Erik De Clercq

Summary

Affiliation: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
Country: Belgium

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Potential clinical applications of the CXCR4 antagonist bicyclam AMD3100
    Erik De Clercq
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, K U Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Mini Rev Med Chem 5:805-24. 2005
  2. ncbi request reprint DNA polymerase mutations in drug-resistant herpes simplex virus mutants determine in vivo neurovirulence and drug-enzyme interactions
    Graciela Andrei
    Laboratory of Virology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, K U Leuven, Belgium
    Antivir Ther 12:719-32. 2007
  3. pmc Profile of resistance of human immunodeficiency virus to mannose-specific plant lectins
    Jan Balzarini
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Gent, Belgium
    J Virol 78:10617-27. 2004
  4. doi request reprint A pyrazolotriazolopyrimidinamine inhibitor of bovine viral diarrhea virus replication that targets the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
    Jan Paeshuyse
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
    Antiviral Res 82:141-7. 2009
  5. pmc The thiazolobenzimidazole TBZE-029 inhibits enterovirus replication by targeting a short region immediately downstream from motif C in the nonstructural protein 2C
    Armando M De Palma
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Virol 82:4720-30. 2008
  6. pmc Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus replication by a dual CCR5/CXCR4 antagonist
    Katrien Princen
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Virol 78:12996-3006. 2004
  7. pmc The interferon inducer ampligen [poly(I)-poly(C12U)] markedly protects mice against coxsackie B3 virus-induced myocarditis
    Elizaveta Padalko
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:267-74. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint CADA, a novel CD4-targeted HIV inhibitor, is synergistic with various anti-HIV drugs in vitro
    Kurt Vermeire
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    AIDS 18:2115-25. 2004
  9. ncbi request reprint Antiviral potential of a new generation of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates, the 6-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)alkoxy]-2,4-diaminopyrimidines
    Erik De Clercq
    Address correspondence to Erik De Clercq, Rega Institute for Medical Research, K U Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, Leuven B 3000, Belgium
    Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 24:331-41. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint Cell-dependent interference of a series of new 6-aminoquinolone derivatives with viral (HIV/CMV) transactivation
    Miguel Stevens
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Antimicrob Chemother 56:847-55. 2005

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications135 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Potential clinical applications of the CXCR4 antagonist bicyclam AMD3100
    Erik De Clercq
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, K U Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Mini Rev Med Chem 5:805-24. 2005
    ..Currently, AMD3100 is actively pursued as a stem cell mobilizer for transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma...
  2. ncbi request reprint DNA polymerase mutations in drug-resistant herpes simplex virus mutants determine in vivo neurovirulence and drug-enzyme interactions
    Graciela Andrei
    Laboratory of Virology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, K U Leuven, Belgium
    Antivir Ther 12:719-32. 2007
    ..It appears that drug-resistant mutants arising under the pressure of HPMP derivatives have the lowest levels of neurovirulence...
  3. pmc Profile of resistance of human immunodeficiency virus to mannose-specific plant lectins
    Jan Balzarini
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Gent, Belgium
    J Virol 78:10617-27. 2004
    ..The plant lectins represent a well-defined class of anti-HIV (microbicidal) drugs with a novel HIV drug resistance profile different from those of other existing anti-HIV drugs...
  4. doi request reprint A pyrazolotriazolopyrimidinamine inhibitor of bovine viral diarrhea virus replication that targets the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
    Jan Paeshuyse
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
    Antiviral Res 82:141-7. 2009
    ..It is concluded that LZ37 interacts with the same binding site as BPIP or VP32947 at the top of the finger domain of the polymerase that is a "hot spot" for inhibition of pestivirus replication...
  5. pmc The thiazolobenzimidazole TBZE-029 inhibits enterovirus replication by targeting a short region immediately downstream from motif C in the nonstructural protein 2C
    Armando M De Palma
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Virol 82:4720-30. 2008
    ..The ATPase activity of 2C, however, remained unaltered in the presence of TBZE-029...
  6. pmc Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus replication by a dual CCR5/CXCR4 antagonist
    Katrien Princen
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Virol 78:12996-3006. 2004
    ..AMD3451 is the first low-molecular-weight anti-HIV agent with selective HIV coreceptor, CCR5 and CXCR4, interaction...
  7. pmc The interferon inducer ampligen [poly(I)-poly(C12U)] markedly protects mice against coxsackie B3 virus-induced myocarditis
    Elizaveta Padalko
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:267-74. 2004
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint CADA, a novel CD4-targeted HIV inhibitor, is synergistic with various anti-HIV drugs in vitro
    Kurt Vermeire
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    AIDS 18:2115-25. 2004
    ..To evaluate the anti-HIV-1 activity of the cyclotriazadisulfonamide CADA against primary isolates in vitro and the combination of CADA with approved anti-HIV drugs for potential synergy...
