P Marhofer

Summary

Affiliation: Medical University of Vienna
Country: Austria

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Imaging techniques for regional nerve blockade and vascular cannulation in children
    Peter Marhofer
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 19:293-300. 2006
  2. doi request reprint Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of the spread of local anesthetic solution after ultrasound-guided lateral thoracic paravertebral blockade: a volunteer study
    Daniela Marhofer
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Anesthesiology 118:1106-12. 2013
  3. doi request reprint Everyday regional anesthesia in children
    Peter Marhofer
    Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Paediatr Anaesth 22:995-1001. 2012
  4. doi request reprint Ultrasonographic guided axillary plexus blocks with low volumes of local anaesthetics: a crossover volunteer study
    P Marhofer
    Medical University of Vienna
    Anaesthesia 65:266-71. 2010
  5. ncbi request reprint Pilot study of neuraxial imaging by ultrasound in infants and children
    Peter Marhofer
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Paediatr Anaesth 15:671-6. 2005
  6. ncbi request reprint Ultrasound guidance in regional anaesthesia
    P Marhofer
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Br J Anaesth 94:7-17. 2005
  7. ncbi request reprint Ultrasonographic guidance in pediatric regional anesthesia Part 1: Theoretical background
    Peter Marhofer
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Paediatr Anaesth 16:1008-18. 2006
  8. doi request reprint Fifteen years of ultrasound guidance in regional anaesthesia: Part 2-recent developments in block techniques
    P Marhofer
    Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care Medicine, and Pain Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, Vienna, Austria
    Br J Anaesth 104:673-83. 2010
  9. doi request reprint Different effects of sevoflurane, desflurane, and isoflurane on early and late left ventricular diastolic function in young healthy adults
    D Bolliger
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Basel, CH 4031 Basel, Switzerland
    Br J Anaesth 104:547-54. 2010
  10. doi request reprint Fifteen years of ultrasound guidance in regional anaesthesia: part 1
    P Marhofer
    Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Br J Anaesth 104:538-46. 2010

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications52

  1. ncbi request reprint Imaging techniques for regional nerve blockade and vascular cannulation in children
    Peter Marhofer
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 19:293-300. 2006
    ..This review article describes the basics in small part ultrasonography and highlights new developments in ultrasonographic-guided regional anaesthetic techniques and vascular access...
  2. doi request reprint Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of the spread of local anesthetic solution after ultrasound-guided lateral thoracic paravertebral blockade: a volunteer study
    Daniela Marhofer
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Anesthesiology 118:1106-12. 2013
    ..This study was designed to examine the spread of local anesthetic (LA) via magnetic resonance imaging after a standardized ultrasound-guided thoracic paravertebral blockade...
  3. doi request reprint Everyday regional anesthesia in children
    Peter Marhofer
    Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Paediatr Anaesth 22:995-1001. 2012
    ..This review article provides an overview of these 'hot' topics in PRA...
  4. doi request reprint Ultrasonographic guided axillary plexus blocks with low volumes of local anaesthetics: a crossover volunteer study
    P Marhofer
    Medical University of Vienna
    Anaesthesia 65:266-71. 2010
    ..This study confirms our previous published ED(95) volume for mepivacaine 1% to block peripheral nerves. The volume of local anaesthetic has some influence on the sensory onset time...
  5. ncbi request reprint Pilot study of neuraxial imaging by ultrasound in infants and children
    Peter Marhofer
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Paediatr Anaesth 15:671-6. 2005
    ..In addition, epidural catheters are sometimes difficult to advance. The present study was performed to evaluate an optimal ultrasound technique for direct visualization of neuraxial structures in children...
  6. ncbi request reprint Ultrasound guidance in regional anaesthesia
    P Marhofer
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Br J Anaesth 94:7-17. 2005
    ..Considering their enormous potential, these techniques should have a role in the future training of anaesthetists...
  7. ncbi request reprint Ultrasonographic guidance in pediatric regional anesthesia Part 1: Theoretical background
    Peter Marhofer
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Paediatr Anaesth 16:1008-18. 2006
    ..A critical view on education and ethics in science should emphasize future developments in ultrasonography for pediatric regional anesthesia...
