G Van den Berghe

Summary

Affiliation: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
Country: Belgium

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Intensive insulin therapy in mixed medical/surgical intensive care units: benefit versus harm
    Greet Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, University of Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Diabetes 55:3151-9. 2006
  2. ncbi request reprint Neuroendocrine pathobiology of chronic critical illness
    Greet Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Catholic University of Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Crit Care Clin 18:509-28. 2002
  3. pmc Validation of a continuous, arterial pressure-based cardiac output measurement: a multicenter, prospective clinical trial
    William T McGee
    Critical Care Division, Baystate Medical Center, 759 Chestnut Street, Springfield, MA 01199, USA
    Crit Care 11:R105. 2007
  4. ncbi request reprint Beyond diabetes: saving lives with insulin in the ICU
    G Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, University of Leuven, Belgium
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26:S3-8. 2002
  5. ncbi request reprint Dynamic neuroendocrine responses to critical illness
    Greet Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven B 3000, Belgium
    Front Neuroendocrinol 23:370-91. 2002
  6. ncbi request reprint Outcome benefit of intensive insulin therapy in the critically ill: Insulin dose versus glycemic control
    Greet Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium
    Crit Care Med 31:359-66. 2003
  7. ncbi request reprint Endocrine evaluation of patients with critical illness
    Greet Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg Catholic University of Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 32:385-410. 2003
  8. ncbi request reprint Bone turnover in prolonged critical illness: effect of vitamin D
    Greet Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University of Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:4623-32. 2003
  9. ncbi request reprint Insulin therapy protects the central and peripheral nervous system of intensive care patients
    G Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Neurology 64:1348-53. 2005
  10. pmc How to compare adequacy of algorithms to control blood glucose in the intensive care unit?
    Greet Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Crit Care 8:151-2. 2004

Detail Information

Publications95

  1. ncbi request reprint Intensive insulin therapy in mixed medical/surgical intensive care units: benefit versus harm
    Greet Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, University of Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Diabetes 55:3151-9. 2006
    ..A blood glucose target <110 mg/day was most effective but also carried the highest risk of hypoglycemia...
  2. ncbi request reprint Neuroendocrine pathobiology of chronic critical illness
    Greet Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Catholic University of Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Crit Care Clin 18:509-28. 2002
    ....
  3. pmc Validation of a continuous, arterial pressure-based cardiac output measurement: a multicenter, prospective clinical trial
    William T McGee
    Critical Care Division, Baystate Medical Center, 759 Chestnut Street, Springfield, MA 01199, USA
    Crit Care 11:R105. 2007
    ....
  4. ncbi request reprint Beyond diabetes: saving lives with insulin in the ICU
    G Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, University of Leuven, Belgium
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26:S3-8. 2002
    ..An algorithm is proposed for implementing this. Further data are needed to establish the applicability of this strategy to other patient groups in the ICU and in general hospital care...
  5. ncbi request reprint Dynamic neuroendocrine responses to critical illness
    Greet Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven B 3000, Belgium
    Front Neuroendocrinol 23:370-91. 2002
    ..These novel insights will be reviewed herein...
  6. ncbi request reprint Outcome benefit of intensive insulin therapy in the critically ill: Insulin dose versus glycemic control
    Greet Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium
    Crit Care Med 31:359-66. 2003
    ..Here we report the factors determining insulin requirements and the impact of insulin dose vs. blood glucose control on the observed outcome benefits...
  7. ncbi request reprint Endocrine evaluation of patients with critical illness
    Greet Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg Catholic University of Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 32:385-410. 2003
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint Bone turnover in prolonged critical illness: effect of vitamin D
    Greet Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University of Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:4623-32. 2003
    ..Furthermore, severe bone hyperresorption further aggravated (up to 15-fold the normal values) with time in intensive care and was associated with impaired osteoblast function...
  9. ncbi request reprint Insulin therapy protects the central and peripheral nervous system of intensive care patients
    G Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Neurology 64:1348-53. 2005
    ..To investigate the effectiveness of maintaining blood glucose levels below 6.1 mmol/L with insulin as prevention of secondary injury to the central and peripheral nervous systems of intensive care patients...
  10. pmc How to compare adequacy of algorithms to control blood glucose in the intensive care unit?
    Greet Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Crit Care 8:151-2. 2004
    ..We anxiously await the development and validation of such devices...
