K Nasmyth

Summary

Affiliation: University of Vienna
Country: Austria

Publications

  1. ncbi Splitting the chromosome: cutting the ties that bind sister chromatids
    K Nasmyth
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology IMP, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Science 288:1379-85. 2000
  2. ncbi Disseminating the genome: joining, resolving, and separating sister chromatids during mitosis and meiosis
    K Nasmyth
    Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, Vienna, A 1030 Austria
    Annu Rev Genet 35:673-745. 2001
  3. ncbi Separating sister chromatids
    K Nasmyth
    IMP Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Trends Biochem Sci 24:98-104. 1999
  4. ncbi At the heart of the budding yeast cell cycle
    K Nasmyth
    I M P, Vienna, Austria
    Trends Genet 12:405-12. 1996
  5. ncbi The cytoskeleton in mRNA localization and cell differentiation
    K Nasmyth
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, A 1030, Vienna, Austria
    Curr Opin Cell Biol 9:396-400. 1997
  6. ncbi Phosphorylation of the cohesin subunit Scc1 by Polo/Cdc5 kinase regulates sister chromatid separation in yeast
    G Alexandru
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology IMP, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, A 1030, Vienna, Austria
    Cell 105:459-72. 2001
  7. ncbi Mass spectrometric analysis of the anaphase-promoting complex from yeast: identification of a subunit related to cullins
    W Zachariae
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Science 279:1216-9. 1998
  8. ncbi Characterization of the DOC1/APC10 subunit of the yeast and the human anaphase-promoting complex
    R Grossberger
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    J Biol Chem 274:14500-7. 1999
  9. pmc Sister chromatid separation and chromosome re-duplication are regulated by different mechanisms in response to spindle damage
    G Alexandru
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    EMBO J 18:2707-21. 1999
  10. ncbi Cleavage of cohesin by the CD clan protease separin triggers anaphase in yeast
    F Uhlmann
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Cell 103:375-86. 2000

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. ncbi Splitting the chromosome: cutting the ties that bind sister chromatids
    K Nasmyth
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology IMP, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Science 288:1379-85. 2000
    ..Recent work has identified a multisubunit complex called cohesin that is essential for connecting sisters. Proteolytic cleavage of one of cohesin's subunits may trigger sister separation at the onset of anaphase...
  2. ncbi Disseminating the genome: joining, resolving, and separating sister chromatids during mitosis and meiosis
    K Nasmyth
    Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, Vienna, A 1030 Austria
    Annu Rev Genet 35:673-745. 2001
    ..These findings promise to provide insights into defects in chromosome segregation that occur in cancer cells and into the pathological pathways by which aneuploidy arises during meiosis...
  3. ncbi Separating sister chromatids
    K Nasmyth
    IMP Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Trends Biochem Sci 24:98-104. 1999
    ..When chromosomes are misaligned, a surveillance mechanism (checkpoint) blocks sister separation by inhibiting APCCDC20. Defects in this apparatus are implicated in causing aneuploidy in human cells...
  4. ncbi At the heart of the budding yeast cell cycle
    K Nasmyth
    I M P, Vienna, Austria
    Trends Genet 12:405-12. 1996
    ..Ideas about the budding yeast cell cycle might, therefore, have universal significance for other eukaryotic cells...
  5. ncbi The cytoskeleton in mRNA localization and cell differentiation
    K Nasmyth
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, A 1030, Vienna, Austria
    Curr Opin Cell Biol 9:396-400. 1997
    ..Recent data imply that in Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans and budding yeast, proteins of the actin cytoskeleton, including unconventional myosins, play active roles in the segregation of differentiation factors and mRNAs...
  6. ncbi Phosphorylation of the cohesin subunit Scc1 by Polo/Cdc5 kinase regulates sister chromatid separation in yeast
    G Alexandru
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology IMP, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, A 1030, Vienna, Austria
    Cell 105:459-72. 2001
    ..Phosphorylation of separase recognition sites may be highly conserved and regulates sister chromatid separation independently of securin...
  7. ncbi Mass spectrometric analysis of the anaphase-promoting complex from yeast: identification of a subunit related to cullins
    W Zachariae
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Science 279:1216-9. 1998
    ..Apc2p is similar to the cullin Cdc53p, which is a subunit of the ubiquitin-protein ligase complex SCFCdc4 required for the initiation of DNA replication...
  8. ncbi Characterization of the DOC1/APC10 subunit of the yeast and the human anaphase-promoting complex
    R Grossberger
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    J Biol Chem 274:14500-7. 1999
    ..DOC domains may therefore be important for reactions catalyzed by several types of ubiquitin-protein ligases...
