Kristel Van Laethem

Summary

Affiliation: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
Country: Belgium

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint A genotypic assay for the amplification and sequencing of gag and protease from diverse human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtypes
    Kristel Van Laethem
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    J Virol Methods 132:181-6. 2006
  2. ncbi request reprint Mutations at 65 and 70 within the context of a Q151M cluster in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase impact the susceptibility to the different nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in distinct ways
    Kristel Van Laethem
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, and AIDS Reference Laboratory, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Infect Genet Evol 7:600-3. 2007
  3. ncbi request reprint No response to first-line tenofovir+lamivudine+efavirenz despite optimization according to baseline resistance testing: impact of resistant minority variants on efficacy of low genetic barrier drugs
    Kristel Van Laethem
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Clin Virol 39:43-7. 2007
  4. ncbi request reprint A genotypic resistance assay for the detection of drug resistance in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope gene
    Kristel Van Laethem
    Rega Institute for Medical Research and University Hospitals Leuven, Microbiology and Immunology, Clinical and Epidemiological Virology, AIDS Reference Laboratory, Minderbroedersstraat 10, Leuven 3000, Belgium
    J Virol Methods 123:25-34. 2005
  5. doi request reprint A genotypic assay for the amplification and sequencing of integrase from diverse HIV-1 group M subtypes
    Kristel Van Laethem
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    J Virol Methods 153:176-81. 2008
  6. doi request reprint Evolution of genotypic resistance to enfuvirtide in HIV-1 isolates from different group M subtypes
    Kris Covens
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    J Clin Virol 44:325-8. 2009
  7. pmc Pradimicin S, a highly soluble nonpeptidic small-size carbohydrate-binding antibiotic, is an anti-HIV drug lead for both microbicidal and systemic use
    Jan Balzarini
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:1425-35. 2010
  8. pmc Actinohivin, a broadly neutralizing prokaryotic lectin, inhibits HIV-1 infection by specifically targeting high-mannose-type glycans on the gp120 envelope
    Bart Hoorelbeke
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, Leuven B 3000, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:3287-301. 2010
  9. doi request reprint Prevalence and epidemiology of HIV type 1 drug resistance among newly diagnosed therapy-naive patients in Belgium from 2003 to 2006
    Jurgen Vercauteren
    Rega Institute for Medical Research and University Hospitals, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 24:355-62. 2008
  10. pmc Estimating the individualized HIV-1 genetic barrier to resistance using a nelfinavir fitness landscape
    Kristof Theys
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    BMC Bioinformatics 11:409. 2010

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications55

  1. ncbi request reprint A genotypic assay for the amplification and sequencing of gag and protease from diverse human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtypes
    Kristel Van Laethem
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    J Virol Methods 132:181-6. 2006
    ..The population sequences of the three other samples lacked a part of the sequence because of heterogeneous signal, probably due to the presence of quasi-species with insertions/deletions of a different length...
  2. ncbi request reprint Mutations at 65 and 70 within the context of a Q151M cluster in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase impact the susceptibility to the different nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in distinct ways
    Kristel Van Laethem
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, and AIDS Reference Laboratory, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Infect Genet Evol 7:600-3. 2007
    ..In vitro culturing in the presence of tenofovir resulted in further enhancement of phenotypic resistance levels towards tenofovir and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors due to the development of K65R...
  3. ncbi request reprint No response to first-line tenofovir+lamivudine+efavirenz despite optimization according to baseline resistance testing: impact of resistant minority variants on efficacy of low genetic barrier drugs
    Kristel Van Laethem
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Clin Virol 39:43-7. 2007
    ..Resistance testing has been implemented into clinical guidelines as it has shown some beneficial effect on subsequent therapy response...
  4. ncbi request reprint A genotypic resistance assay for the detection of drug resistance in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope gene
    Kristel Van Laethem
    Rega Institute for Medical Research and University Hospitals Leuven, Microbiology and Immunology, Clinical and Epidemiological Virology, AIDS Reference Laboratory, Minderbroedersstraat 10, Leuven 3000, Belgium
    J Virol Methods 123:25-34. 2005
    ..This study demonstrates that the assay is able to genotype genetically diverse HIV-1 strains with a good sensitivity...
  5. doi request reprint A genotypic assay for the amplification and sequencing of integrase from diverse HIV-1 group M subtypes
    Kristel Van Laethem
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    J Virol Methods 153:176-81. 2008
    ..The relevance of these polymorphisms in the absence of the signature mutations remains unclear...
