Qigong and fibromyalgia: methodological issues and two case reports
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    J Altern Complement Med 19:383-6. 2013
    ..Recent clinical trials examining Chaoyi Fanhuan Qigong (CFQ) for fibromyalgia have used a standardized regimen of practice over an 8-week period...
  4. doi request reprint Caffeine inhibits antinociception by acetaminophen in the formalin test by inhibiting spinal adenosine A₁ receptors
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Eur J Pharmacol 674:248-54. 2012
    ..Inhibition of acetaminophen antinociception by doses of caffeine relevant to dietary human intake levels suggests a more detailed consideration of acetaminophen-caffeine interactions in humans is warranted...
  5. ncbi request reprint Topical and peripherally acting analgesics
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Pharmacol Rev 55:1-20. 2003
    ..Given that activation of sensory neurons involves multiple mediators, combinations of agents targeting different mechanisms may be particularly useful. Topical analgesics represent a promising area for future drug development...
  6. ncbi request reprint Peripheral interactions between dextromethorphan, ketamine and amitriptyline on formalin-evoked behaviors and paw edema in rats
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Halifax, Canada B3H 4H7
    Pain 102:179-86. 2003
    ..Combinations of these particular agents could represent a method for augmented analgesia and minimization of local adverse reactions...
  7. ncbi request reprint Antinociception by tricyclic antidepressants in the rat formalin test: differential effects on different behaviours following systemic and spinal administration
    J Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4H7, Canada
    Pain 93:51-9. 2001
    ....
  8. pmc Antidepressants as analgesics: an overview of central and peripheral mechanisms of action
    J Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS
    J Psychiatry Neurosci 26:21-9. 2001
    ..Data illustrating the preclinical peripheral analgesic actions of antidepressants are presented, as are some aspects of the mechanisms by which these actions occur...
  9. ncbi request reprint Amitriptyline enhances extracellular tissue levels of adenosine in the rat hindpaw and inhibits adenosine uptake
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5
    Eur J Pharmacol 518:116-22. 2005
    ..Therefore, increased extracellular adenosine levels in vivo appear to result partially from extracellular conversion of nucleotide and partially from inhibition of uptake...
  10. ncbi request reprint Modulation of formalin-induced behaviors and edema by local and systemic administration of dextromethorphan, memantine and ketamine
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4H7
    Eur J Pharmacol 450:153-62. 2002
    ..Systemic administration of all three agents produces antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory actions that may be due to block of excitatory amino acid receptors in the spinal cord...
  11. ncbi request reprint Pain behaviors produced by capsaicin: influence of inflammatory mediators and nerve injury
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    J Pain 7:134-41. 2006
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Caffeine reverses antinociception by amitriptyline in wild type mice but not in those lacking adenosine A1 receptors
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4H7
    Neurosci Lett 440:181-4. 2008
    ..When A1Rs are present, actions of amitriptyline may, however, partly depend on A1Rs...
  13. ncbi request reprint Topical analgesics in neuropathic pain
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Curr Pharm Des 11:2995-3004. 2005
    ....
  14. doi request reprint Caffeine reverses antinociception by oxcarbazepine by inhibition of adenosine A1 receptors: insights using knockout mice
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4H7
    Neurosci Lett 473:178-81. 2010
    ..Our results indicate that, while adenosine A(1) receptors are not required for oxcarbazepine to produce antinociception in knockout mice, such receptors are essential in order to see caffeine reversal of this antinociceptive effect...
  15. doi request reprint Reduction of formalin-evoked responses and maintenance of peripheral antinociception by morphine against formalin in the spared nerve injury model
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Neurosci Lett 494:99-103. 2011
    ..Furthermore, the maintenance of peripheral actions of morphine at both sites supports the notion of exploring peripheral delivery of opioids for pain relief following nerve injury...
  16. ncbi request reprint Adenosine receptor activation and nociception
    J Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada
    Eur J Pharmacol 347:1-11. 1998
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of an adenosine kinase inhibitor and an adenosine deaminase inhibitor
    A Poon
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Eur J Pharmacol 384:123-38. 1999
    ..These results provide evidence for a predominantly spinal antinociceptive effect and a predominantly peripheral anti-inflammatory effect produced by inhibitors of adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase...