  9. pmc Sister chromatid separation and chromosome re-duplication are regulated by different mechanisms in response to spindle damage
    G Alexandru
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    EMBO J 18:2707-21. 1999
    ..Blocking APCCdh1-mediated Clb2 proteolysis and chromosome re-duplication does not require Mad2 but a different protein, Bub2. Our data imply that Mad1, Mad2, Mad3 and Bub1 regulate APCCdc20, whereas Bub2 regulates APCCdh1...
  10. ncbi Cleavage of cohesin by the CD clan protease separin triggers anaphase in yeast
    F Uhlmann
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Cell 103:375-86. 2000
    ..Cleavage of Sccl in metaphase arrested cells is sufficient to trigger the separation of sister chromatids and their segregation to opposite cell poles...
  11. ncbi Control of cyclin ubiquitination by CDK-regulated binding of Hct1 to the anaphase promoting complex
    W Zachariae
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Science 282:1721-4. 1998
    ..The mutual inhibition between APC and CDKs explains how cells suppress mitotic CDK activity during G1 and then establish a period with elevated kinase activity from S phase until anaphase...
  12. ncbi An ESP1/PDS1 complex regulates loss of sister chromatid cohesion at the metaphase to anaphase transition in yeast
    R Ciosk
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Cell 93:1067-76. 1998
    ..We propose that the APC promotes sister separation not by destroying cohesins but instead by liberating the "sister-separating" Esp1 protein from its inhibitor Pds1p...
  13. ncbi APC(Cdc20) promotes exit from mitosis by destroying the anaphase inhibitor Pds1 and cyclin Clb5
    M Shirayama
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Nature 402:203-7. 1999
    ..Remarkably, cells lacking both Pds1 and Clb5 can proliferate in the complete absence of Cdc20...
  14. ncbi Disjunction of homologous chromosomes in meiosis I depends on proteolytic cleavage of the meiotic cohesin Rec8 by separin
    S B Buonomo
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, University of Vienna, Austria
    Cell 103:387-98. 2000
    ..We show here that cleavage of Rec8 by separin at one of two different sites is necessary for the resolution of chiasmata and the disjunction of homologous chromosomes during meiosis...
  15. ncbi Identification of cohesin association sites at centromeres and along chromosome arms
    T Tanaka
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Cell 98:847-58. 1999
    ..Finally, cohesion associated with "minimal" centromeres is insufficient to resist the splitting force exerted by microtubules and appears to be reinforced by cohesion provided by their flanking DNA sequences...
  16. ncbi Asymmetric accumulation of Ash1p in postanaphase nuclei depends on a myosin and restricts yeast mating-type switching to mother cells
    N Bobola
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Cell 84:699-709. 1996
    ..The greater abundance of Ash1p in daughter cells is responsible for restricting HO expression to mother cells...
  17. pmc Yeast cohesin complex requires a conserved protein, Eco1p(Ctf7), to establish cohesion between sister chromatids during DNA replication
    A Toth
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology IMP, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Genes Dev 13:320-33. 1999
    ..The sixth protein, Eco1p(Ctf7p), is not a Cohesin subunit. It is necessary for the establishment of cohesion during DNA replication but not for its maintenance during G2 and M phases...
  18. ncbi Functional genomics identifies monopolin: a kinetochore protein required for segregation of homologs during meiosis i
    A Toth
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, Vienna, Austria A 1030
    Cell 103:1155-68. 2000
    ..We conclude that monopolar attachment during meiosis I requires at least one meiosis-specific protein and is independent of the process that protects sister centromere cohesion...
  19. ncbi Cohesin's binding to chromosomes depends on a separate complex consisting of Scc2 and Scc4 proteins
    R Ciosk
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Mol Cell 5:243-54. 2000
    ..Our data suggest that a major role for the Scc2p/Scc4p complex is to facilitate the loading of cohesin complexes onto chromosomes...
  20. pmc The transcription factor Swi5 regulates expression of the cyclin kinase inhibitor p40SIC1
    D Knapp
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Mol Cell Biol 16:5701-7. 1996
    ..This transcriptional control may be important for inactivation of the Clb/Cdk1 kinase in G2/M transition and during the subsequent G1 period...
  21. pmc The Polo-like kinase Cdc5p and the WD-repeat protein Cdc20p/fizzy are regulators and substrates of the anaphase promoting complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    M Shirayama
    Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, 1030 Vienna, Austria
    EMBO J 17:1336-49. 1998
    ..Accumulation of Cdc20p contributes to activation of Pds1p proteolysis in metaphase, whereas accumulation of Cdc5p facilitates the activation of Clb2p proteolysis...