  9. ncbi request reprint Antiviral potential of a new generation of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates, the 6-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)alkoxy]-2,4-diaminopyrimidines
    Erik De Clercq
    Address correspondence to Erik De Clercq, Rega Institute for Medical Research, K U Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, Leuven B 3000, Belgium
    Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 24:331-41. 2005
    ..The 6-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)alkoxy]-2,4-diaminopyrimidines offer substantial potential for the treatment of a broad range of retro-, hepadna-, herpes-, adeno-, and poxvirus infections...
  10. ncbi request reprint Cell-dependent interference of a series of new 6-aminoquinolone derivatives with viral (HIV/CMV) transactivation
    Miguel Stevens
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Antimicrob Chemother 56:847-55. 2005
    ..These potent 6-aminoquinolones were further evaluated for their broad-spectrum antiviral properties...
  11. ncbi request reprint Fluorescent CXCL12AF647 as a novel probe for nonradioactive CXCL12/CXCR4 cellular interaction studies
    Sigrid Hatse
    Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Cytometry A 61:178-88. 2004
    ..Therefore, potent and specific CXCR4 antagonists may have therapeutic potential as anti-HIV, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory drugs...
  12. ncbi request reprint The N137 and P140 amino acids in the p51 and the P95 amino acid in the p66 subunit of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase are instrumental to maintain catalytic activity and to design new classes of anti-HIV-1 drugs
    Joeri Auwerx
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, K U Leuven, Belgium
    FEBS Lett 579:2294-300. 2005
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint Multiple mutations in human immunodeficiency virus-1 integrase confer resistance to the clinical trial drug S-1360
    Valery Fikkert
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    AIDS 18:2019-28. 2004
    ..Study of HIV-1 resistance development to the diketo analogue S-1360, the first HIV-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitor that has entered clinical development...
  14. ncbi request reprint In vitro evaluation of the anti-orf virus activity of alkoxyalkyl esters of CDV, cCDV and (S)-HPMPA
    Fabiana Dal Pozzo
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, K U Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Antiviral Res 75:52-7. 2007
    ..Our results support the development of alkoxyalkyl esters of ANPs as antivirals not only for the treatment of complicated human orf lesions, but also in the therapy and prophylaxis of contagious ecthyma in sheep and goats...
  15. ncbi request reprint Potent, selective and cell-mediated inhibition of human herpesvirus 6 at an early stage of viral replication by the non-nucleoside compound CMV423
    Leen De Bolle
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3000, Leuven, Belgium
    Biochem Pharmacol 67:325-36. 2004
    ..We, therefore, conclude that CMV423 exerts its activity against HHV-6 through inhibition of a cellular process that is critical at early stages of viral replication and that may affect protein tyrosine kinase activity...
  16. pmc Modest human immunodeficiency virus coreceptor function of CXCR3 is strongly enhanced by mimicking the CXCR4 ligand binding pocket in the CXCR3 receptor
    Sigrid Hatse
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Virol 81:3632-9. 2007
    ..Moreover, the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 exhibited antagonistic and anti-HIV activities in U87.CD4.CXCR3[K300A, S304E] cells but not in U87.CD4.CXCR3[WT] cells...
  17. pmc Activities of several classes of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates against camelpox virus replication in different cell culture models
    Sophie Duraffour
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, K U Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, Leuven, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:4410-9. 2007
    ..Our results demonstrate that compounds belonging to the newly synthesized ANPs, in addition to cidofovir, represent promising candidates for the treatment of poxvirus infections...
  18. pmc Development of resistance against diketo derivatives of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by progressive accumulation of integrase mutations
    Valery Fikkert
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Virol 77:11459-70. 2003
    ..As to the replication kinetics of the selected strains, the replication fitness for all strains was lower than that of the wild-type HIV-1 strain...
  19. doi request reprint Substituted imidazopyridines as potent inhibitors of HCV replication
    Inge Vliegen
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven, Minderbroedesstraat 10, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Hepatol 50:999-1009. 2009
    ..The particular characteristics of one of the most potent compounds in this series (5-[[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-isoxazolyl]methyl]-2-(2,3-difluorophenyl)-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine or GS-327073), were studied...
