Asokumar Buvanendran

Summary

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Focus on the COX-1 and COX-2 agents: renal events of nonsteroidal and anti-inflammatory drugs-NSAIDs
    Robert L Barkin
    Rush Medical College, Faculty Anesthesiology, Family Medicine, Pharmacology, Psychiatry, Rush Presbyterian St Lukes Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60010, USA
    Am J Ther 11:124-9. 2004
  2. ncbi request reprint Perioperative management with epidural anesthesia for a parturient with superior vena caval obstruction
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    Anesth Analg 98:1160-3, table of contents. 2004
  3. ncbi request reprint Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma pharmacokinetics of the cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor rofecoxib in humans: single and multiple oral drug administration
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, 1653 W Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Anesth Analg 100:1320-4, table of contents. 2005
  4. ncbi request reprint Upregulation of prostaglandin E2 and interleukins in the central nervous system and peripheral tissue during and after surgery in humans
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    Anesthesiology 104:403-10. 2006
  5. ncbi request reprint Useful adjuvants for postoperative pain management
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, 1653 W Congress Parkway, 739, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 21:31-49. 2007
  6. doi request reprint Cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitter changes during the perioperative period in patients undergoing total knee replacement: a randomized trial
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Anesth Analg 114:434-41. 2012
  7. pmc Cytokine gene expression after total hip arthroplasty: surgical site versus circulating neutrophil response
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Anesth Analg 109:959-64. 2009
  8. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of transverse tripolar spinal cord stimulator for the relief of chronic low back pain from failed back surgery
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Pain Physician 11:333-8. 2008
  9. ncbi request reprint Brain activity associated with chronic cancer pain
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, 1653 West Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Pain Physician 13:E337-42. 2010
  10. doi request reprint Can a single dose of 300 mg of pregabalin reach acute antihyperalgesic levels in the central nervous system?
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush Medical College at Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Reg Anesth Pain Med 35:535-8. 2010

Detail Information

Publications53

  1. ncbi request reprint Focus on the COX-1 and COX-2 agents: renal events of nonsteroidal and anti-inflammatory drugs-NSAIDs
    Robert L Barkin
    Rush Medical College, Faculty Anesthesiology, Family Medicine, Pharmacology, Psychiatry, Rush Presbyterian St Lukes Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60010, USA
    Am J Ther 11:124-9. 2004
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint Perioperative management with epidural anesthesia for a parturient with superior vena caval obstruction
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    Anesth Analg 98:1160-3, table of contents. 2004
    ..This report describes the successful use of regional anesthesia in this setting and discusses the relevant anesthetic and perioperative management considerations for this complex scenario...
  3. ncbi request reprint Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma pharmacokinetics of the cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor rofecoxib in humans: single and multiple oral drug administration
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, 1653 W Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Anesth Analg 100:1320-4, table of contents. 2005
    ..159. The important findings of this study are that CSF rofecoxib levels are approximately 15% of plasma levels and that repeated daily dosing more than doubles the AUC in CSF...
  4. ncbi request reprint Upregulation of prostaglandin E2 and interleukins in the central nervous system and peripheral tissue during and after surgery in humans
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    Anesthesiology 104:403-10. 2006
    ..This study examines the time course and clinical relevance of changes in prostaglandin E2 and cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid, local tissue (surgical site), and circulating blood during and after total hip replacement...
  5. ncbi request reprint Useful adjuvants for postoperative pain management
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, 1653 W Congress Parkway, 739, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 21:31-49. 2007
    ..Newer adjuvants will be needed to reduce opioid dose and concomitant side-effects, even more as same day surgeries become more routine...
  6. doi request reprint Cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitter changes during the perioperative period in patients undergoing total knee replacement: a randomized trial
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Anesth Analg 114:434-41. 2012
    ..Furthermore, we also determined whether antihyperalgesic drugs at clinically acceptable doses modulate spinal neurotransmitter concentrations in patients during the perioperative period...
  7. pmc Cytokine gene expression after total hip arthroplasty: surgical site versus circulating neutrophil response
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Anesth Analg 109:959-64. 2009
    ..We sought to better understand the contribution of neutrophils to cytokine/chemokine gene expression at the surgical wound site during the initial postsurgery phase of total hip arthroplasty (THA)...
  8. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of transverse tripolar spinal cord stimulator for the relief of chronic low back pain from failed back surgery
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Pain Physician 11:333-8. 2008
    ..Failed back surgery syndrome is a common clinical entity for which spinal cord stimulation has been found to be an effective mode of analgesia, but with variable success rates...
  9. ncbi request reprint Brain activity associated with chronic cancer pain
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, 1653 West Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Pain Physician 13:E337-42. 2010
    ..The number of neuroimaging studies that examine chronic pain are relatively small, and it is clear that different chronic pain conditions activate diverse regions of the brain...
