S Luby

Summary

Affiliation: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research
Country: Bangladesh

Publications

  1. pmc Quality of drinking water
    Stephen P Luby
    BMJ 334:755-6. 2007
  2. ncbi request reprint Recycling of injection equipment in Pakistan
    Syed Abdul Mujeeb
    Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Center, Karachi, Pakistan
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 24:145-6. 2003
  3. doi request reprint Influenza is a major contributor to childhood pneumonia in a tropical developing country
    W Abdullah Brooks
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh ICDDR, B, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 29:216-21. 2010
  4. pmc Using child health outcomes to identify effective measures of handwashing
    Stephen P Luby
    Infectious Diseases and Vaccine Sciences, ICDDR, B, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 85:882-92. 2011
  5. pmc Understanding community perceptions, social norms and current practice related to respiratory infection in Bangladesh during 2009: a qualitative formative study
    Fosiul A Nizame
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    BMC Public Health 11:901. 2011
  6. pmc Sampling strategies to measure the prevalence of common recurrent infections in longitudinal studies
    Wolf Peter Schmidt
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Emerg Themes Epidemiol 7:5. 2010
  7. pmc Coping strategies for financial burdens in families with childhood pneumonia in Bangladesh
    Nadia I Alamgir
    James P Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, 66 Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh
    BMC Public Health 10:622. 2010
  8. pmc Observed hand cleanliness and other measures of handwashing behavior in rural Bangladesh
    Amal K Halder
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    BMC Public Health 10:545. 2010
  9. pmc Family and community concerns about post-mortem needle biopsies in a Muslim society
    Emily S Gurley
    GPO 128, International Centre for Diarrheal Diseases Research, Bangladesh, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
    BMC Med Ethics 12:10. 2011
  10. pmc Recurrent zoonotic transmission of Nipah virus into humans, Bangladesh, 2001-2007
    Stephen P Luby
    International Centre for Diarrheal Diseases Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:1229-35. 2009

Detail Information

Publications84

  1. pmc Quality of drinking water
    Stephen P Luby
    BMJ 334:755-6. 2007
  2. ncbi request reprint Recycling of injection equipment in Pakistan
    Syed Abdul Mujeeb
    Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Center, Karachi, Pakistan
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 24:145-6. 2003
  3. doi request reprint Influenza is a major contributor to childhood pneumonia in a tropical developing country
    W Abdullah Brooks
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh ICDDR, B, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 29:216-21. 2010
    ..The role of influenza in childhood pneumonia in tropical developing countries is poorly understood. We undertook population-based surveillance among low-income urban preschool children to determine its role in childhood pneumonia...
  4. pmc Using child health outcomes to identify effective measures of handwashing
    Stephen P Luby
    Infectious Diseases and Vaccine Sciences, ICDDR, B, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 85:882-92. 2011
    ..These rapid handwashing indicators should be considered for inclusion in handwashing assessments...
  5. pmc Understanding community perceptions, social norms and current practice related to respiratory infection in Bangladesh during 2009: a qualitative formative study
    Fosiul A Nizame
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    BMC Public Health 11:901. 2011
    ..Respiratory infections are the leading cause of childhood deaths in Bangladesh. Promoting respiratory hygiene may reduce infection transmission. This formative research explored community perceptions about respiratory infections...
  6. pmc Sampling strategies to measure the prevalence of common recurrent infections in longitudinal studies
    Wolf Peter Schmidt
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Emerg Themes Epidemiol 7:5. 2010
    ..In contrast to incidence which usually requires continuous sampling, LP can be measured at intervals. This study explored how many more participants are needed for infrequent sampling to achieve the same study power as frequent sampling...
  7. pmc Coping strategies for financial burdens in families with childhood pneumonia in Bangladesh
    Nadia I Alamgir
    James P Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, 66 Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh
    BMC Public Health 10:622. 2010
    ..This study aimed to determine the out-of pocket expenditure and coping strategies adopted by families of children admitted in a hospital in Bangladesh with pneumonia...
  8. pmc Observed hand cleanliness and other measures of handwashing behavior in rural Bangladesh
    Amal K Halder
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    BMC Public Health 10:545. 2010
    ..We analyzed data from the baseline assessment of a large intervention project to describe typical handwashing practices in rural Bangladesh, and compare measures of hand cleanliness with household characteristics...