  8. doi request reprint Fifteen years of ultrasound guidance in regional anaesthesia: Part 2-recent developments in block techniques
    P Marhofer
    Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care Medicine, and Pain Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, Vienna, Austria
    Br J Anaesth 104:673-83. 2010
    ..The potential role of ultrasound guidance for neuraxial block is addressed. The need for further large-scale studies of the role of ultrasound is emphasized...
  9. doi request reprint Different effects of sevoflurane, desflurane, and isoflurane on early and late left ventricular diastolic function in young healthy adults
    D Bolliger
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Basel, CH 4031 Basel, Switzerland
    Br J Anaesth 104:547-54. 2010
    ..We tested the hypothesis that sevoflurane, desflurane, and isoflurane do not impair LV diastolic function in young healthy humans...
  10. doi request reprint Fifteen years of ultrasound guidance in regional anaesthesia: part 1
    P Marhofer
    Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Br J Anaesth 104:538-46. 2010
    ..The second part describes the impact of ultrasound on the development of nerve block techniques in the past 5 yr...
  11. ncbi request reprint Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia: current concepts and future trends
    Peter Marhofer
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Anesth Analg 104:1265-9, tables of contents. 2007
    ....
  12. doi request reprint Lateral ultrasound-guided paravertebral blockade: an anatomical-based description of a new technique
    P Marhofer
    Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Br J Anaesth 105:526-32. 2010
    ..This consecutive case series was designed to describe the ultrasound appearance of the lateral thoracic paravertebral space (PVS) and develop an ultrasound-guided method for PVB...
  13. doi request reprint Current concepts and future trends in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia
    Peter Marhofer
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 23:632-6. 2010
    ....
  14. doi request reprint Ultrasound-guided upper extremity blocks - tips and tricks to improve the clinical practice
    Peter Marhofer
    Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Paediatr Anaesth 22:65-71. 2012
    ..The most important issue in this context is theoretical background knowledge and intensive training of hand skills. The following review article discusses all relevant aspects of ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blockade...
  15. ncbi request reprint Ultrasonography-guided rectus sheath block in paediatric anaesthesia--a new approach to an old technique
    H Willschke
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Viena, Austria
    Br J Anaesth 97:244-9. 2006
    ..The purpose of this study was an anatomical and clinical evaluation of ultrasonography-guided rectus sheath blocks in children...
  16. ncbi request reprint Epidural catheter placement in children: comparing a novel approach using ultrasound guidance and a standard loss-of-resistance technique
    H Willschke
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Br J Anaesth 97:200-7. 2006
    ..We report a prospective, randomized study to evaluate ultrasound guidance for epidural catheter placement in children 0-6 yr of age...
  17. ncbi request reprint Ultrasonographic-guided ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric nerve block in pediatric anesthesia: what is the optimal volume?
    H Willschke
    Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Anesth Analg 102:1680-4. 2006
    ..25% levobupivacaine, where the success rate was again 100%. We conclude that ultrasonographic guidance for ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric nerve blocks in children allowed a reduction of the volume of local anesthetic to 0.075 mL/kg...
  18. doi request reprint Ultrasound assessment of cranial spread during caudal blockade in children: effect of the speed of injection of local anaesthetics
    L Triffterer
    Department of Anaesthesia, General Intensive Care and Pain Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Br J Anaesth 108:670-4. 2012
    ....
  19. ncbi request reprint Incidence and therapy of midazolam induced hiccups in paediatric anaesthesia
    P Marhofer
    Department of Anaesthesiology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Paediatr Anaesth 9:295-8. 1999
    ..0 mg.kg-1 group. Intranasal application of ethyl chloride spray seems to be an effective therapy for midazolam induced hiccups in paediatric anaesthesia. The incidence of these hiccups is highly age significant, but not dose dependent...