  10. doi request reprint Can a single dose of 300 mg of pregabalin reach acute antihyperalgesic levels in the central nervous system?
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush Medical College at Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Reg Anesth Pain Med 35:535-8. 2010
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Lumiracoxib
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    Drugs Today (Barc) 43:137-47. 2007
    ..When lumiracoxib is coadministered with warfarin or aspirin, no dosage adjustment is required...
  12. doi request reprint Multimodal analgesia for controlling acute postoperative pain
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 22:588-93. 2009
    ..Yet, the literature on multimodal analgesia often shows variable degrees of success, even with studies utilizing the same adjuvant medication...
  13. doi request reprint Peripheral nerve stimulator for the treatment of supraorbital neuralgia: a retrospective case series
    S Amin
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush Medical College at Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Cephalalgia 28:355-9. 2008
    ..In selected patients, supraorbital nerve stimulation for the treatment of chronic frontal headaches appears to be efficacious...
  14. doi request reprint Preoperative and postoperative anesthetic and analgesic techniques for minimally invasive surgery of the spine
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 35:S274-80. 2010
    ..A review of methods to optimize anesthesia and analgesia for minimally invasive spine procedures...
  15. ncbi request reprint The use of brain positron emission tomography to identify sites of postoperative pain processing with and without epidural analgesia
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    Anesth Analg 105:1784-6, table of contents. 2007
    ..This study demonstrates the feasibility of evaluating the central processing of acute postoperative pain using PET...
  16. ncbi request reprint Intrathecal magnesium prolongs fentanyl analgesia: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush Medical College at Rush Presbyterian St Luke s Medical Center, 1653 W Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Anesth Analg 95:661-6, table of contents. 2002
    ..Our data indicate that intrathecal magnesium prolongs spinal opioid analgesia in humans and suggest that the availability of an intrathecal N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist could be of clinical importance for pain management...
  17. doi request reprint Perioperative oral pregabalin reduces chronic pain after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, 1653 W Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Anesth Analg 110:199-207. 2010
    ..We hypothesized that perioperative treatment with pregabalin, a chronic pain medication, would reduce the incidence of postsurgical neuropathic pain...
  18. ncbi request reprint Effects of perioperative administration of a selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor on pain management and recovery of function after knee replacement: a randomized controlled trial
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush Medical College at Rush Presbyterian St Luke s Medical Center, Chicago, Ill 60612, USA
    JAMA 290:2411-8. 2003
    ..Controlling postoperative pain after knee replacement while reducing opioid-induced adverse effects and improving outcomes remains an important challenge...
  19. doi request reprint Occult cervical (C1-2) dural tear causing bilateral recurrent subdural hematomas and repaired with cervical epidural blood patch
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    J Neurosurg Spine 9:483-7. 2008
    ..The results of follow-up computed tomography of the brain at 1, 4, 8, and 16 weeks were normal, and at 1-year follow-up the patient was completely free of symptoms and working...
  20. ncbi request reprint Characterization of a new animal model for evaluation of persistent postthoracotomy pain
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, 1653 W Congress Parkway, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Anesth Analg 99:1453-60; table of contents. 2004
    ..This new model may be useful for quantifying the efficacy of techniques to reduce the frequency and severity of long-term postthoracotomy pain...
  21. doi request reprint A new knee surgery model in rats to evaluate functional measures of postoperative pain
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical College, Chicago, IL, USA
    Anesth Analg 107:300-8. 2008
    ..We used a new animal knee surgery model to characterize pain-related behavior in the rat, and its therapeutic modulation with systemic and intrathecal drug treatment...
  22. ncbi request reprint Postoperative pain and analgesic responses are similar in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats
    Jeffrey S Kroin
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush Medical College, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    Can J Anaesth 50:904-8. 2003
    ..The present study compares postoperative pain scores in male and female rats and how they respond to analgesic interventions...
  23. ncbi request reprint Preventing the development of chronic pain after orthopaedic surgery with preventive multimodal analgesic techniques
    Scott S Reuben
    Department of Anesthesiology, Baystate Medical Center, 759 Chestnut Street, Springfield, MA 01199, USA
    J Bone Joint Surg Am 89:1343-58. 2007
    ..Effective multimodal analgesic techniques include the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, local anesthetics, alpha-2 agonists, ketamine, alpha(2)-delta ligands, and opioids...
  24. pmc Predictors for moderate to severe acute postoperative pain after total hip and knee replacement
    Spencer S Liu
    Department of Anesthesiology, Hospital for Special Surgery and Weill Cornell Medical College, 535 East 70th St, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Int Orthop 36:2261-7. 2012
    ..We undertook this multi-centre cross-sectional study to identify preoperative risk factors for moderate to severe pain after total hip (THR) and knee (TKR) replacement...
