M J Beran

Summary

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Delay of gratification and delay maintenance by rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)
    Theodore A Evans
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA
    J Gen Psychol 134:199-216. 2007
  2. doi request reprint Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) can wait, when they choose to: a study with the hybrid delay task
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA, 30302, USA
    Anim Cogn 17:197-205. 2014
  3. pmc Visual nesting of stimuli affects rhesus monkeys' (Macaca mulatta) quantity judgments in a bisection task
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA, 30302, USA
    Atten Percept Psychophys 75:1243-51. 2013
  4. doi request reprint Language-trained chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) name what they have seen but look first at what they have not seen
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University Atlanta, GA 30302, USA
    Psychol Sci 24:660-6. 2013
  5. pmc Sequential responding and planning in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA
    Anim Cogn 15:1085-94. 2012
  6. pmc Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) remember future responses in a computerized task
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 38:233-43. 2012
  7. pmc Language-trained chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) delay gratification by choosing token exchange over immediate reward consumption
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA
    Am J Primatol 74:864-70. 2012
  8. doi request reprint Animal memory: rats can answer unexpected questions about past events
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA
    Curr Biol 22:R491-3. 2012
  9. pmc Humans and monkeys show similar skill in estimating uncertain outcomes
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, Georgia 30302, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 19:357-62. 2012
  10. pmc Quantity judgments of auditory and visual stimuli by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 38:23-9. 2012

Detail Information

Publications58

  1. ncbi request reprint Delay of gratification and delay maintenance by rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)
    Theodore A Evans
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA
    J Gen Psychol 134:199-216. 2007
    ....
  2. doi request reprint Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) can wait, when they choose to: a study with the hybrid delay task
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA, 30302, USA
    Anim Cogn 17:197-205. 2014
    ..Here, chimpanzees instead demonstrated that their choices for the LL option in the ITC phase of the hybrid delay task were confirmed by their ability to sustain long delays during accumulation of LL rewards. ..
  3. pmc Visual nesting of stimuli affects rhesus monkeys' (Macaca mulatta) quantity judgments in a bisection task
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA, 30302, USA
    Atten Percept Psychophys 75:1243-51. 2013
    ....
  4. doi request reprint Language-trained chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) name what they have seen but look first at what they have not seen
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University Atlanta, GA 30302, USA
    Psychol Sci 24:660-6. 2013
    ..Thus, chimpanzees showed efficient information-seeking behavior that suggested they knew what they had or had not already seen when it was time to name a hidden item...
  5. pmc Sequential responding and planning in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA
    Anim Cogn 15:1085-94. 2012
    ..These data indicate that capuchin monkeys performed very similarly to chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys and appeared to plan their selection sequences during the computerized task, but only to a limited degree...
  6. pmc Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) remember future responses in a computerized task
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 38:233-43. 2012
    ..These results indicated that monkeys could anticipate future responses and retain and implement those responses when appropriate...
  7. pmc Language-trained chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) delay gratification by choosing token exchange over immediate reward consumption
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA
    Am J Primatol 74:864-70. 2012
    ..This finding illustrates the utility of symbolic token exchange for assessing self-control in nonhuman animals...
  8. doi request reprint Animal memory: rats can answer unexpected questions about past events
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA
    Curr Biol 22:R491-3. 2012
    ..The results highlight potential shared mechanisms for remembering personal events in rats and humans, and offer new insights into the nature of animal memory...
  9. pmc Humans and monkeys show similar skill in estimating uncertain outcomes
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, Georgia 30302, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 19:357-62. 2012
    ..This comparability across species suggests that tallying ongoing average rates of return from repeated choices occurs spontaneously and likely serves an adaptive purpose when dealing with uncertainty in the environment...
  10. pmc Quantity judgments of auditory and visual stimuli by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 38:23-9. 2012
    ..In addition, they accommodated empty sets into these judgments, although not perfectly. Thus, chimpanzees can judge auditory quantities in flexible ways that show many similarities to how they compare visual quantities...
  11. pmc Delay of gratification by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in working and waiting situations
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    Behav Processes 80:177-81. 2009
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Summation and quantity judgments of sequentially presented sets by capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303, USA
    Am J Primatol 70:191-4. 2008
    ..Capuchins also inhibit responses to visible food items when those items are only part of an overall smaller quantity of food compared with a completely nonvisible set...