  9. pmc Family and community concerns about post-mortem needle biopsies in a Muslim society
    Emily S Gurley
    GPO 128, International Centre for Diarrheal Diseases Research, Bangladesh, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
    BMC Med Ethics 12:10. 2011
    ..The goal of this study was to better understand family and community concerns and decision-making about post-mortem needle biopsies in this low-income, predominantly Muslim country in order to design an informed consent process...
  10. pmc Recurrent zoonotic transmission of Nipah virus into humans, Bangladesh, 2001-2007
    Stephen P Luby
    International Centre for Diarrheal Diseases Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:1229-35. 2009
    ..Interventions to prevent virus transmission from bats to humans and from person to person are needed...
  11. pmc Foodborne transmission of Nipah virus, Bangladesh
    Stephen P Luby
    International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:1888-94. 2006
    ..This investigation suggests that Nipah virus was transmitted from P. giganteus to persons through drinking fresh date palm sap...
  12. doi request reprint Household characteristics associated with handwashing with soap in rural Bangladesh
    Stephen P Luby
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 81:882-7. 2009
    ..3, 3.4) were associated with washing both hands with soap after fecal contact. Interventions that improve the presence of water and soap at the designated place to wash hands would be expected to improve handwashing behavior and health...
  13. ncbi request reprint Difficulties in maintaining improved handwashing behavior, Karachi, Pakistan
    Stephen P Luby
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 81:140-5. 2009
    ..59% versus 1.88%, P = 0.66) as controls. Although intervention households showed better handwashing technique after 2 years without intervention, their soap purchases and diarrhea experience was not significantly different from controls...
  14. ncbi request reprint Long-term improvement in unsafe injection practices following community intervention
    Stephen Luby
    Community Health Sciences Department, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
    Int J Infect Dis 9:52-9. 2005
    ..A study in 1994 identified frequent unsafe injections as the cause of widespread hepatitis C virus infection in Hafizabad, Pakistan. A simple low cost community education program was assessed to see if it improved injection safety...
  15. doi request reprint Use of multiple surveillance modalities to assess the epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in Bangladesh
    Stephen P Luby
    International Centre for Diarrheal Diseases Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Clin Infect Dis 48:S97-102. 2009
    ..Together, these data provide a strong scientific case for the importance of pneumococcal disease prevention to child health in Bangladesh and, therefore, the potential benefit of an effective vaccine...
  16. ncbi request reprint Effect of handwashing on child health: a randomised controlled trial
    Stephen P Luby
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Centers for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Lancet 366:225-33. 2005
    ..We undertook a randomised controlled trial to assess the effect of handwashing promotion with soap on the incidence of acute respiratory infection, impetigo, and diarrhoea...
  17. doi request reprint Tubewell water quality and predictors of contamination in three flood-prone areas in Bangladesh
    S P Luby
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    J Appl Microbiol 105:1002-8. 2008
    ..To measure enteric bacterial contamination of tubewells in three flood prone areas in Bangladesh and the relationship of bacteriological contamination with tubewell sanitary inspection scores...
  18. doi request reprint Associations among handwashing indicators, wealth, and symptoms of childhood respiratory illness in urban Bangladesh
    Stephen P Luby
    International Centre of Diarrheal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Trop Med Int Health 13:835-44. 2008
    ..To explore the relationship of easy to collect handwashing indicators with socioeconomic status and reported respiratory disease among children <5 years of age...
  19. ncbi request reprint Chlorine spot treatment of flooded tube wells, an efficacy trial
    S Luby
    Programme on Infectious Diseases and Vaccine Sciences, ICDDR, B Centre for Health and Population Research, Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    J Appl Microbiol 100:1154-8. 2006
    ..To evaluate the water quality of recently flooded tube wells in Bangladesh and the effect of spot chlorination on improving bacteriological quality...
  20. ncbi request reprint Field trial of a low cost method to evaluate hand cleanliness
    Stephen P Luby
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Centers for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Trop Med Int Health 12:765-71. 2007
    ..To evaluate a simple low cost method for measuring hand contamination as an objective assessment of handwashing practices...
  21. pmc Transmission of human infection with Nipah virus
    Stephen P Luby
    International Centre for Diarrheal Diseases Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Clin Infect Dis 49:1743-8. 2009
    ..Efforts to prevent transmission should focus on decreasing bat access to date palm sap and reducing family members' and friends' exposure to infected patients' saliva...