  18. ncbi request reprint Antinociception by adenosine analogs and inhibitors of adenosine metabolism in an inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia model in the rat
    A Poon
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Pain 74:235-45. 1998
    ..The spinal antinociceptive effects of selected adenosine kinase inhibitors can be significantly augmented when administered simultaneously with an adenosine deaminase inhibitor...
  19. ncbi request reprint Caffeine blockade of the thermal antihyperalgesic effect of acute amitriptyline in a rat model of neuropathic pain
    M J Esser
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, B3H 4H7, Halifax, Canada
    Eur J Pharmacol 399:131-9. 2000
    ..This involvement is important in light of the widespread consumption of caffeine, which may potentially act to reduce the benefits of amitriptyline in the treatment of neuropathic pain...
  20. ncbi request reprint Chronic administration of amitriptyline and caffeine in a rat model of neuropathic pain: multiple interactions
    M J Esser
    Departments of Pharmacology and Anatomy and Neurobiology, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, B3H 4H7, Halifax, Canada
    Eur J Pharmacol 430:211-8. 2001
    ..Both the symptom-specific effect, and adenosine involvement in amitriptyline action may be important considerations governing its use in neuropathic pain...
  21. ncbi request reprint Lesions to ascending noradrenergic and serotonergic pathways modify antinociception produced by intracerebroventricular administration of morphine
    J Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Neuropharmacology 28:141-7. 1989
    ..These results indicate that aminergic pathways, projecting to the forebrain, are involved in the suppression of the tail-flick reflex produced by injection of morphine into the lateral ventricle...
  22. ncbi request reprint Acute paw oedema induced by local injection of adenosine A(1), A(2) and A(3) receptor agonists
    J Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Eur J Pharmacol 386:253-61. 1999
    ..This study demonstrates an acute paw oedema response following local administration of adenosine A(1), A(2) and A(3) receptor agonists, which likely results from different mechanisms of action in each case...
  23. ncbi request reprint Involvement of mast cells, sensory afferents and sympathetic mechanisms in paw oedema induced by adenosine A(1) and A(2B/3) receptor agonists
    J Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Eur J Pharmacol 395:47-50. 2000
    ..The nature of the involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in the action of N(6)-B-NECA is not entirely clear...
  24. ncbi request reprint Glutamate-evoked release of adenosine and regulation of peripheral nociception
    N Aumeerally
    Department of Pharmacology and Anatomy, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5
    Neuroscience 127:1-11. 2004
    ..5% formalin in the contralateral hindpaw reveals an inhibitory effect of adenosine on peripheral nociception in the presence of glutamate; this conditioning involves microglia and other mechanisms involved in central sensitization...
  25. ncbi request reprint Spinal antinociception by adenosine analogs and morphine after intrathecal administration of the neurotoxins capsaicin, 6-hydroxydopamine and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine
    J Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 258:370-80. 1991
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint Adenosine mediates calcium-induced antinociception and potentiation of noradrenergic antinociception in the spinal cord
    J Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Brain Res 524:187-95. 1990
    ..Adenosine appears to originate from capsaicin-sensitive small diameter primary afferent nerve terminals. A subsequent interaction of adenosine with spinal adrenergic receptors contributes to antinociception...
  27. ncbi request reprint Morphine, capsaicin and K+ release purines from capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent nerve terminals in the spinal cord
    M I Sweeney
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 248:447-54. 1989
    ..Adenosine does not appear to be released from the terminals of descending aminergic pathways. The source of purines released by NE is less certain...
  28. ncbi request reprint Peripheral antinociceptive effect of an adenosine kinase inhibitor, with augmentation by an adenosine deaminase inhibitor, in the rat formalin test
    J Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Pain 74:75-81. 1998
    ..This study demonstrates a peripheral antinociceptive action mediated by endogenous adenosine which accumulates following the peripheral inhibition of adenosine kinase; this action is due to activation of an adenosine A1 receptor...