  11. ncbi request reprint Regulation of the somatotropic axis by intensive insulin therapy during protracted critical illness
    Dieter Mesotten
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:3105-13. 2004
    ..GH resistance accompanied this suppression of the IGF-I axis. To what extent and through which mechanisms the changes in the GH-IGF-IGFBP axis contributed to the survival benefit under intensive insulin therapy remain elusive...
  12. ncbi request reprint The combined administration of GH-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2), TRH and GnRH to men with prolonged critical illness evokes superior endocrine and metabolic effects compared to treatment with GHRP-2 alone
    Greet Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, University of Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 56:655-69. 2002
    ..This study evaluated the impact of combined treatment with GH-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2), TRH and GnRH for 5 days compared with GHRP-2 + TRH and with GHRP-2 alone...
  13. pmc How does blood glucose control with insulin save lives in intensive care?
    Greet Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    J Clin Invest 114:1187-95. 2004
    ..Unraveling the molecular mechanisms will provide new insights into the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure and open avenues for novel therapeutic strategies...
  14. ncbi request reprint Five-day pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone administration unveils combined hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal defects underlying profound hypoandrogenism in men with prolonged critical illness
    G Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, University of Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:3217-26. 2001
    ..In view of concomitant central hyposomatotropism and hypothyroidism, evaluating the effectiveness of pulsatile GnRH intervention together with GH and TSH secretagogues will be important...
  15. ncbi request reprint Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients
    G Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium
    N Engl J Med 345:1359-67. 2001
    ..Whether the normalization of blood glucose levels with insulin therapy improves the prognosis for such patients is not known...
  16. ncbi request reprint Neuroendocrinology of prolonged critical illness: effects of exogenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone and its combination with growth hormone secretagogues
    G Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, University of Leuven, Belgium
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:309-19. 1998
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Leptin levels in protracted critical illness: effects of growth hormone-secretagogues and thyrotropin-releasing hormone
    G Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, University of Leuven, Belgium
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:3062-70. 1998
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Reactivation of pituitary hormone release and metabolic improvement by infusion of growth hormone-releasing peptide and thyrotropin-releasing hormone in patients with protracted critical illness
    G Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, University of Leuven, Belgium
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:1311-23. 1999
    ..This provides the first evidence of the metabolic effectiveness of short term GHRP-2 plus TRH agonism in this particular wasting condition...
  19. ncbi request reprint A paradoxical gender dissociation within the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I axis during protracted critical illness
    G Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Universtiy of Leuven, Belguim
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85:183-92. 2000
    ....
  20. ncbi request reprint The neuroendocrine response to critical illness is a dynamic process
    Ilse Vanhorebeek
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Crit Care Clin 22:1-15, v. 2006
    ..Extensive research, however, has provided crucial insights, with the demonstration of the biphasic response of the anterior pituitary to the severe stress of critical illness...
  21. ncbi request reprint Tissue deiodinase activity during prolonged critical illness: effects of exogenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone and its combination with growth hormone-releasing peptide-2
    Yves Debaveye
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium
    Endocrinology 146:5604-11. 2005
    ....
  22. doi request reprint Increasing intravenous glucose load in the presence of normoglycemia: effect on outcome and metabolism in critically ill rabbits
    Sarah Derde
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Crit Care Med 38:602-11. 2010
    ..In critically ill rabbits, we investigated the impact of varying amounts of intravenous glucose while maintaining normoglycemia on mortality, organ damage, and markers of catabolism/anabolism...
  23. doi request reprint Hyperglycemic kidney damage in an animal model of prolonged critical illness
    Ilse Vanhorebeek
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Kidney Int 76:512-20. 2009
    ..Normoglycemia, independent of insulinemia, protected against this damage...
  24. ncbi request reprint Glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in sepsis
    S J Van Cromphaut
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Curr Pharm Des 14:1887-99. 2008
    ..Prevention of cellular glucose toxicity by strict glycemic control appears to play a predominant role, but other metabolic and non-metabolic, anti-inflammatory effects of insulin seem to contribute to the clinical benefits realized...
  25. ncbi request reprint Novel insights into the neuroendocrinology of critical illness
    G Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Catholic University of Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Eur J Endocrinol 143:1-13. 2000
    ..Whether this novel endocrine strategy will also enhance clinical recovery from critical illness remains to be explored...