  13. pmc Quantity representation in children and rhesus monkeys: linear versus logarithmic scales
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    J Exp Child Psychol 100:225-33. 2008
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) enumerate large and small sequentially presented sets of items using analog numerical representations
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302 5010, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 33:42-54. 2007
    ..Overall, the data indicated that rhesus monkeys estimate the approximate number of items in sequentially presented sets and that they are not relying solely on nonnumerical cues such as rate, duration, or cumulative amount...
  15. pmc Perception of food amounts by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): the role of magnitude, contiguity, and wholeness
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 5010, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 35:516-24. 2009
    ..These results provide evidence of suboptimal responding in some natural choice situations that prevents chimpanzees from maximizing food intake...
  16. doi request reprint The psychological organization of "uncertainty" responses and "middle" responses: a dissociation in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 35:371-81. 2009
    ....
  17. doi request reprint Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) accurately compare poured liquid quantities
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    Anim Cogn 13:641-9. 2010
    ..This performance demonstrated a similarity in the quantitative discrimination skills of chimpanzees for continuous quantities that matches that previously shown for discrete quantities...
  18. doi request reprint Monkeys (Macaca mulatta and Cebus apella) track, enumerate, and compare multiple sets of moving items
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta 30302, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 34:63-74. 2008
    ..Rhesus monkeys performed comparably to adult humans when directly compared although capuchin performance was lower...
  19. pmc The evolutionary and developmental foundations of mathematics
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 6:e19. 2008
  20. doi request reprint Numerical judgments by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in a token economy
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 37:165-74. 2011
    ..The tokens were treated as equivalent to food items on the basis of their numerousness, and the chimpanzees maximized reward by choosing the larger number of items in all situations...
  21. pmc Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) show the isolation effect during serial list recognition memory tests
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA
    Anim Cogn 14:637-45. 2011
    ..Thus, chimpanzees may share with humans some aspects of memory organization that involve spontaneously categorizing visual stimuli and recognizing categorically unique stimuli...
  22. pmc Information seeking by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)
    Michael J Beran
    Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA
    Cognition 120:90-105. 2011
    ..Capuchins did not. The research findings bear on the phylogenetic distribution of metacognition across the vertebrates, and on the underlying psychological requirements for metacognitive and information-seeking performances...
  23. pmc When in doubt, chimpanzees rely on estimates of past reward amounts
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 276:309-14. 2009
    ..This indicated that the chimpanzees' decisions in the face of uncertainty were guided by a sense of how well they were rewarded overall during the session...
  24. pmc Use of exclusion by a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) during speech perception and auditory-visual matching-to-sample
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Behav Processes 83:287-91. 2010
    ..The chimpanzee reliably avoided choosing known comparisons for these unknown samples, instead relying on exclusion to choose comparisons that were of unknown lexigrams or photographs of items without associated lexigram symbols...
  25. doi request reprint Ordinal judgments of symbolic stimuli by capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): the effects of differential and nondifferential reward
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta 30302, USA
    J Comp Psychol 122:52-61. 2008
    ..Both species performed better with the numerals, suggesting that an ordinal sequence of all stimuli had been learned during Experiment 1, rather than a matrix of two-choice discriminations...
  26. pmc Chimpanzee responding during matching to sample: control by exclusion
    Michael J Beran
    Georgia State University, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 78:497-508. 2002
    ..A final experiment, however, indicated that, despite the use of exclusion to complete trials with undefined samples correctly, the chimpanzees did not learn new associations between undefined samples and comparisons...
  27. ncbi request reprint Chimpanzees remember the results of one-by-one addition of food items to sets over extended time periods
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, USA
    Psychol Sci 15:94-9. 2004
    ..8, 5 vs. 10, and 6 vs. 10) to cast doubt on the possibility that the chimpanzees were using an object file mechanism. These chimpanzees are the first nonhuman animals to demonstrate extended memory for accumulated quantity...
  28. ncbi request reprint Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) respond to nonvisible sets after one-by-one addition and removal of items
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Decatur, GA, USA
    J Comp Psychol 118:25-36. 2004
    ..In Experiment 3, 1 of the 2 initially presented sets was reduced in number by the sequential removal of 1, 2, or 3 items. Both chimpanzees performed above chance levels for the removal of 1, but not more than 1, item...
  29. ncbi request reprint Long-term retention of the differential values of Arabic numerals by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, 3401 Panthersville Road, Decatur, GA 30034, USA
    Anim Cogn 7:86-92. 2004
    ..These data provide an experimental demonstration of long-term retention of the differential values of Arabic numerals by chimpanzees...