  20. pmc Mannose-specific plant lectins from the Amaryllidaceae family qualify as efficient microbicides for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus infection
    Jan Balzarini
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:3858-70. 2004
    ..0) for prolonged time periods and can be easily formulated in gel preparations for microbicidal use; they did not agglutinate human erythrocytes and were not toxic to mice when administered intravenously...
  21. ncbi request reprint Synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of new cyclohexenyl nucleosides
    Ping Gu
    Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 22:845-7. 2003
    ..Among the eight new compounds, only the diaminopurine analogue 8 showed pronounced activity against HSV-1, HSV-2...
  22. ncbi request reprint Pronounced in vitro and in vivo antiretroviral activity of 5-substituted 2,4-diamino-6-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethoxy] pyrimidines
    Jan Balzarini
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, K U Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Antimicrob Chemother 59:80-6. 2007
    ..To discover new potent and selective anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acyclic nucleoside phosphonate (ANP) drugs with in vivo antiretroviral activity...
  23. ncbi request reprint Marked depletion of glycosylation sites in HIV-1 gp120 under selection pressure by the mannose-specific plant lectins of Hippeastrum hybrid and Galanthus nivalis
    Jan Balzarini
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
    Mol Pharmacol 67:1556-65. 2005
    ..The mutant viruses containing the deleted glycosylation sites were markedly more infectious in CEM T-cell cultures than wild-type virus...
  24. pmc Exchanging the yellow fever virus envelope proteins with Modoc virus prM and E proteins results in a chimeric virus that is neuroinvasive in SCID mice
    Nathalie Charlier
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Virol 78:7418-26. 2004
    ..The observations provide compelling evidence that the determinants of neuroinvasiveness of flaviviruses are entirely located in the envelope proteins prM and E...
  25. doi request reprint Intracellular metabolism of the new antiviral compound 1-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-5-azacytosine
    Lieve Naesens
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Biochem Pharmacol 76:997-1005. 2008
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint Expression of HIV-1 integrase in CEM cells inhibits HIV-1 replication
    Johan van Griensven
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Gene Med 6:268-77. 2004
    ..We now have constructed CEM-derived cell lines stably expressing the enzyme or its different domains and studied the impact of IN expression on HIV-1 replication...
  27. ncbi request reprint AMD3465, a monomacrocyclic CXCR4 antagonist and potent HIV entry inhibitor
    Sigrid Hatse
    Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Biochem Pharmacol 70:752-61. 2005
    ....
  28. pmc Novel human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) inhibitors that have a dual mode of anti-HIV action
    Miguel Stevens
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:3109-16. 2003
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of feline (FIPV) and human (SARS) coronavirus by semisynthetic derivatives of glycopeptide antibiotics
    Jan Balzarini
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, K U Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Antiviral Res 72:20-33. 2006
    ..Some compounds showed inhibitory activity against both, whereas other compounds proved inhibitory to either, FIPV or SARS-CoV. There was no close correlation between the EC(50) values of the glycopeptide derivatives for FIPV or SARS-CoV...
  30. pmc Novel in vivo model for the study of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription inhibitors: evaluation of new 6-desfluoroquinolone derivatives
    Miguel Stevens
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, and Division of Histopathology, University Hospitals, Leuven, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:1407-13. 2007
    ..Since both quinolone derivatives were able to inhibit the reactivation of HIV-1 from this artificial viral reservoir in vivo, we provide encouraging evidence for the use of quinolones in the control of HIV-1 infections...
  31. pmc Mutations in the nonstructural protein 3A confer resistance to the novel enterovirus replication inhibitor TTP-8307
    Armando M De Palma
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:1850-7. 2009
    ..It is hypothesized that TTP-8307 and enviroxime disrupt proper interactions of 3A(B) with other viral or cellular proteins that are required for efficient replication...
  32. ncbi request reprint Deoxythreosyl phosphonate nucleosides as selective anti-HIV agents
    Tongfei Wu
    Laboratories of Medicinal Chemistry and Virology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, Leuven, Belgium
    J Am Chem Soc 127:5056-65. 2005
    ..The incorporated PMDTA fits very well in the active site pocket of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase...
  33. ncbi request reprint The role of Thr139 in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase sensitivity to (+)-calanolide A
    Joeri Auwerx
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Mol Pharmacol 68:652-9. 2005
    ....
  34. doi request reprint Debio-025 inhibits HIV-1 by interfering with an early event in the replication cycle
    Dirk Daelemans
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Antiviral Res 85:418-21. 2010
    ..The compound proved inactive against mutant viruses that are independent of cyclophilin A binding suggesting Debio-025 targets the cyclophilin A-capsid interaction...