  29. ncbi request reprint Peripheral antinociceptive action of amitriptyline in the rat formalin test: involvement of adenosine
    J Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Pain 80:45-55. 1999
    ..Local application of amitriptyline by cream or gel might prove to be a useful method of drug delivery in inflammatory pain states...
  30. ncbi request reprint Potentiation of formalin-evoked adenosine release by an adenosine kinase inhibitor and an adenosine deaminase inhibitor in the rat hind paw: a microdialysis study
    X J Liu
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, B3H 4H7, Halifax, NS, Canada
    Eur J Pharmacol 408:143-52. 2000
    ..The ability of an adenosine kinase inhibitor and an adenosine deaminase inhibitor to modulate this release is dependent on substrate adenosine concentrations...
  31. ncbi request reprint Adenosine A3 receptor activation produces nociceptive behaviour and edema by release of histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine
    J Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Eur J Pharmacol 333:1-7. 1997
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Peripheral amitriptyline suppresses formalin-induced Fos expression in the rat spinal cord
    Caroline E Heughan
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Anesth Analg 94:427-31, table of contents. 2002
    ..The profile of amitriptyline action after peripheral administration may be of clinical importance because of the potential use of antidepressants as topical analgesics...
  33. ncbi request reprint Intraplantar injection of glutamate evokes peripheral adenosine release in the rat hind paw: involvement of peripheral ionotropic glutamate receptors and capsaicin-sensitive sensory afferents
    Xue Jun Liu
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    J Neurochem 80:562-70. 2002
    ..The released adenosine may provide a negative feedback control on nociception...
  34. ncbi request reprint Peripheral antinociceptive actions of desipramine and fluoxetine in an inflammatory and neuropathic pain test in the rat
    J Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Pain 82:149-58. 1999
    ..Such a formulation might permit the attainment of higher and more efficacious concentrations in the region of the sensory nerve terminal, with limited systemic side effects...
  35. ncbi request reprint Supersensitivity to intrathecal 5-hydroxytryptamine, but not noradrenaline, following depletion of spinal 5-hydroxytryptamine by 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine administered into various sites
    J Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
    Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 342:1-8. 1990
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint Effect of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesions to ascending and descending noradrenergic pathways on morphine analgesia
    J Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N S, Canada
    Brain Res 419:156-65. 1987
    ..Simultaneous depletion of DA in the striatum can reverse the potentiating action of NA depletion indicating a critical role for DA with respect to NA pathways and mechanisms of analgesia...
  37. ncbi request reprint Involvement of primary sensory afferents, postganglionic sympathetic nerves and mast cells in the formalin-evoked peripheral release of adenosine
    X J Liu
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4H7
    Eur J Pharmacol 429:147-55. 2001
    ..Mast cells do not contribute to release of adenosine evoked by either concentration of formalin...
  38. ncbi request reprint Peripheral P2X receptors and nociception: interactions with biogenic amine systems
    James B Waldron
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Sir Charles Tupper Medical Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 1X5
    Pain 110:79-89. 2004
    ....
  39. ncbi request reprint The interaction between gabapentin and amitriptyline in the rat formalin test after systemic administration
    Caroline E Heughan
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Anesth Analg 94:975-80, table of contents. 2002
    ..Biting/licking behaviors do reflect analgesic properties for both drugs and may be more useful in this regard...
  40. ncbi request reprint Peripheral adenosine 5'-triphosphate enhances nociception in the formalin test via activation of a purinergic p2X receptor
    J Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada
    Eur J Pharmacol 330:115-21. 1997
    ..Other behavioural paradigms may be required to examine the fast onset, direct effect. Suramin appears to exert both local and systemic effects on the expression of pain behaviours in response to formalin...
  41. ncbi request reprint Acute amitriptyline in a rat model of neuropathic pain: differential symptom and route effects
    M J Esser
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Pain 80:643-53. 1999
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Enhanced release of adenosine in rat hind paw following spinal nerve ligation: involvement of capsaicin-sensitive sensory afferents
    X J Liu
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4H7
    Neuroscience 114:379-87. 2002
    ..The lack of effect on such release by the inhibitors of adenosine metabolism suggests an altered peripheral adenosine system following spinal nerve ligation...