  22. pmc Infectious diseases and vaccine sciences: strategic directions
    Stephen P Luby
    ICDDR, B, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh
    J Health Popul Nutr 26:295-310. 2008
    ..Although services for directly-observed therapy have expanded markedly, improved case finding and involvement of private practitioners will be important to reduce the burden of disease...
  23. ncbi request reprint Combining drinking water treatment and hand washing for diarrhoea prevention, a cluster randomised controlled trial
    Stephen P Luby
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Centers for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Trop Med Int Health 11:479-89. 2006
    ..To evaluate the effectiveness of point of use water treatment with flocculent-disinfectant on reducing diarrhoea and the additional benefit of promoting hand washing with soap...
  24. pmc The effect of handwashing at recommended times with water alone and with soap on child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh: an observational study
    Stephen P Luby
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    PLoS Med 8:e1001052. 2011
    ..We analyzed data from households that received no intervention in a large prospective project evaluation to assess the relationship between observed handwashing behavior and subsequent diarrhea...
  25. pmc The variability of childhood diarrhea in Karachi, Pakistan, 2002-2006
    Stephen P Luby
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 84:870-7. 2011
    ..Cross-sectional surveys are unreliable measures of diarrhea prevalence...
  26. ncbi request reprint A low-cost approach to measure the burden of vaccine preventable diseases in urban areas
    Stephen P Luby
    International Centre for Diarrheal Diseases Research, Bangladesh ICDDR, B, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Vaccine 28:4903-12. 2010
    ..0 deaths per 100,000 children <5 years of age per year. This low-cost approach can provide data to support vaccine introduction and the health impact of newly introduced vaccines...
  27. ncbi request reprint Usefulness of the hydrogen sulfide test for assessment of water quality in Bangladesh
    S K Gupta
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Appl Microbiol 104:388-95. 2008
    ..To evaluate the usefulness of the hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) test for assessing water quality in Bangladesh...
  28. doi request reprint Surveillance of rotavirus in a rural diarrhoea treatment centre in Bangladesh, 2000-2006
    K Zaman
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh ICDDR, B, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh
    Vaccine 27:F31-4. 2009
    ..Rotavirus is an important cause of childhood diarrhoea in rural Bangladesh and this burden may be reduced with a rotavirus vaccination programme...
  29. pmc Restaurant-associated outbreak of Salmonella typhi in Nauru: an epidemiological and cost analysis
    S J Olsen
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Epidemiol Infect 127:405-12. 2001
    ..0/1000 persons. Outbreak-associated costs were $46,000. Routine or emergency immunization campaigns targeting school-aged children may help prevent or control outbreaks of typhoid fever in endemic disease areas...
  30. ncbi request reprint Is drinking water in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, safe for infant formula?
    E F Dunne
    Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 28:393-8. 2001
    ..To survey knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding water use and infant feeding in the Koumassi District of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, and to evaluate the microbiologic quality of source and stored drinking water...
  31. ncbi request reprint Faecal contamination of drinking water sources of Dhaka city during the 2004 flood in Bangladesh and use of disinfectants for water treatment
    M Sirajul Islam
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
    J Appl Microbiol 103:80-7. 2007
    ..To describe the extent of faecal pollution and point of use water treatment strategy during and after the 2004 flood in Dhaka...
  32. ncbi request reprint Survey of surgical emergencies in a rural population in the Northern Areas of Pakistan
    M Ahmed
    Department of Surgery, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
    Trop Med Int Health 4:846-57. 1999
    ..To determine the incidence of specific surgical emergencies in a mountainous rural community in the Northern Areas of Pakistan and to assess use of existing health services, and outcomes related to acute surgical illness events...
  33. ncbi request reprint A low-cost intervention for cleaner drinking water in Karachi, Pakistan
    S Luby
    Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
    Int J Infect Dis 5:144-50. 2001
    ..To pilot test an inexpensive, home-based water decontamination and storage system in a low-income neighborhood of Karachi...
  34. ncbi request reprint Hypertension and its determinants among adults in high mountain villages of the Northern Areas of Pakistan
    S M Shah
    Department of Community Health Sciences, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
    J Hum Hypertens 15:107-12. 2001
    ..90, 95% CI 1.49, 2). Hypertension is a significant health problem in rural northern Pakistan. The primary health care programme in the Northern Areas of Pakistan needs to address this problem, especially identifying people at risk...