  35. pmc The imidazopyrrolopyridine analogue AG110 is a novel, highly selective inhibitor of pestiviruses that targets the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase at a hot spot for inhibition of viral replication
    Jan Paeshuyse
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Virol 81:11046-53. 2007
    ..It is concluded that a single drug-binding pocket exists within the finger domain region of the BVDV RdRp that consists of two separate but potentially overlapping binding sites rather than two distinct drug-binding pockets...
  36. pmc Inhibitory activities of three classes of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates against murine polyomavirus and primate simian virus 40 strains
    Ilya Lebeau
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, K U Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, Leuven, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:2268-73. 2007
    ..The last class showed the highest activities and selectivities against both polyomaviruses...
  37. pmc The phenylmethylthiazolylthiourea nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor MSK-076 selects for a resistance mutation in the active site of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 RT
    Joeri Auwerx
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Virol 78:7427-37. 2004
    ..Our findings have important implications for the development of new NNRTIs with pronounced activity against a wider range of lentiviruses...
  38. ncbi request reprint Fluorescence-based antiviral assay for the evaluation of compounds against vaccinia virus, varicella zoster virus and human cytomegalovirus
    Fabiana Dal Pozzo
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, K U Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Virol Methods 151:66-73. 2008
    ..Furthermore the fluorimetric data could be confirmed by a flow cytometry assay. GFP- and EYFP-recombinant viruses proved to be a convenient tool for the evaluation of antiviral agents...
  39. pmc The predominant mechanism by which ribavirin exerts its antiviral activity in vitro against flaviviruses and paramyxoviruses is mediated by inhibition of IMP dehydrogenase
    Pieter Leyssen
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Virol 79:1943-7. 2005
    ..These data provide compelling evidence that the predominant mechanism of action of ribavirin in vitro against flavi- and paramyxoviruses is based on inhibition of cellular IMP dehydrogenase activity...
  40. pmc Efficacy of cidofovir in a murine model of disseminated progressive vaccinia
    Johan Neyts
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:2267-73. 2004
    ..The observation that cidofovir is able to cause healing of disseminated vaccinia lesions in animals should have implications for the therapy of complications of vaccination against smallpox...
  41. ncbi request reprint A rapid and convenient variant of fusion-PCR to construct chimeric flaviviruses
    Nathalie Charlier
    Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000, Leuven, Belgium
    J Virol Methods 108:67-74. 2003
    ..For each of the two fusions between yellow fever and Modoc virus, a standard PCR was performed to amplify a short fragment with one overlapping end that could be used as one of the primers in the subsequent (fusion) PCR...
  42. ncbi request reprint Ribavirin and mycophenolic acid markedly potentiate the anti-hepatitis B virus activity of entecavir
    Chunxiao Ying
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Faculty of Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Antiviral Res 73:192-6. 2007
    ....
  43. ncbi request reprint The Anti-HIV potency of cyclotriazadisulfonamide analogs is directly correlated with their ability to down-modulate the CD4 receptor
    Kurt Vermeire
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Mol Pharmacol 63:203-10. 2003
    ..The close correlation observed between the CD4 down-regulating and anti-HIV potencies of the CADA derivatives further points to CD4 receptor down-modulation as the primary mode of antiviral action for this group of compounds...
  44. pmc A novel, highly selective inhibitor of pestivirus replication that targets the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
    Jan Paeshuyse
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Virol 80:149-60. 2006
    ..The potential of BPIP for the treatment of pestivirus and hepacivirus infections is discussed...
  45. pmc Establishment of a novel CCR5 and CXCR4 expressing CD4+ cell line which is highly sensitive to HIV and suitable for high-throughput evaluation of CCR5 and CXCR4 antagonists
    Katrien Princen
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Retrovirology 1:2. 2004
    ..Here, we describe the establishment of a novel CD4+ cell line, U87.CD4.CCR5.CXCR4, stably expressing both CCR5 and CXCR4 at the cell surface...
  46. doi request reprint Structure-activity relationship of new anti-hepatitis C virus agents: heterobicycle-coumarin conjugates
    Johan Neyts
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    J Med Chem 52:1486-90. 2009
    ..8, 2.0, and 12 microM, respectively. The heteroatoms in bicycles and the substituent effect on coumarin played essential roles...
  47. ncbi request reprint Antiviral properties of new arylsulfone derivatives with activity against human betaherpesviruses
    Lieve Naesens
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Antiviral Res 72:60-7. 2006
    ..We conclude that these arylsulfone derivatives represent new betaherpesvirus inhibitors with a novel mode of action that results in indirect inhibition of viral DNA synthesis...