  22. ncbi Ordered recruitment of transcription and chromatin remodeling factors to a cell cycle- and developmentally regulated promoter
    M P Cosma
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Cell 97:299-311. 1999
    ..Swi5p remains at HO for only 5 min. Swi/Snf's and SAGA's subsequent persistence at HO is self sustaining and constitutes an "epigenetic memory" of HO's transient interaction with Swi5p...
  23. ncbi Pds5 cooperates with cohesin in maintaining sister chromatid cohesion
    S Panizza
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Curr Biol 10:1557-64. 2000
    ..The isolation of the cohesin subunit Smc3 as a suppressor of BimD mutations suggests that Spo76/BimD might function in the same process as cohesin...
  24. ncbi Sister chromatid cohesion is required for postreplicative double-strand break repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    C Sjogren
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, A 1030, Vienna, Austria
    Curr Biol 11:991-5. 2001
    ..Our results confirm what has long been suspected but never proven, that cohesion between sister chromatids is essential for efficient double-strand break repair in mitotic cells...
  25. ncbi Cdk1 triggers association of RNA polymerase to cell cycle promoters only after recruitment of the mediator by SBF
    M P Cosma
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, A 1030, Vienna, Austria
    Mol Cell 7:1213-20. 2001
    ..RNA polymerase is, therefore, recruited to HO in two steps and not as a holoenzyme. A similar sequence of events occurs at other SBF-regulated promoters, such as CLN1, CLN2, and PCL1...
  26. pmc Cdc6 is an unstable protein whose de novo synthesis in G1 is important for the onset of S phase and for preventing a 'reductional' anaphase in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    S Piatti
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    EMBO J 14:3788-99. 1995
    ..We show, by fluorescence in situ hybridization, that chromosomes which remain unduplicated due to a lack of Cdc6 synthesis are segregated intact to spindle poles during the 'reductional' anaphase...
  27. ncbi Switching transcription on and off during the yeast cell cycle: Cln/Cdc28 kinases activate bound transcription factor SBF (Swi4/Swi6) at start, whereas Clb/Cdc28 kinases displace it from the promoter in G2
    C Koch
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Genes Dev 10:129-41. 1996
    ..Switching transcription on and off by different mechanisms could be important to ensure that Clns are activated only once per cell cycle and could be a conserved feature of cell cycle-regulated transcription...
  28. ncbi The anaphase-promoting complex is required in G1 arrested yeast cells to inhibit B-type cyclin accumulation and to prevent uncontrolled entry into S-phase
    S Irniger
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    J Cell Sci 110:1523-31. 1997
    ..Degradation of Clb2p, Clb3p and Clb5p depends on the APC. This suggests that accumulation of any one of the six B-type cyclin proteins could account for the precocious replication of cdc16 and cdc23 mutants...
  29. ncbi SWI5 instability may be necessary but is not sufficient for asymmetric HO expression in yeast
    G Tebb
    Institute for Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Genes Dev 7:517-28. 1993
    ....
  30. ncbi Identification of subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    W Zachariae
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Science 274:1201-4. 1996
    ..A small heat-inducible subunit is encoded by the CDC26 gene. The yeast APC is a 36S particle that contains at least seven different proteins...
  31. ncbi Genes involved in sister chromatid separation are needed for B-type cyclin proteolysis in budding yeast
    S Irniger
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Cell 81:269-78. 1995
    ..Proteolysis of CLB2 is initiated in early anaphase, but a fraction of CLB2 remains stable until anaphase is complete...
  32. ncbi A screen for genes required for meiosis and spore formation based on whole-genome expression
    K P Rabitsch
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr Gasse 7, A 1030, Vienna, Austria
    Curr Biol 11:1001-9. 2001
    ..Mistakes in any of these processes lead to chromosome missegregation...
  33. pmc Association of RPA with chromosomal replication origins requires an Mcm protein, and is regulated by Rad53, and cyclin- and Dbf4-dependent kinases
    T Tanaka
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    EMBO J 17:5182-91. 1998
    ..Thus, in the presence of active S-CDKs and Dbf4/Cdc7, Mcms may open origins and thereby facilitate the loading of RPA...
  34. ncbi A role for the transcription factors Mbp1 and Swi4 in progression from G1 to S phase
    C Koch
    Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Science 261:1551-7. 1993
    ..Mbp1 is related to Swi4. Strains deleted for both MBP1 and SWI4 were inviable, demonstrating that transcriptional activation by MBF and SBF has an important role in the transition from G1 to S phase...