  26. ncbi request reprint Regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 during protracted critical illness
    Dieter Mesotten
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Catholic University Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:5516-23. 2002
    ..These data suggest that hepatic insulin resistance in prolonged critically ill patients, reflected by high serum IGFBP-1 levels, is not overcome by intensive insulin therapy, and that this may affect patient outcome...
  27. ncbi request reprint Critical illness as a model of hypothalamic ageing
    Greet Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital, Gasthuisberg, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium
    Novartis Found Symp 242:205-15; discussion 216-21. 2002
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint Insulin therapy for the critically ill patient
    Greet Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Clin Cornerstone 5:56-63. 2003
    ..Further data are needed to establish the applicability of this strategy to other patient groups, such as those in a medical ICU and in general hospital care...
  29. ncbi request reprint Intensive insulin therapy in the medical ICU
    Greet Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    N Engl J Med 354:449-61. 2006
    ..Intensive insulin therapy reduces morbidity and mortality in patients in surgical intensive care units (ICUs), but its role in patients in medical ICUs is unknown...
  30. ncbi request reprint Growth hormone secretagogues in critical illness
    G Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, University of Leuven, Belgium
    Horm Res 51:21-8. 1999
    ..Whether GH secretagogues also enhance clinical recovery of protracted critically ill patients remains to be elucidated...
  31. ncbi request reprint Glucose control in the critically ill
    M Schetz
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium
    Contrib Nephrol 144:119-31. 2004
  32. doi request reprint Tissue-specific glucose toxicity induces mitochondrial damage in a burn injury model of critical illness
    Ilse Vanhorebeek
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Crit Care Med 37:1355-64. 2009
    ..hyperinsulinemia (HI) on mitochondria in relation to organ damage. We assessed whether such effects on mitochondria are mediated indirectly via organ perfusion or directly via reducing cellular glucose toxicity...
  33. ncbi request reprint Glucose metabolism and insulin therapy
    Lies Langouche
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Crit Care Clin 22:119-29, vii. 2006
    ..Prevention of glucose toxicity by strict glycemic control but also other metabolic and non-metabolic effects of insulin contribute to these clinical benefits...
  34. doi request reprint Modulation of regional nitric oxide metabolism: blood glucose control or insulin?
    Bjorn Ellger
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3000, Leuven, Belgium
    Intensive Care Med 34:1525-33. 2008
    ....
  35. doi request reprint Glycemic control modulates arginine and asymmetrical-dimethylarginine levels during critical illness by preserving dimethylarginine-dimethylaminohydrolase activity
    Bjorn Ellger
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Endocrinology 149:3148-57. 2008
    ..Conclusively, maintenance of normoglycemia and not glycemia-independent actions of insulin maintained physiological ADMA plasma and tissue levels by preserving physiological DDAH activity...
  36. ncbi request reprint Survival benefits of intensive insulin therapy in critical illness: impact of maintaining normoglycemia versus glycemia-independent actions of insulin
    Bjorn Ellger
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Diabetes 55:1096-105. 2006
    ..The results suggest that the observed benefits of intensive insulin therapy required mainly maintenance of normoglycemia; whereas glycemia-independent actions of insulin exerted only minor, organ-specific impact...
  37. ncbi request reprint Tight blood glucose control: what is the evidence?
    Ilse Vanhorebeek
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Crit Care Med 35:S496-502. 2007
    ..In conclusion, demonstration of the clinical benefits of intensive insulin therapy depends on the quality of blood glucose control and the statistical power of the studies...
  38. ncbi request reprint Effect of intensive insulin therapy on insulin sensitivity in the critically ill
    Lies Langouche
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000, Leuven, Belgium
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:3890-7. 2007
    ..Blood glucose control explains this benefit because a high insulin dose is associated with adverse outcome. Mitogenic insulin effects could theoretically explain this link...
  39. doi request reprint Blood glucose control in the intensive care unit: benefits and risks
    Jan Gunst
    Department and Laboratory of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Semin Dial 23:157-62. 2010
    ..A simple fallback position could be to control blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible without evoking unacceptable blood glucose fluctuations, hypoglycemia, and hypokalemia...
  40. ncbi request reprint Clinical benefits of tight glycaemic control: focus on the intensive care unit
    Dieter Mesotten
    Department and Laboratory of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Herestraat 49, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 23:421-9. 2009
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Pretreatment with growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 directly protects against the diastolic dysfunction of myocardial stunning in an isolated, blood-perfused rabbit heart model
    F Weekers
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine and Center for Experimental Surgery and Anaesthesiology, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium
    Endocrinology 141:3993-9. 2000
    ..This observation may open perspectives for GH-secretagogues as cardioprotective agents...