  48. ncbi request reprint Susceptibility of HIV-2, SIV and SHIV to various anti-HIV-1 compounds: implications for treatment and postexposure prophylaxis
    Myriam Witvrouw
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Antivir Ther 9:57-65. 2004
    ..Co-receptor antagonists such as AMD3100 show promising anti-HIV-2 therapeutic modalities. Both AMD3100 and enfuvirtide could be used for prophylaxis against SHIV89.6...
  49. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription by N-aminoimidazole derivatives
    Miguel Stevens
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Virology 365:220-37. 2007
    ..These data suggest that the N-aminoimidazole derivatives effectively inhibit the reactivation of HIV-1 and may contribute to the control of the latent HIV-1 reservoir...
  50. ncbi request reprint Mutations at the CXCR4 interaction sites for AMD3100 influence anti-CXCR4 antibody binding and HIV-1 entry
    Sigrid Hatse
    Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    FEBS Lett 546:300-6. 2003
    ..3. Thus, resistance of HIV-1 NL4.3 to AMD3100 is associated with a decreased dependence of the viral gp120 on Asp(262) of CXCR4, pointing to a different mode of interaction of wild-type versus AMD3100-resistant virus with CXCR4...
  51. ncbi request reprint New approaches toward anti-HIV chemotherapy
    Erik De Clercq
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Med Chem 48:1297-313. 2005
  52. ncbi request reprint Human herpesvirus 6 DNA polymerase: enzymatic parameters, sensitivity to ganciclovir and determination of the role of the A961V mutation in HHV-6 ganciclovir resistance
    Leen De Bolle
    Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Antiviral Res 64:17-25. 2004
    ..From our experiments presented here, we conclude that the pU69 M(318)V amino acid substitution rather than the A(961)V substitution in HHV-6 DNA polymerase, is responsible for the ganciclovir-resistant phenotype...
  53. ncbi request reprint Anti-enterovirus activity and structure-activity relationship of a series of 2,6-dihalophenyl-substituted 1H,3H-thiazolo[3,4-a]benzimidazoles
    Armando M De Palma
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, University of Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 353:628-32. 2007
    ..41 microg/ml without any detectable cytotoxicity at the highest concentration (100 microg/ml) tested...
  54. ncbi request reprint Pyridine N-oxide derivatives inhibit viral transactivation by interfering with NF-kappaB binding
    Miguel Stevens
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
    Biochem Pharmacol 71:1122-35. 2006
    ..Consequently, JPL-32 was able to increase the intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels and to induce apoptosis in a dose-dependent way...
  55. pmc Activities of alkoxyalkyl esters of cidofovir (CDV), cyclic CDV, and (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine against orthopoxviruses in cell monolayers and in organotypic cultures
    Ilya Lebeau
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, K U Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, Leuven, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:2525-9. 2006
    ..Prodrugs were at least 20-fold more active than their parent compounds. Octadecycloxyethyl-(S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine emerged as the most potent derivative...
  56. pmc Ribavirin antagonizes the in vitro anti-hepatitis C virus activity of 2'-C-methylcytidine, the active component of valopicitabine
    Lotte Coelmont
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, KULeuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:3444-6. 2006
    ..These findings may have implications when planning clinical studies with valopicitabine...
  57. doi request reprint The discovery of antiviral agents: ten different compounds, ten different stories
    Erik De Clercq
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Med Res Rev 28:929-53. 2008
    ....
  58. ncbi request reprint Activity of the anti-orthopoxvirus compound ST-246 against vaccinia, cowpox and camelpox viruses in cell monolayers and organotypic raft cultures
    Sophie Duraffour
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Antivir Ther 12:1205-16. 2007
    ..The compound has been shown to inhibit the release of extracellular virus by targeting the F13L W protein and to protect mice from W, CPV and ECTV orthopoxvirus-induced disease...
  59. pmc Characterization of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase mutants selected under a single round of high-dose brivudin
    Graciela Andrei
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Laboratory of Virology, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Virol 79:5863-9. 2005
    ..The A168T change, associated with an altered TK phenotype, proved to be the most commonly selected substitution. For the different mutants, a correlation between phenotype, genotype, and in vivo neurovirulence was observed...
  60. ncbi request reprint Replication of not-known-vector flaviviruses in mosquito cells is restricted by intracellular host factors rather than by the viral envelope proteins
    Nathalie Charlier
    Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Gen Virol 91:1693-7. 2010
    ..The inability of NKV viruses (such as MODV) to infect and replicate in arthropod cells is thus not determined by the viral envelope, but by a post-entry event...