  35. pmc Outbreaks of typhoid fever in the United States, 1960-99
    S J Olsen
    Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Epidemiol Infect 130:13-21. 2003
    ..85/year during 1960-79 to 0.85/year during 1980-99 (P=0.0001). S. Typhi outbreaks in the United States are generally small in size but can cause significant morbidity, and are often foodborne, warranting thorough investigation...
  36. ncbi request reprint Does use of a government service depend on distance from the health facility?
    R NoorAli
    Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
    Health Policy Plan 14:191-7. 1999
    ..Further studies are needed to examine the management of health facilities and the clients' perception of health-care providers...
  37. doi request reprint Burden of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in a densely populated urban community, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Aliya Naheed
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, 68 Shaheed Tajuddin Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Int J Infect Dis 14:e93-9. 2010
    ..We conducted blood culture surveillance to estimate the incidence of typhoid and paratyphoid fever among urban slum residents in Dhaka, Bangladesh...
  38. pmc Human metapneumovirus infection among children, Bangladesh
    W Abdullah Brooks
    ICDDR, B Division of Health Systems and Infectious Diseases, GPO Box 128 Mohakhali, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:1611-3. 2007
    ..HMPV was the most common single virus identified among febrile children and appears to contribute to the high rates of illness in this population...
  39. ncbi request reprint Invasive pneumococcal disease burden and implications for vaccine policy in urban Bangladesh
    W Abdullah Brooks
    ICDDR, B, Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:795-801. 2007
    ..9%, 82.4%, 14.7%, and 24.1%, respectively. Current conjugate vaccines should substantially reduce IPD, childhood pneumonia, and antimicrobial resistance in Bangladesh...
  40. pmc Detection of antibodies secreted from circulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific plasma cells in the diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis
    Rubhana Raqib
    International Centre for Diarrheal Disease and Research, Bangladesh
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 16:521-7. 2009
    ..001). The ALS assay is a novel diagnostic method with potential applications in the diagnosis of pediatric TB and in subsequent monitoring of treatment effectiveness...
  41. pmc Bacteremic typhoid fever in children in an urban slum, Bangladesh
    W Abdullah Brooks
    ICDDR, B Centre for Health and Population Research, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:326-9. 2005
    ..The relative risk for preschool children compared with older persons was 8.9. Our regression model showed that these children were clinically ill, which suggests a role for preschool immunization...
  42. doi request reprint Successful co-administration of a human rotavirus and oral poliovirus vaccines in Bangladeshi infants in a 2-dose schedule at 12 and 16 weeks of age
    K Zaman
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh ICDDR, B, GPO Box 128, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
    Vaccine 27:1333-9. 2009
    ..No statistically significant differences were observed between groups for polio seroprotection rates. RIX4414 vaccine was immunogenic when co-administered with OPV and did not interfere with OPV seroprotection rates...
  43. doi request reprint Changing species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Shigella over a 29-year period (1980-2008)
    F Khatun
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Epidemiol Infect 139:446-52. 2011
    ..Although hospitalization for Shigella diarrhoea is decreasing, the high levels of antimicrobial resistance and increased susceptibility of malnourished children continue to pose an ongoing risk...
  44. ncbi request reprint Vulnerability to homicide in Karachi: political activity as a risk factor
    A Mian
    Department of Community Health Sciences, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
    Int J Epidemiol 31:581-5. 2002
    ..As a step toward developing intervention programmes to curb violence, we conducted a study to identify risk factors for becoming a homicide victim in a high violence area of Karachi...
  45. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of infection with waterborne pathogens: a seroepidemiologic study in children 6-36 months old in San Juan Sacatepequez, Guatemala
    Ellen B Steinberg
    Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 70:83-8. 2004
    ..Such an approach may provide a suitable, sensitive, and economical alternative to the cumbersome stool collection methods that have previously been used for evaluation of water and sanitation projects...
  46. ncbi request reprint Management trend and safety of vaginal delivery for term breech fetuses in a tertiary care hospital of Karachi, Pakistan
    N B Mohammed
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
    J Perinat Med 29:250-9. 2001
    ..To investigate the safety of vaginal delivery for term breech fetuses in a tertiary-care hospital of Pakistan...