  35. ncbi Whose end is destruction: cell division and the anaphase-promoting complex
    W Zachariae
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Genes Dev 13:2039-58. 1999
  36. ncbi CLB5 and CLB6, a new pair of B cyclins involved in DNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    E Schwob
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Genes Dev 7:1160-75. 1993
    ....
  37. ncbi Cohesins: chromosomal proteins that prevent premature separation of sister chromatids
    C Michaelis
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Cell 91:35-45. 1997
    ..Proteins homologous to Scc1p exist in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including humans. A common cohesion apparatus might be used by all eukaryotic cells during both mitosis and meiosis...
  38. ncbi Loading of an Mcm protein onto DNA replication origins is regulated by Cdc6p and CDKs
    T Tanaka
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Cell 90:649-60. 1997
    ..Our data suggest that the loading of Mcm proteins onto origins is regulated by two mechanisms: first, by Cdc6p occupancy, and second, by S- and M-CDKs, whose activity during S, G2, and M phases prevents Mcm loading...
  39. ncbi Mother cell-specific HO expression in budding yeast depends on the unconventional myosin myo4p and other cytoplasmic proteins
    R P Jansen
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Cell 84:687-97. 1996
    ..In an accompanying paper, we show that SHE genes are needed for the accumulation in daughter nuclei of Ash1p, a repressor of HO...
  40. ncbi Mechanisms that help the yeast cell cycle clock tick: G2 cyclins transcriptionally activate G2 cyclins and repress G1 cyclins
    A Amon
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Cell 74:993-1007. 1993
    ..Furthermore, SW14 associates with CLB2 protein and is a substrate for the CLB2-associated CDC28 kinase in vitro...
  41. ncbi The role of CDC28 and cyclins during mitosis in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae
    U Surana
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Cell 65:145-61. 1991
    ..Our results are consistent with CDC28 function being required in both G1 and mitosis. Its mitotic role, we believe, involves interaction with a family of at least four G2-specific cyclins...
  42. ncbi The B-type cyclin kinase inhibitor p40SIC1 controls the G1 to S transition in S. cerevisiae
    E Schwob
    I M P Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Cell 79:233-44. 1994
    ..In wild-type cells, p40SIC1 protein appears at the end of mitosis and disappears shortly before S phase. Proteolysis of a cyclin-specific inhibitor of Cdc28 is therefore an essential aspect of the G1 to S phase transition...
  43. ncbi Separase is required for chromosome segregation during meiosis I in Caenorhabditis elegans
    M F Siomos
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology IMP, Dr Bohrgasse 7, Vienna 1030, Austria
    Curr Biol 11:1825-35. 2001
    ..In principle, chiasmata could be resolved proteolytically by separase or nonproteolytically using a mechanism similar to the mitotic "prophase pathway."..
  44. ncbi The role of phosphorylation and the CDC28 protein kinase in cell cycle-regulated nuclear import of the S. cerevisiae transcription factor SWI5
    T Moll
    Institute for Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Cell 66:743-58. 1991
    ..As all three serines are phosphorylated by purified CDC28-dependent H1 kinase activity in vitro, we propose a model in which the CDC28 kinase acts directly to control nuclear entry of SWI5...
  45. ncbi Degradation of a cohesin subunit by the N-end rule pathway is essential for chromosome stability
    H Rao
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    Nature 410:955-9. 2001
    ..A number of yeast proteins bear putative cleavage sites for the ESP1 separin, suggesting other physiological substrates and functions of the N-end rule pathway...
  46. pmc Characterization of fission yeast cohesin: essential anaphase proteolysis of Rad21 phosphorylated in the S phase
    T Tomonaga
    CREST Research Project, Department of Gene Mechanisms, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwakecho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8502, Japan
    Genes Dev 14:2757-70. 2000
    ..A simple model is presented to explain the specific behavior of fission yeast cohesin and why only a tiny fraction of Rad21 is sufficient to be cleaved for normal anaphase...
  47. ncbi Splitting the chromosome: cutting the ties that bind sister chromatids
    K Nasmyth
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 7, A-1030 Vienna, Austria
    Novartis Found Symp 237:113-33; discussion 133-8, 158-63. 2001
    ..In this review we discuss how these proteins may connect sister chromatids and how they are removed from chromosomes to allow sister chromatid separation at the onset of anaphase...
  48. pmc Long-range interactions at the HO promoter
    H J McBride
    Department of Oncological Sciences, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City 84132, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 17:2669-78. 1997
    ....
  49. ncbi Cell cycle control of the yeast HO gene: cis- and trans-acting regulators
    L Breeden
    Cell 48:389-97. 1987
    ....