  61. ncbi request reprint HIV-chemotherapy and -prophylaxis: new drugs, leads and approaches
    Erik De Clercq
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, K U Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36:1800-22. 2004
    ..Taken together, it is obvious that the approaches for the treatment of HIV infections in recent years have become both more diverse and more efficient...
  62. ncbi request reprint Impact of direct virus-induced neuronal dysfunction and immunological damage on the progression of flavivirus (Modoc) encephalitis in a murine model
    Pieter Leyssen
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
    J Neurovirol 9:69-78. 2003
    ....
  63. ncbi request reprint Potent and selective inhibition of HIV and SIV by prostratin interacting with viral entry
    Myriam Witvrouw
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Antivir Chem Chemother 14:321-8. 2003
    ..We concluded that prostratin inhibits the entry step of the replication cycle of HIV by interacting with a cellular target necessary for viral entry...
  64. ncbi request reprint Human herpesvirus 6 infection arrests cord blood mononuclear cells in G(2) phase of the cell cycle
    Leen De Bolle
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    FEBS Lett 560:25-9. 2004
    ..However, no change was observed in the levels of downstream effectors of p53 in establishing a G(2) arrest, i.e. p21 and 14-3-3sigma. We thus conclude that the HHV-6A-induced G(2) arrest occurs independently of p53 accumulation...
  65. ncbi request reprint Specific recognition of the bicyclic pyrimidine nucleoside analogs, a new class of highly potent and selective inhibitors of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), by the VZV-encoded thymidine kinase
    Rebecca Sienaert
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Mol Pharmacol 61:249-54. 2002
    ..Our observations may account for the unprecedented specificity of BCNAs as anti-VZV agents...
  66. ncbi request reprint Role of the human herpesvirus 6 u69-encoded kinase in the phosphorylation of ganciclovir
    Leen De Bolle
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Mol Pharmacol 62:714-21. 2002
    ..Our results indicate that the limited phosphorylation of ganciclovir by pU69 may contribute to its modest antiviral activity against HHV-6 in certain cell systems...
  67. ncbi request reprint Susceptibility of feline immunodeficiency virus/human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase chimeras to non-nucleoside RT inhibitors
    Joeri Auwerx
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Mol Pharmacol 65:244-51. 2004
    ....
  68. pmc Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integration by diketo derivatives
    Wim Pluymers
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, K U Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:3292-7. 2002
    ..In cell culture, addition of L-708,906 could be postponed for 7 h after infection, a moment coinciding with HIV integration. Inhibition of integration in cell culture was confirmed by quantitative Alu-PCR...
  69. ncbi request reprint Infection of SCID mice with Montana Myotis leukoencephalitis virus as a model for flavivirus encephalitis
    Nathalie Charlier
    Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Gen Virol 83:1887-96. 2002
    ..This validates the MMLV model for use in antiviral drug studies. The MMLV SCID model may, therefore, be attractive for the study of chemoprophylactic or chemotherapeutic strategies against flavivirus infections causing encephalitis...
  70. ncbi request reprint N-aminoimidazole derivatives inhibiting retroviral replication via a yet unidentified mode of action
    Irene M Lagoja
    Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, Belgium
    J Med Chem 46:1546-53. 2003
    ....
  71. ncbi request reprint Chimeric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and feline immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptases: role of the subunits in resistance/sensitivity to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
    Joeri Auwerx
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Mol Pharmacol 61:400-6. 2002
    ..This decreased catalytic efficacy of the RT chimeras may suggest suboptimal interactions between p66 and p51 in the chimeric enzymes. Our results point to a minor role of the p51 subunit in the sensitivity to RT inhibitors...
  72. ncbi request reprint New class of HIV integrase inhibitors that block viral replication in cell culture
    Christophe Pannecouque
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, KULeuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, Belgium
    Curr Biol 12:1169-77. 2002
    ....
  73. ncbi request reprint CADA inhibits human immunodeficiency virus and human herpesvirus 7 replication by down-modulation of the cellular CD4 receptor
    Kurt Vermeire
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Virology 302:342-53. 2002
    ..This unique mechanism of action makes CADA an important lead in developing new drugs for treatment of AIDS, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory disorders...
  74. ncbi request reprint John Montgomery's legacy: carbocyclic adenosine analogues as SAH hydrolase inhibitors with broad-spectrum antiviral activity
    Erik De Clercq
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, K U Letven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 24:1395-415. 2005
    ....
  75. pmc Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus by a new class of pyridine oxide derivatives
    Miguel Stevens
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:2951-7. 2003
    ....