  25. ncbi request reprint Local anesthetic sciatic nerve block and nerve fiber damage in diabetic rats
    Jeffrey S Kroin
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Reg Anesth Pain Med 35:343-50. 2010
    ..However, it is not clear whether a smaller local anesthetic dose that produces negligible nerve fiber damage in normal rats will produce significant nerve damage in diabetic rats and if adding adjuvant drugs modulates this effect...
  26. ncbi request reprint Characterization of pain and pharmacologic responses in an animal model of lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis
    Jeffrey S Kroin
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush Medical College, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 30:1828-31. 2005
    ..The study used a small animal laminectomy model with kaolin to investigate the relationship of cauda equina pathology to pain, and the effects of systemic and intrathecal drugs to reduce pain...
  27. ncbi request reprint Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition potentiates morphine antinociception at the spinal level in a postoperative pain model
    Jeffrey S Kroin
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush Medical College at Rush Presbyterian St Luke s Medical Center, Chicago IL 60612, USA
    Reg Anesth Pain Med 27:451-5. 2002
    ..This study investigates whether a water-soluble COX-2 selective inhibitor, L-745337, can modify allodynic responses in a rat model of postoperative pain...
  28. pmc Validation of proposed diagnostic criteria (the "Budapest Criteria") for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    R Norman Harden
    Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Pain 150:268-74. 2010
    ..Overall, results corroborate the validity of the Budapest Criteria and suggest they improve upon existing IASP diagnostic criteria for CRPS...
  29. ncbi request reprint Upregulation of cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral prostaglandin E2 in a rat postoperative pain model
    Jeffrey S Kroin
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush Medical College, 1653 W Congress Parkway, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    Anesth Analg 103:334-43, table of contents. 2006
    ..Thoracic surgical wounds increase pain-related behavior and CSF and tissue PGE2 levels, all of which can be attenuated by oral cyclooxygenase inhibitors...
  30. ncbi request reprint Upregulation of spinal cyclooxygenase-2 in rats after surgical incision
    Jeffrey S Kroin
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush Medical College, 1653 West Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Anesthesiology 100:364-9. 2004
    ..The present study uses a bilateral foot incision in rats to examine the magnitude and duration of surgically induced changes in spinal COX-2 protein...
  31. ncbi request reprint The analgesic efficacy of celecoxib, pregabalin, and their combination for spinal fusion surgery
    Scott S Reuben
    Department of Anesthesiology, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts 01199, USA
    Anesth Analg 103:1271-7. 2006
    ..In this trial, we assessed the analgesic efficacy of administering perioperative celecoxib, pregabalin, or both after spinal fusion surgery...
  32. doi request reprint Effect of acute versus continuous glycemic control on duration of local anesthetic sciatic nerve block in diabetic rats
    Jeffrey S Kroin
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Reg Anesth Pain Med 37:595-600. 2012
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate in diabetic rats the importance of glycemic control before peripheral nerve block...
  33. pmc The rat intervertebral disk degeneration pain model: relationships between biological and structural alterations and pain
    Jae Sung Kim
    Department of Biochemistry, Rush University Medical Center, Cohn Research BD 516, 1735 West Harrison Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Arthritis Res Ther 13:R165. 2011
    ..Degeneration of the interverterbral disk is as a cause of low-back pain is increasing. To gain insight into relationships between biological processes, structural alterations and behavioral pain, we created an animal model in rats...
  34. ncbi request reprint Clonidine prolongation of lidocaine analgesia after sciatic nerve block in rats Is mediated via the hyperpolarization-activated cation current, not by alpha-adrenoreceptors
    Jeffrey S Kroin
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush Medical College, 1653 W Congress Parkway, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    Anesthesiology 101:488-94. 2004
    ..Although clonidine is commonly combined with local anesthetics to extend duration of peripheral nerve block, the mechanism by which clonidine potentiates local anesthetic action in vivo is unclear...
  35. doi request reprint Safety of local anesthetics administered intrathecally in diabetic rats
    Jeffrey S Kroin
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Pain Med 13:802-7. 2012
    ..We examined block duration and histology of spinal cord and roots with intrathecal local anesthetics in diabetic rats...
  36. doi request reprint Endogenous opioid inhibition of chronic low-back pain influences degree of back pain relief after morphine administration
    Stephen Bruehl
    From the Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN Department of Behavioral Science, Rush University, Chicago, IL Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University, Chicago, IL and Department of Psychology, Ohio University, Athens, OH
    Reg Anesth Pain Med 39:120-5. 2014
    ..We tested whether individual differences in endogenous opioid inhibition of chronic low-back pain were associated with the magnitude of acute reductions in back pain ratings after morphine administration...