  6. doi request reprint Evolution of genotypic resistance to enfuvirtide in HIV-1 isolates from different group M subtypes
    Kris Covens
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    J Clin Virol 44:325-8. 2009
    ..However, most studies include only subtype B strains, while it is known that especially the env region is very divergent among subtypes...
  7. pmc Pradimicin S, a highly soluble nonpeptidic small-size carbohydrate-binding antibiotic, is an anti-HIV drug lead for both microbicidal and systemic use
    Jan Balzarini
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:1425-35. 2010
    ..It proved stable at high temperature and low pH. Therefore, PRM-S may qualify as a potential anti-HIV drug candidate for further (pre)clinical studies, including its microbicidal use...
  8. pmc Actinohivin, a broadly neutralizing prokaryotic lectin, inhibits HIV-1 infection by specifically targeting high-mannose-type glycans on the gp120 envelope
    Bart Hoorelbeke
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, Leuven B 3000, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:3287-301. 2010
    ....
  9. doi request reprint Prevalence and epidemiology of HIV type 1 drug resistance among newly diagnosed therapy-naive patients in Belgium from 2003 to 2006
    Jurgen Vercauteren
    Rega Institute for Medical Research and University Hospitals, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 24:355-62. 2008
    ..e., zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz. Our results support the implementation of genotypic resistance testing as a standard of care in all treatment-naive patients in Belgium...
  10. pmc Estimating the individualized HIV-1 genetic barrier to resistance using a nelfinavir fitness landscape
    Kristof Theys
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    BMC Bioinformatics 11:409. 2010
    ..By simulation of evolution over this landscape, the individualized genetic barrier to NFV resistance may be estimated for an isolate...
  11. doi request reprint The rare HIV-1 gp41 mutations 43T and 50V elevate enfuvirtide resistance levels of common enfuvirtide resistance mutations that did not impact susceptibility to sifuvirtide
    Kris Covens
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
    Antiviral Res 86:253-60. 2010
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Carbohydrate-binding agents cause deletions of highly conserved glycosylation sites in HIV GP120: a new therapeutic concept to hit the achilles heel of HIV
    Jan Balzarini
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
    J Biol Chem 280:41005-14. 2005
    ..It forces HIV to escape drug pressure by deleting the indispensable glycans on its GP120, thereby obligatorily exposing previously hidden immunogenic epitopes on its envelope...
  13. doi request reprint Glycan deletions in the HIV-1 gp120 V1/V2 domain compromise viral infectivity, sensitize the mutant virus strains to carbohydrate-binding agents and represent a specific target for therapeutic intervention
    Joeri Auwerx
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, K U Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Virology 382:10-9. 2008
    ..The gp120 V1/V2 loop glycans of HIV-1 should therefore be considered as a hot spot and novel target for specific therapeutic drug intervention...
  14. ncbi request reprint Performance of the VERSANT HIV-1 resistance assays (LiPA) for detecting drug resistance in therapy-naive patients infected with different HIV-1 subtypes
    Inge Derdelinckx
    Rega Institute for Medical Research and University Hospitals, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, 3000, Leuven, Belgium
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 39:119-24. 2003
    ..45% for RT; 6.85% for PRO) and minor discordances (4.13% for RT; 0.25% for PRO). Major discordances were rare (0.46% for RT; 0.12% for PRO). Indeterminate reactions were significantly associated with strains belonging to non-B subtypes...
  15. ncbi request reprint Marked depletion of glycosylation sites in HIV-1 gp120 under selection pressure by the mannose-specific plant lectins of Hippeastrum hybrid and Galanthus nivalis
    Jan Balzarini
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
    Mol Pharmacol 67:1556-65. 2005
    ..The mutant viruses containing the deleted glycosylation sites were markedly more infectious in CEM T-cell cultures than wild-type virus...
  16. ncbi request reprint Performance of ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System in routine practice at a Belgian clinical laboratory
    Bart Maes
    Clinical and Epidemiological Virology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Virol Methods 119:45-9. 2004
    ..3% of the cases where primer A failed. Most of these positive results were subtype B (74%). As a result of sequencing problems 65 out of 351 (18.5%) samples had to be processed with "in-house" procedures...
  17. doi request reprint Bayesian network analyses of resistance pathways against efavirenz and nevirapine
    Koen Deforche
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    AIDS 22:2107-15. 2008
    ..To clarify the role of novel mutations selected by treatment with efavirenz or nevirapine, and investigate the influence of HIV-1 subtype on nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (nNRTI) resistance pathways...