  76. pmc Impact of the central polypurine tract on the kinetics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vector transduction
    Bénédicte Van Maele
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Leuven, Flanders, Belgium
    J Virol 77:4685-94. 2003
    ....
  77. pmc Interferons, interferon inducers, and interferon-ribavirin in treatment of flavivirus-induced encephalitis in mice
    Pieter Leyssen
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:777-82. 2003
    ..However, ribavirin did not enhance the inhibitory effect of interferon therapy in this animal model for flavivirus infections...
  78. ncbi request reprint Synthesis and antiviral activity of a series of new cyclohexenyl nucleosides
    Ping Gu
    Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Antivir Chem Chemother 14:31-7. 2003
    ..The compounds were evaluated for their antiviral and cytostatic activity. Pronounced activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 was observed for the 2,6-diaminopurine analogue...
  79. ncbi request reprint Emerging antiviral drugs
    Erik De Clercq
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 13:393-416. 2008
    ....
  80. pmc A synthetic HIV-1 Rev inhibitor interfering with the CRM1-mediated nuclear export
    Dirk Daelemans
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:14440-5. 2002
    ..The reversibility of its binding to CRM1 and its availability through chemical synthesis could make it useful for studying CRM1-mediated export pathways...
  81. ncbi request reprint The regulation of HIV-1 transcription: molecular targets for chemotherapeutic intervention
    Miguel Stevens
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Med Res Rev 26:595-625. 2006
    ..As such, targeting of Tat protein (and/or cellular cofactors) provide an interesting perspective for therapeutic intervention in the HIV replicative cycle and may afford lifetime control of the HIV infection...
  82. doi request reprint Looking back in 2009 at the dawning of antiviral therapy now 50 years ago an historical perspective
    Erik De Clercq
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, K U Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Adv Virus Res 73:1-53. 2009
    ....
  83. doi request reprint A new drug combination therapy for treatment-naive patients with HIV-1 infection, consisting of raltegravir, emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
    Erik De Clercq
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 10:2935-7. 2009
    ..e. integrase and reverse transcriptase. These multiple (triple or quadruple) drug combinations should be aimed at once daily dosing...
  84. ncbi request reprint Anti-angiogenic activity of a novel multi-substrate analogue inhibitor of thymidine phosphorylase
    Sandra Liekens
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    FEBS Lett 510:83-8. 2002
    ....
  85. ncbi request reprint The anti-yellow fever virus activity of ribavirin is independent of error-prone replication
    Pieter Leyssen
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Mol Pharmacol 69:1461-7. 2006
    ..These data thus allow us to conclude that the in vitro anti-yellow fever virus activity of ribavirin is independent of error-prone replication...
  86. ncbi request reprint The acyclic nucleoside phosphonates from inception to clinical use: historical perspective
    Erik De Clercq
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, K U Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Antiviral Res 75:1-13. 2007
    ..between Antonín Holý [Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry (IOCB, Prague, Czech Republic)] and Erik De Clercq (Rega Institute for Medical Research, K.U. Leuven, Belgium) started exactly 30 years ago...
  87. ncbi request reprint Antiviral activity of diverse classes of broad-acting agents and natural compounds in HHV-6-infected lymphoblasts
    Lieve Naesens
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Clin Virol 37:S69-75. 2006
    ..HHV-6 replication requires complex and poorly understood interactions between viral and cellular factors...
  88. ncbi request reprint Antiretroviral activity of semisynthetic derivatives of glycopeptide antibiotics
    Jan Balzarini
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Med Chem 46:2755-64. 2003
    ..The mode of anti-HIV action of the antibiotic aglycon derivatives could be ascribed to inhibition of the viral entry process...
  89. ncbi request reprint In search of authentic inhibitors of HIV-1 integration
    Zeger Debyser
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven, Flanders, Belgium
    Antivir Chem Chemother 13:1-15. 2002
    ..We point to potential pitfalls in defining an inhibitor as an authentic integrase inhibitor, and propose new strategies and technologies for the discovery of authentic HIV integration inhibitors...
  90. ncbi request reprint The nucleoside derivative 5'-O-trityl-inosine (KIN59) suppresses thymidine phosphorylase-triggered angiogenesis via a noncompetitive mechanism of action
    Sandra Liekens
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Biol Chem 279:29598-605. 2004
    ..Identification of these site(s) is important to obtain a better insight into the molecular role of TPase in the progression of cancer and angiogenic diseases...
  91. pmc Update on human herpesvirus 6 biology, clinical features, and therapy
    Leen De Bolle
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Clin Microbiol Rev 18:217-45. 2005
    ..Finally, we present an overview of therapeutic options for HHV-6 therapy (including modes of action and resistance mechanisms)...