  42. ncbi request reprint Insulin therapy in the intensive care unit should be targeted to maintain blood glucose between 4.4 mmol/l and 6.1 mmol/l
    G Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Diabetologia 51:911-5. 2008
  43. pmc Effects of substitution and high-dose thyroid hormone therapy on deiodination, sulfoconjugation, and tissue thyroid hormone levels in prolonged critically ill rabbits
    Yves Debaveye
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Endocrinology 149:4218-28. 2008
    ..This indicates thyroid hormone hypermetabolism, which in this model of critical illness is not entirely explained by deiodination or by sulfoconjugation...
  44. ncbi request reprint Changes within the thyroid axis during the course of critical illness
    Liese Mebis
    Department of Intensive Care, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 35:807-21, x. 2006
    ..It focuses on the neuroendocrinology of the low triiodothyronine syndrome and on thyroid hormone metabolism by deiodination and transport...
  45. ncbi request reprint The dynamic neuroendocrine response to critical illness
    Lies Langouche
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Herestraat 49, B 300 Leuven, Belgium
    Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 35:777-91, ix. 2006
    ..In contrast, in prolonged critical illness, uniform suppression of the neuroendocrine axes, predominantly of hypothalamic origin, contributes to low serum levels of the respective target-organ hormones...
  46. ncbi request reprint Tight blood glucose control with insulin in the ICU: facts and controversies
    Ilse Vanhorebeek
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Chest 132:268-78. 2007
    ..The risk of hypoglycemia increases with this therapy, but it remains unclear whether this is truly harmful in the setting of critical care...
  47. doi request reprint Regulation of tissue iodothyronine deiodinase activity in a model of prolonged critical illness
    Yves Debaveye
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Thyroid 18:551-60. 2008
    ..Infusion of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) can restore D1 and D3 activity in critically ill rabbits, but it remains unknown whether this is a direct effect of TRH or the TRH-induced rise in circulating thyroxine (T4) and T3...
  48. ncbi request reprint Glycaemic control and perioperative organ protection
    Joost Berkers
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 22:135-49. 2008
    ..Clearly, future studies should be adequately powered and comply with the study protocol in order to confirm the survival and other clinical benefits of intensive insulin therapy...
  49. ncbi request reprint Clinical potential of insulin therapy in critically ill patients
    Dieter Mesotten
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Drugs 63:625-36. 2003
    ....
  50. doi request reprint Dynamic characteristics of blood glucose time series during the course of critical illness: effects of intensive insulin therapy and relative association with mortality
    Geert Meyfroidt
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, UK
    Crit Care Med 38:1021-9. 2010
    ..To assess the association of these blood glucose signal characteristics with hospital mortality, independent of blood glucose level...
  51. pmc Intensive insulin therapy protects the endothelium of critically ill patients
    Lies Langouche
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    J Clin Invest 115:2277-86. 2005
    ....
  52. ncbi request reprint Contribution of circulating lipids to the improved outcome of critical illness by glycemic control with intensive insulin therapy
    Dieter Mesotten
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Catholic University Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:219-26. 2004
    ....
  53. doi request reprint The effect of strict blood glucose control on biliary sludge and cholestasis in critically ill patients
    Dieter Mesotten
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospitals of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:2345-52. 2009
    ..We examined liver dysfunction and biliary sludge prospectively in a large medical long-stay ICU population and hypothesized that tight glycemic control with intensive insulin therapy (IIT) reduces cholestasis and biliary sludge...
  54. ncbi request reprint Endocrine modifications and interventions during critical illness
    Frank Weekers
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000, Belgium
    Proc Nutr Soc 63:443-50. 2004
    ....
  55. ncbi request reprint Glycemic and nonglycemic effects of insulin: how do they contribute to a better outcome of critical illness?
    Ilse Vanhorebeek
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Curr Opin Crit Care 11:304-11. 2005
    ..This review gives an overview of the clinical outcome benefits associated with intensive insulin therapy administered to critically ill patients and of the progress in the unraveling of the mechanisms underlying these positive effects...
  56. ncbi request reprint Do we have reliable biochemical markers to predict the outcome of critical illness?