  18. ncbi request reprint Modelled in vivo HIV fitness under drug selective pressure and estimated genetic barrier towards resistance are predictive for virological response
    Koen Deforche
    Rega Institute, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Antivir Ther 13:399-407. 2008
    ..A method has been developed to estimate a fitness landscape experienced by HIV-1 under treatment selective pressure as a function of the genotypic sequence thereby also estimating the genetic barrier to resistance...
  19. pmc Pradimicin A, a carbohydrate-binding nonpeptidic lead compound for treatment of infections with viruses with highly glycosylated envelopes, such as human immunodeficiency virus
    Jan Balzarini
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Virol 81:362-73. 2007
    ....
  20. pmc Novel recombinant virus assay for measuring susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtypes to clinically approved drugs
    Kris Covens
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    J Clin Microbiol 47:2232-42. 2009
    ....
  21. pmc Transmitted drug resistance, selection of resistance mutations and moderate antiretroviral efficacy in HIV-2: analysis of the HIV-2 Belgium and Luxembourg database
    Jean Ruelle
    Universite Catholique de Louvain, AIDS Reference Laboratory, Avenue Hippocrate 54 5492, 1200 Bruxelles, Belgium
    BMC Infect Dis 8:21. 2008
    ..Guidelines established for the treatment of HIV-1 infection and genotype interpretation do not apply for HIV-2. Data about antiretroviral (ARV) drug efficacy and resistance mutations is scarce...
  22. pmc Treatment-associated polymorphisms in protease are significantly associated with higher viral load and lower CD4 count in newly diagnosed drug-naive HIV-1 infected patients
    Kristof Theys
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Retrovirology 9:81. 2012
    ....
  23. pmc Mutational pathways, resistance profile, and side effects of cyanovirin relative to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains with N-glycan deletions in their gp120 envelopes
    Jan Balzarini
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven, Belgium
    J Virol 80:8411-21. 2006
    ....
  24. doi request reprint HIV-1 fitness landscape models for indinavir treatment pressure using observed evolution in longitudinal sequence data are predictive for treatment failure
    Raphael Z Sangeda
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Infect Genet Evol 19:349-60. 2013
    ..The fitness landscapes have similar predictive power for treatment response under indinavir-containing regimen as standard rules-based algorithms, and additionally allow predicting genetic evolution under indinavir selective pressure...
  25. pmc Profile of resistance of human immunodeficiency virus to mannose-specific plant lectins
    Jan Balzarini
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Gent, Belgium
    J Virol 78:10617-27. 2004
    ..The plant lectins represent a well-defined class of anti-HIV (microbicidal) drugs with a novel HIV drug resistance profile different from those of other existing anti-HIV drugs...
  26. doi request reprint HIV-1 protease mutation 82M contributes to phenotypic resistance to protease inhibitors in subtype G
    Ana Carolina Palma
    Clinical and Epidemiological Virology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    J Antimicrob Chemother 67:1075-9. 2012
    ..The purpose of this study was the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the in vitro effect of HIV-1 protease (PR) mutation 82M on replication capacity and susceptibility to the eight clinically available PR inhibitors (PIs)...
  27. ncbi request reprint Pronounced in vitro and in vivo antiretroviral activity of 5-substituted 2,4-diamino-6-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethoxy] pyrimidines
    Jan Balzarini
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, K U Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Antimicrob Chemother 59:80-6. 2007
    ..To discover new potent and selective anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acyclic nucleoside phosphonate (ANP) drugs with in vivo antiretroviral activity...
  28. pmc Differences in the mannose oligomer specificities of the closely related lectins from Galanthus nivalis and Zea mays strongly determine their eventual anti-HIV activity
    Bart Hoorelbeke
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, K, U, Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Retrovirology 8:10. 2011
    ..Both lectins are tetrameric proteins sharing 64% sequence similarity...
  29. ncbi request reprint Rising prevalence of HIV-1 non-B subtypes in Belgium: 1983-2001
    Joke Snoeck
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 35:279-85. 2004
    ....
  30. pmc Clinical evaluation of Rega 8: an updated genotypic interpretation system that significantly predicts HIV-therapy response
    Jurgen Vercauteren
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    PLoS ONE 8:e61436. 2013
    ..Performance of the models was compared using the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test...
