Moerman L, Wyffels L, Slaets D, Raedt R, Boon P, de Vos F. Antiepileptic drugs modulate P-glycoproteins in the brain: a mice study with (11)C-desmethylloperamide. Epilepsy Res. 2011;94:18-25 pubmed publisher
..At therapeutic doses they act as inducers of efflux, at supratherapeutic doses they have no effect on the efflux rate. Sodium valproate does not interact with P-gp at therapeutic nor at higher doses. ..
Moerman L, Dumolyn C, Boon P, de Vos F. The influence of mass of [11C]-laniquidar and [11C]-N-desmethyl-loperamide on P-glycoprotein blockage at the blood-brain barrier. Nucl Med Biol. 2012;39:121-5 pubmed publisher
..In comparison, no difference was observed in [(11)C]-dLop uptake between carrier- and no-carrier-added formulations, which confirms that desmethyl-loperamide is a substrate of P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier. ..