  92. ncbi request reprint Synthesis and antiviral/antiproliferative activity of some N-sulphonylbenzimidazoles
    Laura Garuti
    Department of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Bologna, Via Belmeloro 6, I 40126 Bologna, Italy
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 12:2707-10. 2002
    ..Marked cytotoxicity was noted with different derivatives. Some structure-activity relationships are discussed...
  93. doi request reprint Non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. Part 10. Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of 5-alkyl-6-(1-naphthylmethyl)pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones with a mono- or disubstituted 2-amino function as novel 'dihydro-alkoxy-benzyl-oxopyrimidine' (DABO) analog
    Yueping Wang
    Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, PR China
    Chem Biodivers 5:168-76. 2008
    ..Preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies revealed that both modulation of the amino function at C(2) and of the alkyl group at C(5) of the pyrimidine ring are crucial for high anti-HIV-1 activity...
  94. ncbi request reprint Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of cis-substituted cyclohexenyl and cyclohexanyl nucleosides
    Karine Barral
    Laboratoire des Matériaux Moléculaires et des Biomatériaux, GCOM2, UMR CNRS 6114, Universite de la Mediterranee, Case 901, 163 av de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9, France
    J Med Chem 48:450-6. 2005
    ..Specific computer modeling studies were performed on HSV-1 thymidine kinase in order to understand the enzyme activation of an analogue showing moderate antiviral activity...
  95. ncbi request reprint Bone marrow transplantation in a child with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome latently infected with acyclovir-resistant (ACV(r)) herpes simplex virus type 1: emergence of foscarnet-resistant virus originating from the ACV(r) virus
    Masayuki Saijo
    Special Pathogens Laboratory, Department of Virology 1, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan
    J Med Virol 68:99-104. 2002
    ..This is the first report on the clinical course of a BMT-associated ACV(r) HSV-1 infection that subsequently developed resistance to foscarnet as well...
  96. ncbi request reprint Novel [2',5'-bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-D-ribofuranosyl]- 3'-spiro-5''-(4''-amino-1'',2''-oxathiole-2'',2" -dioxide) derivatives with anti-HIV-1 and anti-human-cytomegalovirus activity
    Sonia de Castro
    Instituto de Química Médica C S I C, Juan de la Cierva 3, E 28006 Madrid, Spain
    J Med Chem 48:1158-68. 2005
    ..This has never been observed previously for TSAO derivatives. In particular, compound 26 represents the first TSAO derivative with dual anti-HIV-1 and -HCMV activity...
  97. pmc Evaluation of hexadecyloxypropyl-9-R-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)propyl]- adenine, CMX157, as a potential treatment for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis B virus infections
    George R Painter
    Chimerix Incorporated, Durham, NC 27713, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:3505-9. 2007
    ..Consequently, CMX157 represents a second-generation tenofovir analog which may have an improved clinical profile...
  98. ncbi request reprint Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of 6-(alkyl-heteroaryl)furo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(3H)-one nucleosides and analogues with ethynyl, ethenyl, and ethyl spacers at C6 of the furopyrimidine core
    Morris J Robins
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 5700, USA
    J Med Chem 50:3897-905. 2007
    ....
  99. ncbi request reprint 5-alkynyl analogs of arabinouridine and 2'-deoxyuridine: cytostatic activity against herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster thymidine kinase gene-transfected cells
    Walter A Cristofoli
    Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2N8
    J Med Chem 50:2851-7. 2007
    ..This group of 5-alkynylarabino/deoxy-uridines showed an enhanced ability to inhibit cells transfected with a viral thymidine kinase gene (HSV-1tk+, HSV-2tk+, VZVtk+) relative to wild-type or thymidine kinase-deficient (tk-) cells...
  100. doi request reprint Synthesis, anti-HIV-1 activity, and modeling studies of N-3 Boc TSAO compound
    Cyrille Tomassi
    Laboratoire des Glucides UMR6219, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens, France
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 18:2277-81. 2008
    ..The computational analysis showed that the N-3 Boc group promotes new interactions in the binding site of the enzyme leading to a good inhibitory activity...
  101. ncbi request reprint Bicyclic nucleoside inhibitors of varicella-zoster virus modified on the sugar moiety: 3' and 5' derivatives
    Giovanna M Luoni
    Welsh School of Pharmacy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
    Antivir Chem Chemother 15:333-41. 2004
    ..These results confirm free 5'-OH and 3'-OH as necessary requirements for efficient recognition by VZV TK and for potent anti-VZV activity in cell culture...