    M R Schetz
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Int J Artif Organs 28:1197-210. 2005
    ..A simple biochemical predictor of ICU mortality will probably remain elusive because the processes underlying critical illness are very complex and heterogeneous. Future prognostic models will need to be far more sophisticated...
  57. doi request reprint Tight glycemic control protects the myocardium and reduces inflammation in neonatal heart surgery
    Dirk Vlasselaers
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
    Ann Thorac Surg 90:22-9. 2010
    ..We hypothesized that insulin-titrated TGC, initiated prior to myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, protects the myocardium and attenuates the inflammatory response after neonatal cardiac surgery...
  58. ncbi request reprint Pruritus in patients with small burn injuries
    Michaël Casaer
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Catholic University of Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Burns 34:185-91. 2008
    ..To document incidence of pruritus and the presence of predisposing factors after small burns and their (subjective) impact on daily life...
  59. doi request reprint The altered adrenal axis and treatment with glucocorticoids during critical illness
    Dieter Mesotten
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 4:496-505. 2008
    ..Until the debate has been settled, we recommend that use of glucocorticoid therapy in critically ill patients should continue to be based on the clinician's judgment and that routine adjuvant use should be avoided...
  60. doi request reprint Metabolic aspects of critical illness polyneuromyopathy
    Greet Hermans
    Department of General Internal Medicine, Medical Intensive Care Unit, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Crit Care Med 37:S391-7. 2009
    ..Potential underlying mechanisms derived from experimental studies and from the analysis of biopsy samples harvested from critically ill patients or patients suffering from other catabolic states are discussed...
  61. pmc Tight blood glucose control is renoprotective in critically ill patients
    Miet Schetz
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, University of Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Am Soc Nephrol 19:571-8. 2008
    ..In conclusion, this secondary analysis of two large, randomized, controlled trials suggests that IIT, with a goal of achieving normoglycemia, protects the renal function of critically ill patients...
  62. doi request reprint Intensive insulin therapy for patients in paediatric intensive care: a prospective, randomised controlled study
    Dirk Vlasselaers
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Catholic University Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Lancet 373:547-56. 2009
    ..We investigated the effect of targeting age-adjusted normoglycaemia with insulin infusion in critically ill infants and children on outcome...
  63. doi request reprint Expression of thyroid hormone transporters during critical illness
    Liese Mebis
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Eur J Endocrinol 161:243-50. 2009
    ..We examined the role of TH transporters monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8, also known as SLC16A2) and MCT10 in the pathogenesis of the low T(3) syndrome in prolonged critical illness...
  64. doi request reprint Glucose dysregulation and neurological injury biomarkers in critically ill children
    Ilse Vanhorebeek
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:4669-79. 2010
    ..Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia may adversely affect the developing brain...
  65. ncbi request reprint Changes within the GH/IGF-I/IGFBP axis in critical illness
    Dieter Mesotten
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Catholic University Leuven, B 3000, Leuven, Belgium
    Crit Care Clin 22:17-28, v. 2006
    ..Moreover, the fascinating link between regulators of carbohydrate metabolism, such as insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1, and the somatotropic axis may lead to future therapeutic possibilities...
  66. ncbi request reprint Impact of intensive insulin therapy on neuromuscular complications and ventilator dependency in the medical intensive care unit
    Greet Hermans
    Medical Intensive Care Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 175:480-9. 2007
    ..Besides controlling risk factors, no specific prevention or treatment exists. Recently, intensive insulin therapy prevented critical illness polyneuropathy in a surgical intensive care unit...
  67. ncbi request reprint Metabolic, endocrine, and immune effects of stress hyperglycemia in a rabbit model of prolonged critical illness
    Frank Weekers
    Departement of Intensive Care Medicine, Burn Unit and Center for Experimental Surgery and Anesthesiology, Catholic University of Leuven, B 3000, Leuven, Belgium
    Endocrinology 144:5329-38. 2003
    ..Prevention of catabolism, acidosis, excessive inflammation, and impaired innate immune function may explain previously documented beneficial effects of intensive insulin therapy on outcome of critical illness...
  68. ncbi request reprint Strict blood glucose control with insulin during intensive care after cardiac surgery: impact on 4-years survival, dependency on medical care, and quality-of-life
    Catherine Ingels
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Catholic University of Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Eur Heart J 27:2716-24. 2006
    ..To document the impact of intensive insulin therapy during intensive care on long-term (4 years) outcome of high-risk cardiac surgery patients...