  47. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of blood bank practices in Karachi, Pakistan, and the government's response
    S Luby
    Community Health Sciences Department, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
    Health Policy Plan 15:217-22. 2000
    ..To support provincial-level efforts to develop legislation we conducted a study to evaluate blood-banking practices in Karachi, Pakistan, to identify areas that could be improved...
  48. ncbi request reprint The effect of antibacterial soap on impetigo incidence, Karachi, Pakistan
    Stephen Luby
    National Center of Infectious Disease, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 67:430-5. 2002
    ..02). The routine use of triclocarban-containing soap by children living in a community with a high incidence of impetigo was associated with a reduced incidence of impetigo...
  49. ncbi request reprint Prevalence and correlates of stunting among children in rural Pakistan
    Syed M Shah
    Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
    Pediatr Int 45:49-53. 2003
    ..The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of stunting and its correlates and to explore the role of sex bias in remote rural villages of south Pakistan...
  50. ncbi request reprint Improving private practitioner sick-child case management in two urban communities in Pakistan
    Stephen Luby
    Community Health Sciences Department, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
    Trop Med Int Health 7:210-9. 2002
    ..To evaluate if INFECTOM, a multicomponent behaviour change strategy, would alter the care received by children visiting private healthcare providers so that it was more consistent with the IMCI algorithm...
  51. ncbi request reprint Rabies deaths in Pakistan: results of ineffective post-exposure treatment
    Shehzad Parviz
    Department of Community Health Sciences, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
    Int J Infect Dis 8:346-52. 2004
    ..To estimate the incidence of rabies and the effectiveness of post-exposure treatment (PET) in Pakistan...
  52. ncbi request reprint Distribution and circumstances of injuries in squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan
    Narjis Rizvi
    Community Health Sciences Department, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Sind, Pakistan
    Accid Anal Prev 38:526-31. 2006
    ..This research was conducted to study incidence, distribution, type, causes, severity and circumstances of injuries among people living in squatter settlements in Karachi, Pakistan...
  53. ncbi request reprint Elevated blood lead levels among children living in a fishing community, Karachi, Pakistan
    Siroos Hozhabri
    Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
    Arch Environ Health 59:37-41. 2004
    ..30 microg/g in house dust. These findings indicate possible major health concerns and suggest significant environmental contamination in this community as well as the need to identify locally relevant early childhood exposures...
  54. ncbi request reprint Toxoplasma gondii infection in rural Guatemalan children
    Jeffrey L Jones
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3724, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 72:295-300. 2005
    ..Therefore, it is important to educate girls entering child-bearing age about the risks of acute T. gondii infection and the local risk factors for infection...
  55. pmc Factors associated with elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi, Pakistan
    Mohammad Hossein Rahbar
    Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
    Bull World Health Organ 80:769-75. 2002
    ..To confirm whether blood lead concentrations in Karachi were as high as reported in 1989 and to identify which types of exposure to lead contribute most to elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi...
  56. ncbi request reprint Infection control practices in clinical laboratories in Pakistan
    Syed Abdul Mujeeb
    Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Center, Karachi, Pakistan
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 24:141-2. 2003
    ..Among 44 laboratories, gloves were used in 2, protective gowns in 12, disinfectant in 7, and an incinerator in 7. Standard worker safety precautions are not followed at major clinical laboratories in Karachi...
  57. ncbi request reprint A novel technology to improve drinking water quality: a microbiological evaluation of in-home flocculation and chlorination in rural Guatemala
    Josefa M Rangel
    Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch, Mailstop A38, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Water Health 1:15-22. 2003
    ..0001). The combined product technology improved water potability as effectively as chlorine bleach; improved water clarity could motivate more persons to effectively treat their water...
  58. ncbi request reprint Background demographics and risk behaviors of injecting drug users in Karachi, Pakistan
    Shehzad Parviz
    Community Health Sciences Department, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
    Int J Infect Dis 10:364-71. 2006
    ..To find the prevalence of HIV infection and risk behaviors among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Karachi, Pakistan...
  59. ncbi request reprint A cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of a handwashing-promotion program in Chinese primary schools
    Anna Bowen
    National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:1166-73. 2007
    ..2 days (P = 0.03) of absence per 100 student-weeks. Provision of a large-scale handwashing promotion program and soap was associated with significantly reduced absenteeism. Similar programs could improve the health of children worldwide...