  20. ncbi request reprint Ultrasonographic guidance for sciatic and femoral nerve blocks in children
    U Oberndorfer
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University Vienna, Wahringer Gurtel 18 20, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Br J Anaesth 98:797-801. 2007
    ..We therefore investigated whether ultrasound guidance for sciatic and femoral nerve blocks prolongs sensory blockade in comparison with nerve stimulator guidance in children...
  21. ncbi request reprint Analgesic effects of caudal and intramuscular S(+)-ketamine in children
    H Koinig
    Departments of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care and Pharmacology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Anesthesiology 93:976-80. 2000
    ..The purpose of the current study was to compare the clinical effectiveness and plasma concentrations of S(+)-ketamine after caudal or intramuscular administration in children to distinguish between local and systemic analgesia...
  22. doi request reprint Caudal anaesthesia under sedation: a prospective analysis of 512 infants and children
    L Brenner
    Department of Anaesthesia, General Intensive Care and Pain Control, Medical University of Vienna, General Hospital, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, Vienna, Austria
    Br J Anaesth 104:751-5. 2010
    ..Caudal block in sedated, spontaneously breathing patients might be a safe alternative...
  23. doi request reprint Pharmacokinetics of the local anesthetic ropivacaine after transversus abdominis plane block in healthy volunteers
    D Latzke
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Division of Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Imaging, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, 1090, Vienna, Austria
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 68:419-25. 2012
    ..The aim of this study was to determine concentration-time profiles of ropivacaine after the injection of 150 mg of ropivacaine into the lateral abdominal wall in various compartments...
  24. ncbi request reprint Clonidine as adjuvant for mepivacaine, ropivacaine and bupivacaine in axillary, perivascular brachial plexus block
    W Erlacher
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Hospital Lainz, Vienna, Austria
    Can J Anaesth 48:522-5. 2001
    ..To evaluate the effects of clonidine on three local anesthetics (mepivacaine 1%, ropivacaine 0.75% and bupivacaine 0.5%) with comparable potency and almost the same concentration-response relationship...
  25. doi request reprint Ultrasound assessment of cranial spread during caudal blockade in children: the effect of different volumes of local anaesthetics
    L Brenner
    Department of Anaesthesia, General Intensive Care and Pain Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Br J Anaesth 107:229-35. 2011
    ....
  26. doi request reprint Dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to ropivacaine prolongs peripheral nerve block: a volunteer study
    D Marhöfer
    Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Br J Anaesth 110:438-42. 2013
    ..We therefore designed this prospective, double-blinded, controlled volunteer study to investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to ropivacaine on peripheral nerve block...
  27. ncbi request reprint Ultrasound guidance for infraclavicular brachial plexus anaesthesia in children
    P Marhofer
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, University of Vienna Medical School, A 1090, Vienna, Austria
    Anaesthesia 59:642-6. 2004
    ..In addition, the pain associated with nerve stimulation due to muscle contractions at the time of insertion is eliminated...
  28. doi request reprint A new instrument for pain assessment in the immediate postoperative period
    A M Machata
    Department of Anaesthesia, General Intensive Care and Pain Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Anaesthesia 64:392-8. 2009
    ..Furthermore, the deviations of the absolute VAS values in individual patients for each descriptive pain term were significantly smaller with PAULA than with the standard VAS...
  29. doi request reprint Minimal local anaesthetic volumes for sciatic nerve block: evaluation of ED 99 in volunteers
    D Latzke
    Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Br J Anaesth 104:239-44. 2010
    ..This randomized, double-blinded volunteer study was designed to evaluate the ED(99) volume of local anaesthetic for sciatic nerve blocks using a step-up/step-down methodology...
  30. doi request reprint Current trends in paediatric regional anaesthesia
    H Willschke
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Anaesthesia 65:97-104. 2010
    ..The first part this article reviews new scientific findings in the field of paediatric regional anaesthesia. The second part focuses on safety aspects and on the impact of ultrasound on paediatric regional anaesthesia...
  31. ncbi request reprint Effect of earplugs on propofol requirement and awareness with recall during spinal anesthesia
    C Gonano
    Department of Anesthesia, General Intensive Care and Pain Management, Medical University of Vienna, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Minerva Anestesiol 76:504-8. 2010
    ..Propofol requirements for stable sedation guided by the bispectral index and incidence of postoperative recall of intraoperative events were assessed in a double-blinded fashion...