  50. pmc Modes of spindle pole body inheritance and segregation of the Bfa1p-Bub2p checkpoint protein complex
    G Pereira
    The Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, CRC Beatson Laboratories, Glasgow G61 1BD, UK
    EMBO J 20:6359-70. 2001
    ..This may provide a mechanism to delay cell cycle progression when cytoplasmic microtubules fail to orient the spindle. Thus, SPBs are able to sense cytoplasmic microtubule properties and regulate the Bfa1p-Bub2p GAP accordingly...
  51. ncbi Ste20-like protein kinases are required for normal localization of cell growth and for cytokinesis in budding yeast
    F Cvrckova
    Institute of Molecular Pathology IMP, Wien, Austria
    Genes Dev 9:1817-30. 1995
    ..Mutations in CDC12, which encodes one of the septins, were found in the same screen. Cla4 and Ste20 kinases apparently share a function in localizing cell growth with respect to the septin ring...
  52. ncbi pct1+, which encodes a new DNA-binding partner of p85cdc10, is required for meiosis in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe
    Y Zhu
    Laboratory of Gene Regulation, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London, UK
    Genes Dev 8:885-98. 1994
    ..Our results indicate that there are two cdc10-containing heteromeric complexes that bind to MCB elements and play differential roles in mitotic division and meiosis...
  53. ncbi A central role for cohesins in sister chromatid cohesion, formation of axial elements, and recombination during yeast meiosis
    F Klein
    Institute of Botany, University of Vienna, Austria
    Cell 98:91-103. 1999
    ..The eukaryotic cell's cohesion apparatus is required both for the repair of recombinogenic lesions and for chromosome segregation and therefore appears to lie at the heart of the meiotic process...
  54. ncbi Mating type switching in yeast controlled by asymmetric localization of ASH1 mRNA
    R M Long
    Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Science 277:383-7. 1997
    ..A cis-acting element in the 3'-untranslated region of ASH1 mRNA is sufficient to localize a chimeric RNA to daughter cells. These results suggest that localization of mRNA may have been an early property of the eukaryotic lineage...
  55. pmc EGT2 gene transcription is induced predominantly by Swi5 in early G1
    B Kovacech
    Institute of Medical Radiation and Cell Research, University of Wurzburg, Germany
    Mol Cell Biol 16:3264-74. 1996
    ..However, Swi5 is still able to activate transcription of HO in late G1 in conjunction with additional activators such as Swi4 and Swi6...
  56. ncbi An essential role for the Cdc6 protein in forming the pre-replicative complexes of budding yeast
    J H Cocker
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Clare Hall Laboratories, South Mimms, Hertfordshire, UK
    Nature 379:180-2. 1996
    ..These results suggest that pre-RCs play an essential role in initiating DNA replication and support a two-step mechanism for the assembly of functional initiation complexes...
  57. ncbi MAP kinase-related FUS3 from S. cerevisiae is activated by STE7 in vitro
    B Errede
    Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599
    Nature 362:261-4. 1993
    ..Recent indications that MAP kinase activators are related to STE7 suggest that signal transduction pathways in many, if not all, eukaryotic organisms use homologous kinase cascades...
  58. pmc Yeast G1 cyclins CLN1 and CLN2 and a GAP-like protein have a role in bud formation
    F Cvrckova
    IMP, Wien, Austria
    EMBO J 12:5277-86. 1993
    ..This suggests that Cln1 and Cln2 may have a direct role in bud formation...
  59. ncbi Both positive and negative regulators of HO transcription are required for mother-cell-specific mating-type switching in yeast
    K Nasmyth
    Cell 48:579-87. 1987
    ..SDI1 encodes (or regulates) a repressor protein that binds to the HO promoter and prevents HO transcription in daughter cells by causing HO to be fully SWI5 dependent...
  60. ncbi Isolation of the structural gene for alcohol dehydrogenase by genetic complementation in yeast
    V M Williamson
    Nature 283:214-6. 1980
  61. pmc Cdc53/cullin and the essential Hrt1 RING-H2 subunit of SCF define a ubiquitin ligase module that activates the E2 enzyme Cdc34
    J H Seol
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    Genes Dev 13:1614-26. 1999
    ..We conclude that Cdc53/Hrt1 comprise a highly conserved module that serves as the functional core of a broad variety of heteromeric ubiquitin ligases...
  62. pmc GermOnline, a cross-species community knowledgebase on germ cell differentiation
    C Wiederkehr
    Biozentrum and Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Basel, Switzerland
    Nucleic Acids Res 32:D560-7. 2004
    ..germonline.org. The target audience includes researchers who work on mitotic cell division, meiosis, gametogenesis, germ line development, human reproductive health and comparative genomics...