  69. ncbi request reprint Intensive insulin therapy in the intensive care unit: update on clinical impact and mechanisms of action
    Ilse Vanhorebeek
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Endocr Pract 12:14-22. 2006
    ....
  70. ncbi request reprint Endocrine aspects of acute and prolonged critical illness
    Ilse Vanhorebeek
    University of Leuven, Belgium
    Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 2:20-31. 2006
    ....
  71. ncbi request reprint Hormonal and metabolic strategies to attenuate catabolism in critically ill patients
    Ilse Vanhorebeek
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Curr Opin Pharmacol 4:621-8. 2004
    ..Therefore, a combination of hypothalamic secretagogues that reactivates the anterior pituitary to a greater extent could be a more physiological and effective strategy to induce anabolism in patients with prolonged critical illness...
  72. ncbi request reprint Endocrine and metabolic effects of growth hormone (GH) compared with GH-releasing peptide, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and insulin infusion in a rabbit model of prolonged critical illness
    Frank Weekers
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Burn Unit and Center for Experimental Surgery and Anesthesiology, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Endocrinology 145:205-13. 2004
    ..In contrast to the human model, high dose rhGH was not rapidly lethal in this rabbit model. Whether this is explained by lack of rhGH-induced insulin resistance and hyperglycemia remains unclear...
  73. ncbi request reprint A novel in vivo rabbit model of hypercatabolic critical illness reveals a biphasic neuroendocrine stress response
    Frank Weekers
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven B 3000, Belgium
    Endocrinology 143:764-74. 2002
    ..In conclusion, this rabbit model of acute and prolonged critical illness reveals several of the clinical, biochemical, and endocrine manifestations of the human counterpart...
  74. ncbi request reprint Intensive insulin therapy in high-risk cardiac surgery patients: evidence from the Leuven randomized study
    Ilse Vanhorebeek
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 18:309-16. 2006
    ..Mechanistic studies exploring the molecular pathways involved suggest that intensive insulin therapy exerts its beneficial effects mainly through the maintenance of normal blood glucose levels...
  75. ncbi request reprint Prediction of clinical conditions after coronary bypass surgery using dynamic data analysis
    K Van Loon
    Division Measure, Model and Manage Bioresponses, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    J Med Syst 34:229-39. 2010
    ..547, Brier score: 0.247). The differences in performance are shown to be significant. In all cases, the Gaussian process classifier outperformed to logistic regression...
  76. ncbi request reprint The neuroendocrine response to stress is a dynamic process
    G Van den Berghe
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Catholic University of Leuven, B-3000, Leuven, Belgium
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 15:405-19. 2001
    ..This new concept of a selectively reduced stimulation of pituitary function in the chronic phase of critical illness unveils new therapeutic perspectives to reverse the paradoxical wasting syndrome' and intensive care dependency...
  77. ncbi request reprint The role of insulin therapy in critically ill patients
    Lies Langouche
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Treat Endocrinol 4:353-60. 2005
    ..In addition to its metabolic effects, intensive insulin therapy also prevented excessive inflammation and improved immune function...
  78. ncbi request reprint Indication and practical use of intensive insulin therapy in the critically ill
    Liese Mebis
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Curr Opin Crit Care 13:392-8. 2007
    ..This review gives an overview of the benefits associated with this therapy and highlights the importance of achieving optimal blood glucose levels. It discusses the indications for this therapy and the fear for potential harm...
  79. doi request reprint Clinical review: Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients: NICE-SUGAR or Leuven blood glucose target?
    Greet Van den Berghe
    Laboratory and Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven K U Leuven, Herestraat 49, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:3163-70. 2009
    ..A recent large multicenter study, NICE-SUGAR, compared a similar age-normal with an intermediate glucose target and found the intermediate target superior. These results require explanation...
  80. ncbi request reprint Diabetes of injury: novel insights
    Ilse Vanhorebeek
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Herestraat 49, B 300 Leuven, Belgium
    Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 35:859-72, x. 2006
    ..The mechanisms underlying these clinical benefits are being studied further...
  81. doi request reprint Anterior pituitary morphology and hormone production during sustained critical illness in a rabbit model
    L Langouche
    Laboratory of Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Horm Metab Res 45:277-82. 2013
    ....