  32. ncbi request reprint S(+)-ketamine for rectal premedication in children
    P Marhofer
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, University of Vienna Medical School, Vienna, Austria
    Anesth Analg 92:62-5. 2001
    ..Dose-response studies of S(+)-ketamine for rectal premedication in pediatric anesthesia may be warranted...
  33. ncbi request reprint Ultrasonography for ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric nerve blocks in children
    H Willschke
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Br J Anaesth 95:226-30. 2005
    ..The success rate is only 70-80% and complications may occur. A prospective randomized double-blinded study was designed to compare the use of ultrasonography with the conventional ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric nerve block technique...
  34. doi request reprint Propofol-based sedation regimen for infants and children undergoing ambulatory magnetic resonance imaging
    A M Machata
    Department of Anaesthesia, General Intensive Care and Pain Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, General Hospital, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Br J Anaesth 101:239-43. 2008
    ..We investigated the safety and efficacy of a low-dose propofol-based sedation regimen in a broad age range of children...
  35. doi request reprint Ultrasound-guided cannulation of the great saphenous vein at the ankle in infants
    L Triffterer
    Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Br J Anaesth 108:290-4. 2012
    ..The present study was designed to investigate the practicability of ultrasound-guided vascular access to the great saphenous vein (GSV) at the level of the medial malleolus in infants ≤ 12 months...
  36. doi request reprint Comparison of economical aspects of interscalene brachial plexus blockade and general anaesthesia for arthroscopic shoulder surgery
    C Gonano
    Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Control, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, Vienna A 1090, Austria
    Br J Anaesth 103:428-33. 2009
    ..This study investigated the cost-effectiveness of ultrasonographic-guided interscalene brachial plexus blockade (ISB) in comparison with general anaesthesia (GA) for arthroscopic shoulder surgery...
  37. doi request reprint Effect of brain magnetic resonance imaging on body core temperature in sedated infants and children
    A M Machata
    Department of Anaesthesia, General Intensive Care and Pain Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, General Hospital, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Br J Anaesth 102:385-9. 2009
    ..The effect of brain MRI at differing magnetic field strengths on body core temperature in sedated infants and young children has not been reported previously...
  38. doi request reprint The effects of aminophylline on bispectral index during inhalational and total intravenous anaesthesia
    M Hüpfl
    Department of Anesthesia and General Intensive Care, Medical University Vienna, Wahringer Gurtel 18 20, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Anaesthesia 63:583-7. 2008
    ..It appears that aminophylline has the ability to partially antagonise the sedative effects of general anaesthetics...
  39. ncbi request reprint [The use of ultrasonography for paediatric regional anesthesia]
    P Marhofer
    Medizinische Universität Wien, Abteilung für Anästhesie und Intensivmedizin, Wien
    Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 41:178-83. 2006
  40. doi request reprint Does regional anaesthesia really improve outcome?
    S C Kettner
    Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Br J Anaesth 107:i90-5. 2011
    ..Moreover, studies focusing on specific outcomes have shown benefits for regional anaesthesia used for surgery and postoperative analgesia...
  41. ncbi request reprint [The choice of drugs for caudal anaesthesia in children. An overview]
    P Marhofer
    Universitätsklinik für Anästhesie und Intensivmedizin, Universitat Wien, Vienna, Austria
    Anaesthesist 52:55-67. 2003
    ..Following an exact review of the literature, only clonidine and S(+)-ketamine are useful additives to local anaesthetics in paediatric caudal anaesthesia...
  42. ncbi request reprint [Ultrasound in local anaesthesia. Part II: ultrasound-guided blockade of peripheral nerve channels]
    S Kapral
    Klinik für Anaesthesie und Allgemeine Intensivmedizin, Universitat Wien, Vienna, Austria
    Anaesthesist 51:1006-14. 2002
    ..In this article the theoretical basis of ultrasound techniques and their practical use in local anaesthesia will be presented...