  30. ncbi request reprint Sequential responding and planning in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta 30303, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 30:203-12. 2004
    ..The data indicated that the animals planned only the next selection during these computerized tasks as opposed to planning the entire response sequence...
  31. ncbi request reprint Spatial memory and monitoring of hidden items through spatial displacements by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Decatur, GA 30034, USA
    J Comp Psychol 119:14-22. 2005
    ..Both items were found at levels significantly better than chance. Ninety percent of errors were made after the 1st item was found, and errors reflected memory failure rather than a failure of inhibitory control...
  32. ncbi request reprint Summation and numerousness judgments of sequentially presented sets of items by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)
    M J Beran
    Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Decatur 30034, USA
    J Comp Psychol 115:181-91. 2001
    ..In Experiments 3 and 4, 1 chimpanzee performed at a level significantly better than chance. Therefore, chimpanzees mentally represent quantity and successfully combine and compare nonvisible, sequentially presented sets of items...
  33. ncbi request reprint Ordinal judgments and summation of nonvisible sets of food items by two chimpanzees and a rhesus macaque
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Decatur, 30034, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 31:351-62. 2005
    ..This difficulty was not overcome by sequential presentation of containers into opaque receptacles, but performance improved if the quantitative difference between sizes was very large...
  34. ncbi request reprint Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use markers to monitor the movement of a hidden item
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, 3401 Panthersville Road, Decatur, GA 30034, USA
    Primates 46:255-9. 2005
    ..However, there was no benefit to the use of symbolic as opposed to non-symbolic stimuli in this performance...
  35. ncbi request reprint Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) monitor uncertainty during numerosity judgments
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, 30302, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 32:111-9. 2006
    ..This research shows that monkeys' uncertainty-monitoring capacity extends to the domain of numerical cognition. It also shows monkeys' use of the purest uncertainty response possible, uncontaminated by any secondary motivator...
  36. ncbi request reprint Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) succeed on a computerized test designed to assess conservation of discrete quantity
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, 3401 Panthersville Road, Decatur, GA 30034, USA
    Anim Cogn 10:37-45. 2007
    ..Therefore, monkeys responded on the basis of the quantity of items, and they were not distracted by non-quantitative manipulations of the sets...
  37. ncbi request reprint Maintenance of delay of gratification by four chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): the effects of delayed reward visibility, experimenter presence, and extended delay intervals
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, P O Box 5010, Atlanta, GA 30303, United States
    Behav Processes 73:315-24. 2006
    ..A final experiment with the automated paradigm indicated that individuals could delay gratification for up to 11min in order to obtain all 36 food items...
  38. ncbi request reprint Nonverbal estimation during numerosity judgements by adult humans
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30034, USA
    Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 59:2065-82. 2006
    ..These data indicate a mechanism for the approximate representation of numerosity in adult humans that might be shared with nonhuman animals...
  39. ncbi request reprint A Stroop-like effect in color-naming of color-word lexigrams by a chimpanzee (Pan troglodyte)
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA
    J Gen Psychol 134:217-28. 2007
    ..The authors' results demonstrated color-word interference in a Stroop task with a nonhuman animal...
  40. ncbi request reprint Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) succeed in a test of quantity conservation
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    Anim Cogn 11:109-16. 2008
    ..The data indicate that capuchins are sensitive to simply arithmetic manipulations that involve addition of items to arrays and also that they can conserve quantity...
  41. ncbi request reprint Maintenance of self-imposed delay of gratification by four chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
    Michael J Beran
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Decatur 30034, USA
    J Gen Psychol 129:49-66. 2002
    ..The chimpanzees were highly successful in obtaining all food pieces, and there was no difference in performance as a function of food type...
  42. ncbi request reprint Ordinal-list integration for symbolic, arbitrary, and analog stimuli by rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)
    Emily H Harris
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA
    J Gen Psychol 134:183-97. 2007
    ..The consistent use of an ordinal rule, despite different types of training and varying degrees of experience with the 4 types of stimuli, suggested that the monkey had a robust concept of ordinality...
  43. ncbi request reprint The comparative study of metacognition: sharper paradigms, safer inferences
    J David Smith
    Department of Psychology, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 15:679-91. 2008
    ....