  37. pmc Characterization of a new animal model for evaluation and treatment of back pain due to lumbar facet joint osteoarthritis
    Jae Sung Kim
    Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 63:2966-73. 2011
    ..This study was undertaken to investigate the biologic links between cellular and structural alterations within facet joint components and the development of symptomatic chronic back pain...
  38. doi request reprint Upregulation of dorsal horn microglial cyclooxygenase-1 and neuronal cyclooxygenase-2 after thoracic deep muscle incisions in the rat
    Jeffrey S Kroin
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush Medical College, 1653 West Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Anesth Analg 106:1288-95, table of contents. 2008
    ..Our hypothesis in this study was that a deep thoracic incision causes COX-1 and COX-2 upregulation in the dorsal horn coincident with pain-related behavior, and that specific cell types contribute to this increase in COX expression...
  39. ncbi request reprint Postoperative modulation of central nervous system prostaglandin E2 by cyclooxygenase inhibitors after vascular surgery
    Scott S Reuben
    Department of Anesthesiology, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts 01199, USA
    Anesthesiology 104:411-6. 2006
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint The mechanisms of intracranial pressure modulation by epidural blood and other injectates in a postdural puncture rat model
    Jeffrey S Kroin
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush Medical College at Rush Presbyterian St Luke s Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    Anesth Analg 95:423-9, table of contents. 2002
    ..Sealing the dural defect does not effectively correct CSF pressure unless an epidural tamponade effect is also maintained...
  41. pmc A prospective randomized trial of mini-incision posterior and two-incision total hip arthroplasty
    Craig J Della Valle
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, 1725 West Harrison, Suite 1063, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Clin Orthop Relat Res 468:3348-54. 2010
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Anesthetic techniques for minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    J Knee Surg 19:133-6. 2006
  43. doi request reprint A cross-sectional survey on prevalence and risk factors for persistent postsurgical pain 1 year after total hip and knee replacement
    Spencer S Liu
    Department of Anesthesiology, Hospital for Special Surgery and Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Reg Anesth Pain Med 37:415-22. 2012
    ..We surveyed a variety of practices and patients and also correlated persistent pain with health-related quality-of-life outcomes...
  44. doi request reprint Uncomplicated removal of epidural catheters in 4365 patients with international normalized ratio greater than 1.4 during initiation of warfarin therapy
    Spencer S Liu
    Department of Anesthesiology, Cornell University, New York, NY, USA
    Reg Anesth Pain Med 36:231-5. 2011
    ..However, these guidelines are based primarily on expert consensus, and there is controversy regarding this recommendation as being "too conservative."..
  45. ncbi request reprint Response of chronic pain patients to terrorism: the role of underlying depression
    Mario Moric
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush Medical College at Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    Pain Med 8:425-32. 2007
    ..This study seeks to identify characteristics of the chronic pain patient population that may increase vulnerability to vicariously experienced psychological trauma...
  46. doi request reprint Recent advances in multimodal analgesia
    Adam Young
    Department of Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Anesthesiol Clin 30:91-100. 2012
    ..However, further large-scale randomized trials need to be performed to further establish and demonstrate the long-term benefit of multimodal therapy for patients undergoing surgery...
  47. doi request reprint Development of a severity score for CRPS
    R Norman Harden
    Center for Pain Studies, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Pain 151:870-6. 2010
    ..Its utility as an outcome measure in research studies is also suggested, with potential statistical advantages over dichotomous diagnostic criteria...
  48. doi request reprint Endogenous opioid function mediates the association between laboratory-evoked pain sensitivity and morphine analgesic responses
    Stephen Bruehl
    Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37212, USA
    Pain 154:1856-64. 2013
    ..In the laboratory-evoked pain context, opioid analgesic medications may supplement inadequate EO analgesia, with little incremental benefit in those with preexisting high EO function. Implications for personalized medicine are discussed...
  49. ncbi request reprint Where in the world is ASRA AcutePOP?
    Spencer S Liu
    Department of Anesthesiology, Hospital for Special Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA
    Reg Anesth Pain Med 34:269-74. 2009
    ..Development of a Web site and applications continues, and a demonstration is planned for the ASRA 2009 meeting...
  50. ncbi request reprint Preoperative cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor treatment reduces the incidence of heterotopic ossification after hip arthroplasty: six-month follow-up
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Anesthesiology 107:358-9. 2007
  51. doi request reprint Early use of memantine for neuropathic pain
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    Anesth Analg 107:1093-4. 2008
  52. ncbi request reprint Ethnic similarities and differences in the chronic pain experience: a comparison of african american, Hispanic, and white patients
    Robert R Edwards
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
    Pain Med 6:88-98. 2005
    ..However, few studies have evaluated all of these variables, or matched ethnic groups precisely on potential confounds...
  53. ncbi request reprint Why does the pain specialist not meet the needs of the referring physicians?
    Asokumar Buvanendran
    J Opioid Manag 4:11-2. 2008