  43. ncbi request reprint Axillary brachial plexus block for treatment of severe forearm ischemia after arterial cannulation in an extremely low birth-weight infant
    Christian Breschan
    Department of Anaesthesia, LKH Klagenfurt, Klagenfurt, Austria
    Paediatr Anaesth 14:681-4. 2004
    ..Brachial plexus blockade and active vasodilatation in tiny neonates after severe local ischemia are discussed...
  44. ncbi request reprint Epidural catheter placement in neonates: sonoanatomy and feasibility of ultrasonographic guidance in term and preterm neonates
    Harald Willschke
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Reg Anesth Pain Med 32:34-40. 2007
    ..We report the first prospective sonoanatomic study in neonates with the aim to perform ultrasonographic-guided epidural catheter placement in this age group...
  45. ncbi request reprint Incidence of complications in intrahospital transport of critically ill patients--experience in an Austrian university hospital
    Daniel Lahner
    Department of Anesthesiology and General Intensive Care, Medical University of Vienna, Wahringer Gurtel 18 20, Vienna, Austria
    Wien Klin Wochenschr 119:412-6. 2007
    ..Despite the fact that intrahospital transport is nowadays regarded an extension of the intensive care continuum, it still poses a risk for the patient...
  46. doi request reprint Ultrasonographic guidance improves the success rate of interscalene brachial plexus blockade
    Stephan Kapral
    Department of Anaesthesia and General Intensive Care Medicine, Herz Jesu Hospital, Vienna, Austria
    Reg Anesth Pain Med 33:253-8. 2008
    ..The aim of our study is to compare the success rate and quality of interscalene brachial plexus blocks performed either with direct ultrasound visualization or with the aid of nerve stimulation to guide needle placement...
  47. ncbi request reprint Onset time, quality of blockade, and duration of three-in-one blocks with levobupivacaine and bupivacaine
    Bernhard Urbanek
    Department of Anesthesiology and General Intensive Care, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Anesth Analg 97:888-92. 2003
    ..5%, 1053 min (802-1304 min); levobupivacaine 0.5%, 1001 min (844-1158 min); and levobupivacaine 0.25%, 707 min (551-863 min) (P = 0.01). Levobupivacaine 0.5% is recommended instead of bupivacaine 0.5% for the three-in-one block...
  48. doi request reprint Ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric blocks in children: where do we administer the local anesthetic without direct visualization?
    Marion Weintraud
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Anesth Analg 106:89-93, table of contents. 2008
    ..We performed a study to determine the actual location of local anesthetic when ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric nerve blocks are performed using landmark-based techniques in children in an attempt to explain a failed block...
  49. ncbi request reprint A prospective study comparing the analgesic efficacy of levobupivacaine, ropivacaine and bupivacaine in pediatric patients undergoing caudal blockade
    Christian Breschan
    Department of Anaesthesia, LKH Klagenfurt, Klagenfurt, Austria
    Paediatr Anaesth 15:301-6. 2005
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint Vertical infraclavicular brachial plexus block in children: a preliminary study
    Peter Marhofer
    Paediatr Anaesth 15:530-1; author reply 531. 2005
  51. ncbi request reprint Sonographic visualization and ultrasound-guided block of the third occipital nerve: prospective for a new method to diagnose C2-C3 zygapophysial joint pain
    Urs Eichenberger
    Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Pain Therapy, University of Bern, Inselspital, CH 3010 Bern, Switzerland
    Anesthesiology 104:303-8. 2006
    ..Diagnostic blocks of nerves supplying the joints are performed using fluoroscopy. The authors' hypothesis was that the third occipital nerve can be visualized and blocked with use of an ultrasound-guided technique...
  52. ncbi request reprint Levobupivacaine versus racemic bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia
    Christian Glaser
    Division of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Vienna City Hospital Floridsdorf, Austria
    Anesth Analg 94:194-8, table of contents. 2002
    ..We conclude that intrathecal levobupivacaine is equal in efficacy to, but less toxic than, racemic bupivacaine...