  31. pmc Discordances between interpretation algorithms for genotypic resistance to protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus are subtype dependent
    Joke Snoeck
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:694-701. 2006
    ..It is not yet known whether therapy response is subtype dependent, but the advice given to clinicians based on a genotypic interpretation algorithm differs according to the subtype...
  32. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 escape from cyclotriazadisulfonamide-induced CD4-targeted entry inhibition is associated with increased neutralizing antibody susceptibility
    Kurt Vermeire
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
    J Virol 83:9577-83. 2009
    ..In addition, the acquired ability of a CADA-resistant virus to infect cells with low CD4 expression was associated with an increased susceptibility of the virus to neutralizing antibodies from sera of several HIV-1-infected patients...
  33. pmc env chimeric virus technology for evaluating human immunodeficiency virus susceptibility to entry inhibitors
    Valery Fikkert
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:3954-62. 2002
    ..In addition, we obtained a proof of principle that env CVT can become a helpful diagnostic tool in assessments of the phenotypic resistance of clinical HIV isolates to HIV entry inhibitors...
  34. pmc RegaDB: community-driven data management and analysis for infectious diseases
    Pieter Libin
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Bioinformatics 29:1477-80. 2013
    ..Availability and implementation: Source code, binaries and documentation are available on http://rega.kuleuven.be/cev/regadb. RegaDB is written in the Java programming language, using a web-service-oriented architecture...
  35. ncbi request reprint A genotypic drug resistance interpretation algorithm that significantly predicts therapy response in HIV-1-infected patients
    Kristel Van Laethem
    Rega Institute for Medical Research and University Hospitals, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
    Antivir Ther 7:123-9. 2002
    ..The development of a genotypic drug resistance interpretation algorithm, and the evaluation of its power to predict therapy outcome...
  36. ncbi request reprint Interpreting resistance data for HIV-1 therapy management--know the limitations
    Kristel Van Laethem
    Clinical and Epidemiological Virology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    AIDS Rev 8:37-43. 2006
    ..All these analysis are of value, but still display some weak points. However, due to the fast evolving know-how in the field, a prospective trial in which different systems are compared head-to-head will be difficult to design...
  37. ncbi request reprint Resistance of HIV-1 to the broadly HIV-1-neutralizing, anti-carbohydrate antibody 2G12
    Dana Huskens
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Virology 360:294-304. 2007
    ..This is, to our knowledge, the first report showing that a resistant virus generated in vitro against a neutralizing mAb and containing a mutation in gp120, has increased sensitivity to another class of HIV entry inhibitors...
  38. ncbi request reprint Capture and transmission of HIV-1 by the C-type lectin L-SIGN (DC-SIGNR) is inhibited by carbohydrate-binding agents and polyanions
    Joeri Auwerx
    Virology and Chemotherapy, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Antiviral Res 83:61-70. 2009
    ..The excess value of CBAs and polyanions to prevent HIV-1 capture and transmission by DC-SIGN and L-SIGN-expressing cells to susceptible T-lymphocytes could be of interest for the development of new drug leads targeting HIV entry/fusion...
  39. ncbi request reprint Complete genome sequence of Montana Myotis leukoencephalitis virus, phylogenetic analysis and comparative study of the 3' untranslated region of flaviviruses with no known vector
    Nathalie Charlier
    Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Gen Virol 83:1875-85. 2002
    ..The availability of this latter sequence motif allows us to designate a virus as either an NKV or a vector-borne flavivirus...
  40. ncbi request reprint Prevalence and origin of HIV-1 group M subtypes among patients attending a Belgian hospital in 1999
    Joke Snoeck
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000, Belgium
    Virus Res 85:95-107. 2002
    ..The other non-B subtypes and the recombinants are mainly introduced by immigrants or by Belgian citizens traveling abroad...
  41. doi request reprint The Genealogical Population Dynamics of HIV-1 in a Large Transmission Chain: Bridging within and among Host Evolutionary Rates
    Bram Vrancken
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    PLoS Comput Biol 10:e1003505. 2014
    ....
  42. doi request reprint Evaluation of the automatic editing tool RECall for HIV-1 pol and V3 loop sequences
    Lore Vinken
    Clinical and Epidemiological Virology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, KU Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Virol Methods 193:135-9. 2013
    ..As differences in base calling have little impact on drug resistance interpretation and hands-on-time could be substantially reduced, RECall could be a valuable tool for the standardization and acceleration of the editing process. ..