  43. ncbi request reprint Peripheral antihyperalgesic and analgesic actions of ketamine and amitriptyline in a model of mild thermal injury in the rat
    Mark Oatway
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Anesth Analg 97:168-73, table of contents. 2003
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Amitriptyline produces multiple influences on the peripheral enhancement of nociception by P2X receptors
    James B Waldron
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5
    Eur J Pharmacol 499:275-83. 2004
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint A pilot study examining topical amitriptyline, ketamine, and a combination of both in the treatment of neuropathic pain
    M E Lynch
    Pain Management Unit, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia
    Clin J Pain 19:323-8. 2003
    ..This is a pilot study providing initial information regarding the use of novel topical preparations containing amitriptyline (AMI), ketamine (KET), and a combination of both in the treatment of neuropathic pain...
  46. ncbi request reprint Alpha1-adrenergic receptors augment P2X3 receptor-mediated nociceptive responses in the uninjured state
    Jason G Meisner
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    J Pain 8:556-62. 2007
    ..These results provide evidence for alpha1-AR involvement in adrenergic augmentation of P2X3/P2X2/3 receptor-mediated responses on sensory nerve endings in the uninjured state in Sprague Dawley rats...
  47. doi request reprint Perisurgical amitriptyline produces a preventive effect on afferent hypersensitivity following spared nerve injury
    Andre Arsenault
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 1X5
    Pain 146:308-14. 2009
    ..This study indicates that tricyclic antidepressants given in the perioperative period may be useful in preventing nerve injury-induced sensory changes that contribute to the development of chronic post-surgical neuropathic pain...
  48. ncbi request reprint Topical amitriptyline and ketamine in neuropathic pain syndromes: an open-label study
    Mary Elizabeth Lynch
    Pain Management Unit, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre and Department Psychiatry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    J Pain 6:644-9. 2005
    ..There was no significant systemic absorption of amitriptyline or ketamine...
  49. ncbi request reprint Intravenous adenosine alleviates neuropathic pain: a double blind placebo controlled crossover trial using an enriched enrolment design
    Mary Elizabeth Lynch
    Department of Psychiatry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada
    Pain 103:111-7. 2003
    ..The results of this study support previous reports that indicate intravenous adenosine alleviates neuropathic pain and hyperalgesia...
  50. ncbi request reprint Methylxanthines and pain
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 1X5, Canada
    Handb Exp Pharmacol 200:311-29. 2011
    ....
  51. doi request reprint Adrenergic regulation of P2X3 and TRPV1 receptors: differential effects of spared nerve injury
    Jason G Meisner
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5
    Neurosci Lett 444:172-5. 2008
    ....
  52. ncbi request reprint Topical 2% amitriptyline and 1% ketamine in neuropathic pain syndromes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    Mary E Lynch
    Pain Management Unit, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Anesthesiology 103:140-6. 2005
    ..A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled 3-week study evaluated the efficacy of topical 2% amitriptyline, 1% ketamine, and a combination of both in treating patients with neuropathic pain...
  53. ncbi request reprint Adenosine in the spinal cord and periphery: release and regulation of pain
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS Canada B3H 1X5
    Prog Neurobiol 69:313-40. 2003
    ..the factors that regulate the extracellular availability of adenosine in the spinal cord and at peripheral sites; and (b). the extent to which this adenosine affects pain signalling in these two distinct compartments...
  54. ncbi request reprint Chronic intrathecal cannulas inhibit some and potentiate other behaviors elicited by formalin injection
    Jana Sawynok
    Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada
    Pain 103:7-9. 2003
  55. ncbi request reprint Amitriptyline neurotoxicity
    Jana Sawynok
    Anesthesiology 102:240-1; author reply 241. 2005
  56. ncbi request reprint Intrathecal but not intravenous opioids release adenosine from the spinal cord
    James C Eisenach
    Department of Anesthesiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1009, USA
    J Pain 5:64-8. 2004
    ..In contrast, adenosine concentrations were unaffected by intravenous remifentanil. These results suggest that intrathecal but not systemic opioid analgesia in humans is associated with spinal release of adenosine...