  44. pmc Implicit and explicit category learning by macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens)
    J David Smith
    Department of Psychology, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 36:54-65. 2010
    ..These results demonstrate an empirical continuity between human and nonhuman primate cognition, suggesting that nonhuman primates may have some structural components of humans' capacity for explicit cognition...
  45. ncbi request reprint Disconnect in concept learning by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): judgment of relations and relations-between-relations
    Timothy M Flemming
    Department of Psychology and Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302 5010, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 33:55-63. 2007
    ..Subsequent failure in the judgment of relations-between-relations, however, suggests that perhaps a qualitatively different cognitive component exists that prevents monkeys from behaving analogically...
  46. doi request reprint Quantity judgments of sequentially presented food items by capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)
    Theodore A Evans
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA
    Anim Cogn 12:97-105. 2009
    ..Overall, these findings support the analog magnitude model of quantity representation as an explanation for capuchin monkeys' quantification of sequentially presented food items...
  47. doi request reprint What meaning means for same and different: Analogical reasoning in humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)
    Timothy M Flemming
    Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302 5010, USA
    J Comp Psychol 122:176-85. 2008
    ..Rhesus monkeys did not succeed in the RMTS task regardless of stimulus meaning, suggesting that their ability to reason analogically, if present at all, may be dependent on a dimension other than the representational value of stimuli...
  48. doi request reprint Memory for "what", "where", and "when" information in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)
    Megan L Hoffman
    Department of Psychology and Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 35:143-52. 2009
    ..The rhesus monkeys reported all three components of the events, and there was some evidence suggesting that these components were integrated in working memory...
  49. doi request reprint What do Arabic numerals mean to macaques (Macaca mulatta)?
    Emily H Harris
    Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 36:66-76. 2010
    ..The results of these studies indicate that the monkeys have knowledge of the approximate quantities represented by each numeral...
  50. doi request reprint Trading behavior between conspecifics in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes
    Sarah F Brosnan
    Department of Psychology, Neuroscience Institute, and Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Comp Psychol 123:181-94. 2009
    ..The authors discuss possible reasons for these findings as well as implications for the evolution of barter across the primate lineage...
  51. doi request reprint Delaying gratification for food and tokens in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): when quantity is salient, symbolic stimuli do not improve performance
    T A Evans
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Anim Cogn 15:539-48. 2012
    ..This is consistent with previous findings on the effects of symbols on self-control and illuminates what makes accumulation a particularly challenging task...
  52. ncbi request reprint Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) select Arabic numerals or visual quantities corresponding to a number of sequentially completed maze trials
    Emily H Harris
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30034, USA
    Learn Behav 35:53-9. 2007
    ..This indicates that the monkey was keeping track of the approximate number of maze trials completed in each series and using that numerical cue to respond during the same/different discrimination...
  53. ncbi request reprint Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) remember the location of a hidden food item after altering their orientation to a spatial array
    Megan L Hoffman
    Department of Psychology and Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    J Comp Psychol 120:389-93. 2006
    ..These results demonstrate another capacity for spatial memory in this species that complements data indicating chimpanzee spatial memory for invisible displacements, array rotations, and array transpositions...
  54. pmc Chimpanzees use self-distraction to cope with impulsivity
    Theodore A Evans
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA
    Biol Lett 3:599-602. 2007
    ..Thus, chimpanzees engaged in self-distraction with the toys when such behaviour was most beneficial as a coping mechanism...
  55. ncbi request reprint An efficient computerized testing method for the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella): adaptation of the LRC-CTS to a socially housed nonhuman primate species
    Theodore A Evans
    Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Decatur, Georgia 30034, USA
    Behav Res Methods 40:590-6. 2008
    ..Several elements that were important in motivating the monkeys to participate are discussed...
  56. pmc With his memory magnetically erased, a monkey knows he is uncertain
    David A Washburn
    Language Research Center, Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    Biol Lett 6:160-2. 2010
    ....
  57. pmc Chimpanzee autarky
    Sarah F Brosnan
    Department of Anthropology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    PLoS ONE 3:e1518. 2008
    ....
  58. ncbi request reprint Dissociating uncertainty responses and reinforcement signals in the comparative study of uncertainty monitoring
    J David Smith
    Department of Psychology and Center for Cognitive Science, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA
    J Exp Psychol Gen 135:282-97. 2006
    ..This finding unifies the comparative literature on uncertainty monitoring. The dissociation of performance from reinforcement has theoretical implications, and the deferred-feedback technique has many applications...