  43. ncbi request reprint Molecular testing of multiple HIV-1 transmissions in a criminal case
    Philippe Lemey
    Rega Institute, KULeuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    AIDS 19:1649-58. 2005
    ..To test the a priori hypothesis of HIV-1 transmission from one suspect to six recipients in a criminal case...
  44. pmc Tracing the HIV-1 subtype B mobility in Europe: a phylogeographic approach
    Dimitrios Paraskevis
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroederstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Retrovirology 6:49. 2009
    ..However the spatial diffusion of the epidemic from the perspective of the virus has not previously been traced...
  45. doi request reprint Impact of HIV-1 protease mutations A71V/T and T74S on M89I/V-mediated protease inhibitor resistance in subtype G isolates
    Luis M F Gonzalez
    Departamento de Genetica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS Bloco A, sala A2 120, Cidade Universitária Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro RJ 21949 970, Brazil
    J Antimicrob Chemother 61:1201-4. 2008
    ..We have previously shown a strong statistical interdependency of residues 71, 89 and 90 in subtype G, but the impact of substitutions on protease inhibitor (PI) resistance is unknown...
  46. doi request reprint Impact on replicative fitness of the G48E substitution in the protease of HIV-1: an in vitro and in silico evaluation
    Jean Marie Zimmer
    Retrovirology Laboratory, Centre de Recherche Publique Santé, Luxembourg, Luxembourg
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 48:255-62. 2008
    ..We also showed that when confronted with too many mutations to evaluate in vitro, MD simulations are helpful to draft hypotheses on how polymorphisms can interact with resistance mutations to stabilize their potential fitness cost...
  47. ncbi request reprint Discovery of TSAO derivatives with an unusual HIV-1 activity/resistance profile
    Sonia de Castro
    Instituto de Química Médica C S I C, Juan de la Cierva 3, Madrid, Spain
    Antiviral Res 71:15-23. 2006
    ..The deaminated TSAO compound must fit differently in the HIV-1 RT enzyme than its prototype TSAO-m(3)T...
  48. ncbi request reprint Genotypic drug resistance interpretation algorithms display high levels of discordance when applied to non-B strains from HIV-1 naive and treated patients
    Laurence Vergne
    UMR145 UR36, IRD, University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 46:53-62. 2006
    ....
  49. ncbi request reprint The calculated genetic barrier for antiretroviral drug resistance substitutions is largely similar for different HIV-1 subtypes
    David A van de Vijver
    Eijkman Winkler Institute, Department of Virology, University Medical Center Utrecht, G04 614, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 41:352-60. 2006
    ..This study compared the genetic barrier between subtypes using some 2000 HIV-1 sequences (>600 of non-B subtype) isolated from anti-retroviral-naive patients in Europe...
  50. pmc HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase mutation patterns responsible for discordances between genotypic drug resistance interpretation algorithms
    Jaideep Ravela
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94301, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 33:8-14. 2003
    ..Determining the clinical significance of these mutation patterns responsible for interalgorithm discordances will improve interalgorithm concordance and the accuracy of genotypic resistance interpretation...
  51. ncbi request reprint Virologic therapy response significantly correlates with the number of active drugs as evaluated using a LiPA HIV-1 resistance scoring system
    Rainer Ziermann
    Bayer HealthCare LLC, Diagnostics Division, 800 Dwight Way, Berkeley, CA 94710, USA
    J Clin Virol 31:S7-15. 2004
    ..Resistance testing is increasingly accepted as a tool in guiding the selection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infected individuals who fail their current regimen...
  52. ncbi request reprint Current levels of drug resistance among therapy-naive HIV-infected patients have significant impact on treatment response
    Inge Derdelinckx
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 37:1664-6. 2004
  53. pmc Molecular footprint of drug-selective pressure in a human immunodeficiency virus transmission chain
    Philippe Lemey
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
    J Virol 79:11981-9. 2005
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in untreated individuals in Europe: implications for clinical management
    Annemarie M J Wensing
    Eijkman Winkler Institute, Department of Virology, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Infect Dis 192:958-66. 2005
    ..Widespread transmission of drug-resistant variants has the disturbing potential of limiting future therapy options and affecting the efficacy of postexposure prophylaxis...
  55. ncbi request reprint Fatal brain necrosis in primary HIV infection
    Wouter Meersseman
    Department of Internal Medicine, Rega Institute, Katholieke Universiteit and University Hospitals Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Lancet 366:866. 2005