  60. pmc Reducing diarrhoea in Guatemalan children: randomized controlled trial of flocculant-disinfectant for drinking-water
    Tom M Chiller
    Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Bull World Health Organ 84:28-35. 2006
    ..To examine the effect of a new point-of-use treatment for drinking-water, a commercially developed flocculant-disinfectant, on the prevalence of diarrhoea in children...
  61. ncbi request reprint Effect of intensive handwashing promotion on childhood diarrhea in high-risk communities in Pakistan: a randomized controlled trial
    Stephen P Luby
    Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    JAMA 291:2547-54. 2004
    ..Previous studies lacked sufficient power to assess the impact of household handwashing on diarrhea in infants...
  62. ncbi request reprint Long-term neurological and functional outcome in Nipah virus infection
    James J Sejvar
    Divisions of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases and Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta GA 30333, USA
    Ann Neurol 62:235-42. 2007
    ..Long-term neurological assessments of survivors are limited. We assessed long-term neurologic and functional outcomes of 22 patients surviving NiV illness in Bangladesh...
  63. ncbi request reprint A randomized controlled trial of household-based flocculant-disinfectant drinking water treatment for diarrhea prevention in rural Guatemala
    Megan E Reller
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 69:411-9. 2003
    ..In a setting where diarrhea was a leading cause of death, intermittent use of home water treatment with flocculant-disinfectant decreased the incidence of diarrhea...
  64. ncbi request reprint Comparing serologic response against enteric pathogens with reported diarrhea to assess the impact of improved household drinking water quality
    John A Crump
    Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:136-41. 2007
    ..Larger intervention studies that yield a more marked effect on diarrheal disease, use additional and improved serologic assays, and that collect serum samples at more frequent intervals are needed...
  65. pmc Estimating the incidence of typhoid fever and other febrile illnesses in developing countries
    John A Crump
    Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop A38, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:539-44. 2003
    ..This surveillance tool could have wide applications for surveillance for febrile illness in developing countries...
  66. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology and risk factors for endemic typhoid fever in Uzbekistan
    Padmini Srikantiah
    Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Trop Med Int Health 12:838-47. 2007
    ..To investigate the risk factors for infection with endemic typhoid fever in the Samarkand region of Uzbekistan...
  67. pmc Diarrheal epidemics in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during three consecutive floods: 1988, 1998, and 2004
    Brian S Schwartz
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 74:1067-73. 2006
    ..Our findings suggest that cholera is the predominant cause of flood-associated diarrheal epidemics in Dhaka, but that other organisms spread by the fecal-oral route also contribute...
  68. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of hepatitis B among Afghan refugees living in Balochistan, Pakistan
    Arshad Quddus
    WHO, Polio Eradication Initiative, Kandahar, Afghanistan
    Int J Infect Dis 10:242-7. 2006
    ..This study was conducted to estimate seroprevalence of hepatitis B and to identify potential risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission among the refugees living in the camps of Balochistan Province, Pakistan...
  69. doi request reprint Clinical presentation of nipah virus infection in Bangladesh
    M Jahangir Hossain
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Clin Infect Dis 46:977-84. 2008
    ..In Bangladesh, 4 outbreaks of Nipah virus infection were identified during the period 2001-2004...
  70. pmc Person-to-person transmission of Nipah virus in a Bangladeshi community
    Emily S Gurley
    Program on Infectious Diseases and Vaccine Sciences, ICDDR, B, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:1031-7. 2007
    ..Capacity for person-to-person transmission increases the potential for wider spread of this highly lethal pathogen and highlights the need for infection control strategies for resource-poor settings...
  71. doi request reprint Clinical value of Tubex and Typhidot rapid diagnostic tests for typhoid fever in an urban community clinic in Bangladesh
    Aliya Naheed
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh ICDDR, B, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 61:381-6. 2008
    ..We conclude that the value of Tubex and Typhidot tests for typhoid fever diagnosis in a community clinic in urban Bangladesh is low...
  72. ncbi request reprint The chulli water purifier: acceptability and effectiveness of an innovative strategy for household water treatment in Bangladesh
    Sundeep K Gupta
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 78:979-84. 2008
    ..These issues, which are relevant for other household water treatment strategies, should be resolved before further implementation...