  82. ncbi request reprint The prenatal role of thyroid hormone evidenced by fetomaternal Pit-1 deficiency
    F de Zegher
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Leuven, Belgium
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80:3127-30. 1995
    ....
  83. ncbi request reprint Reduced activation and increased inactivation of thyroid hormone in tissues of critically ill patients
    Robin P Peeters
    Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:3202-11. 2003
    ..These observed changes, in correlation with a low T(3)/rT(3) ratio, may represent tissue-specific ways to reduce thyroid hormone bioactivity during cellular hypoxia and contribute to the low T(3) syndrome of severe illness...
  84. ncbi request reprint Growth hormone modulation of the rat hepatic bile transporter system in endotoxin-induced cholestasis
    Dieter Mesotten
    Kolling Institute of Medical Research, University of Sydney, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales 2065, Australia
    Endocrinology 144:4008-17. 2003
    ..This study of endotoxinemia may thus provide a mechanistic link between GH treatment and exacerbation of cholestasis through modulation of basolateral bile acid transporter expression in the rat hepatocyte...
  85. ncbi request reprint Tight control of glycaemia in critically ill patients
    Jean Charles Preiser
    Department of Intensive Care of RHMS Tournai and Erasme University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium
    Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 5:533-7. 2002
    ..This manuscript attempts to review the effects associated with hyperglycaemia in critically ill patients and the effects of various insulin regimens. The available clinical findings and pertinent experimental data are examined...
  86. ncbi request reprint Tight blood glucose control with insulin in "real-life" intensive care
    Greet Van den Berghe
    Mayo Clin Proc 79:977-8. 2004
  87. ncbi request reprint Modulating the endocrine response in sepsis: insulin and blood glucose control
    Ilse Vanhorebeek
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Novartis Found Symp 280:204-15; discussion 215-22. 2007
    ..Prevention of cellular glucose toxicity by strict glycaemic control appears to play a predominant role, but also other metabolic and non-metabolic effects of insulin appear to contribute to the clinical benefits...
  88. ncbi request reprint Management of sepsis
    Sophie Van Cromphaut
    N Engl J Med 356:1179-81; author reply 1181-2. 2007
  89. ncbi request reprint Therapy insight: the effect of tight glycemic control in acute illness
    Lies Langouche
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
    Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 3:270-8. 2007
    ..Prevention of glucose toxicity by strict glycemic control (but also other metabolic and nonmetabolic effects of insulin) contribute to these clinical benefits...
  90. ncbi request reprint Protection of hepatocyte mitochondrial ultrastructure and function by strict blood glucose control with insulin in critically ill patients
    Ilse Vanhorebeek
    Departments of Intensive Care Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Lancet 365:53-9. 2005
    ..Studies on mitochondrial function in critical illness or diabetes suggest that effects of intensive insulin therapy on mitochondrial integrity contribute to the clinical benefits...
  91. ncbi request reprint Glucose, insulin and myocardial ischaemia
    Philippe Devos
    Department of Intensive Care, Sart Tilman University Hospital, Liege, Belgium
    Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 9:131-9. 2006
    ....
  92. ncbi request reprint Insulin and pentastarch for severe sepsis
    Greet Van den Berghe
    N Engl J Med 358:2073; author reply 2074-5. 2008
  93. ncbi request reprint Increased thyroxine sulfate levels in critically ill patients as a result of a decreased hepatic type I deiodinase activity
    Robin P Peeters
    Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:6460-5. 2005
    ..In this study, we investigated whether T4S levels are increased in patients who died after intensive care and whether T4S levels are correlated with liver type I deiodinase (D1) or sulfotransferase (SULT) activity...
  94. ncbi request reprint Serum 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine/rT3 are prognostic markers in critically ill patients and are associated with postmortem tissue deiodinase activities
    Robin P Peeters
    Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:4559-65. 2005
    ..All patients had been randomized for intensive or conventional insulin treatment. Seventy-one patients died, and postmortem liver and skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from 50 of them for analysis of deiodinase (D1-3) activities...
  95. pmc Glycemic penalty index for adequately assessing and comparing different blood glucose control algorithms
    Tom Van Herpe
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Department of Electrical Engineering ESAT, Research Division SCD, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B 3001 Leuven Heverlee, Belgium
    Crit Care 12:R24. 2008
    ..Existing methods for objectively comparing different insulin titration algorithms show weaknesses. In the current study, a new approach for appropriately assessing the adequacy of different algorithms is proposed...