  73. ncbi request reprint Difficulties in bringing point-of-use water treatment to scale in rural Guatemala
    Stephen P Luby
    Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch, Division of Foodborne Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vectorborne and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 78:382-7. 2008
    ..Even after efficacy was demonstrated within their community and an aggressive sophisticated marketing approach, few households purchased flocculant-disinfectant for point-of-use water treatment...
  74. pmc Household based treatment of drinking water with flocculant-disinfectant for preventing diarrhoea in areas with turbid source water in rural western Kenya: cluster randomised controlled trial
    John A Crump
    Foodborne and Diarrhoeal Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, MS A 38, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    BMJ 331:478. 2005
    ..To compare the effect on prevalence of diarrhoea and mortality of household based treatment of drinking water with flocculant-disinfectant, sodium hypochlorite, and standard practices in areas with turbid water source in Africa...
  75. ncbi request reprint Population-based surveillance of typhoid fever in Egypt
    Padmini Srikantiah
    Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 74:114-9. 2006
    ..The majority of patients are evaluated at the primary care level and would not have been detected by hospital-based surveillance...
  76. ncbi request reprint Delayed effectiveness of home-based interventions in reducing childhood diarrhea, Karachi, Pakistan
    Stephen P Luby
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Centers for Infectious Diseases, Mailstop A 38, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:420-7. 2004
    ..Both of these home-based interventions were ultimately effective in preventing diarrhea, but only households of slightly higher socioeconomic status changed their behavior quickly enough to benefit during the first summer...
  77. ncbi request reprint Brucellosis as a cause of acute febrile illness in Egypt
    Gregory J Jennings
    US Naval Medical Research Unit 3 NAMRU 3, Cairo, Egypt
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101:707-13. 2007
    ..The high incidence of brucellosis in Fayoum highlights its public health importance, and the need to implement prevention strategies in humans and animals...
  78. pmc Emergence of multidrug-resistant strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Bangladesh and reversal of their susceptibility to tetracycline after two years
    Abu S G Faruque
    J Health Popul Nutr 25:241-3. 2007
  79. ncbi request reprint Estimating the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea and other episodic diseases: continuous versus intermittent surveillance
    Wolf Peter Schmidt
    Infectious and Tropical Diseases Department, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Epidemiology 18:537-43. 2007
    ..The aim of this analysis was to compare estimates of longitudinal prevalence based on intermittent sampling at regular intervals with 24- or 48-hour recall, with estimates based on continuous surveillance...
  80. ncbi request reprint Serological response and poliovirus excretion following different combined oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines immunization schedules
    Isabelle Parent Du Chatelet
    Association pour l Aide a la Medecine Preventive, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Cedex 15, Paris, France
    Vaccine 21:1710-8. 2003
    ..Combined schedules of OPV and IPV in the form of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus-IPV vaccine (DPT-IPV) may be useful to accelerate eradication of polio in developing countries...
  81. ncbi request reprint Clinical diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum among children with history of fever, Sindh, Pakistan
    Siroos Hozhabri
    Department of Community Health Sciences, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
    Int J Infect Dis 6:233-5. 2002
    ..To identify clinical predictors for malaria and develop a clinical algorithm to more accurately identify malaria from non-malaria cases...
  82. ncbi request reprint Deaths from rotavirus disease in Bangladeshi children: estimates from hospital-based surveillance
    Go Tanaka
    Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:1014-8. 2007
    ..To assess the potential health benefits of introducing new rotavirus (RV) vaccines, we estimated mortality from RV gastroenteritis in Bangladeshi children <5 years of age...
  83. pmc The global burden of typhoid fever
    John A Crump
    Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, MS A 38, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Bull World Health Organ 82:346-53. 2004
    ..To use new data to make a revised estimate of the global burden of typhoid fever, an accurate understanding of which is necessary to guide public health decisions for disease control and prevention efforts...
  84. ncbi request reprint No evidence for prolonged excretion of polioviruses in persons with residual paralytic poliomyelitis in Ethiopia, Pakistan and Guatemala
    Aamir J Khan
    Department of International Health, Institute for Vaccine Safety, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe Street, Room W5041, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Biologicals 34:113-6. 2006
    ..Nevertheless, persistent poliovirus excretion among persons 2 years of age and older with residual paralytic poliomyelitis is uncommon in developing countries...