Leopold Eckhart

Summary

Affiliation: Medical University of Vienna
Country: Austria

Publications

  1. pmc Identification of reptilian genes encoding hair keratin-like proteins suggests a new scenario for the evolutionary origin of hair
    Leopold Eckhart
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090, Austria
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:18419-23. 2008
  2. doi request reprint Cell death by cornification
    Leopold Eckhart
    Research Division of Biology and Pathobiology of the Skin, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria Electronic address
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1833:3471-80. 2013
  3. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms and emerging functions of DNA degradation in the epidermis
    Leopold Eckhart
    Department of Dermatology, Research Division of Biology and Pathobiology of the Skin, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 17:2461-75. 2012
  4. ncbi request reprint Genome sequence comparison reveals independent inactivation of the caspase-15 gene in different evolutionary lineages of mammals
    Leopold Eckhart
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Mol Biol Evol 23:2081-9. 2006
  5. doi request reprint Identification of novel mammalian caspases reveals an important role of gene loss in shaping the human caspase repertoire
    Leopold Eckhart
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Mol Biol Evol 25:831-41. 2008
  6. ncbi request reprint Phylogenomics of caspase-activated DNA fragmentation factor
    Leopold Eckhart
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 356:293-9. 2007
  7. doi request reprint Duplication of the caspase-12 prodomain and inactivation of NLRC4/IPAF in the dog
    Leopold Eckhart
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 384:226-30. 2009
  8. doi request reprint Cuts by caspase-14 control the proteolysis of filaggrin
    Leopold Eckhart
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    J Invest Dermatol 131:2173-5. 2011
  9. doi request reprint Knockdown of filaggrin impairs diffusion barrier function and increases UV sensitivity in a human skin model
    Michael Mildner
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    J Invest Dermatol 130:2286-94. 2010
  10. ncbi request reprint Identification and characterization of a novel mammalian caspase with proapoptotic activity
    Leopold Eckhart
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna A 1090, Austria
    J Biol Chem 280:35077-80. 2005

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications38

  1. pmc Identification of reptilian genes encoding hair keratin-like proteins suggests a new scenario for the evolutionary origin of hair
    Leopold Eckhart
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090, Austria
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:18419-23. 2008
    ..Our data show that cysteine-rich alpha-keratins are not restricted to mammals and suggest that the evolution of mammalian hair involved the co-option of pre-existing structural proteins...
  2. doi request reprint Cell death by cornification
    Leopold Eckhart
    Research Division of Biology and Pathobiology of the Skin, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria Electronic address
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1833:3471-80. 2013
    ..This article is part of a Special Section entitled: Cell Death Pathways...
  3. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms and emerging functions of DNA degradation in the epidermis
    Leopold Eckhart
    Department of Dermatology, Research Division of Biology and Pathobiology of the Skin, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 17:2461-75. 2012
    ..Here we review the latest insights into the DNA catabolism in the skin and discuss open questions pertaining to the molecular biology of epidermal DNA breakdown...
  4. ncbi request reprint Genome sequence comparison reveals independent inactivation of the caspase-15 gene in different evolutionary lineages of mammals
    Leopold Eckhart
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Mol Biol Evol 23:2081-9. 2006
    ....
  5. doi request reprint Identification of novel mammalian caspases reveals an important role of gene loss in shaping the human caspase repertoire
    Leopold Eckhart
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Mol Biol Evol 25:831-41. 2008
    ..We conclude that gene inactivations have occurred in each of the 3 caspase clades and that gene loss has been as critical as gene duplication in the evolution of the human repertoire of caspases...
  6. ncbi request reprint Phylogenomics of caspase-activated DNA fragmentation factor
    Leopold Eckhart
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 356:293-9. 2007
    ....
  7. doi request reprint Duplication of the caspase-12 prodomain and inactivation of NLRC4/IPAF in the dog
    Leopold Eckhart
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 384:226-30. 2009
    ..Our results demonstrate that the repertoires of CARD proteins in cat and dog differ significantly from that of humans and suggest the existence of uncharacterized pathways of inflammasome-mediated signaling in Carnivora...
  8. doi request reprint Cuts by caspase-14 control the proteolysis of filaggrin
    Leopold Eckhart
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    J Invest Dermatol 131:2173-5. 2011
    ..These findings identify a new layer of complexity in the regulation of epidermal barrier function...
  9. doi request reprint Knockdown of filaggrin impairs diffusion barrier function and increases UV sensitivity in a human skin model
    Michael Mildner
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    J Invest Dermatol 130:2286-94. 2010
    ..In addition, our results challenge the role of filaggrin in intermediate filament aggregation and establish a link between filaggrin and endogenous UVB protection...
  10. ncbi request reprint Identification and characterization of a novel mammalian caspase with proapoptotic activity
    Leopold Eckhart
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna A 1090, Austria
    J Biol Chem 280:35077-80. 2005
    ..Since a homolog of caspase-15 is absent in the human and the mouse genome, our results reveal an unexpected variability in the molecular apoptotic machinery of mammals...
  11. doi request reprint Epidermal keratinocytes form a functional skin barrier in the absence of Atg7 dependent autophagy
    Heidemarie Rossiter
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Austria
    J Dermatol Sci 71:67-75. 2013
    ..Mice, in which essential autophagy-related genes such as Atg7 are deleted systemically, die after birth and have not been characterized for potential epidermal defects...
  12. doi request reprint Histidase expression in human epidermal keratinocytes: regulation by differentiation status and all-trans retinoic acid
    Leopold Eckhart
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    J Dermatol Sci 50:209-15. 2008
    ..Histidase (histidine ammonia lyase) converts histidine into urocanic acid, the main ultraviolet (UV) light absorption factor of the stratum corneum. It is unknown if and how histidase is regulated in the epidermis...
  13. ncbi request reprint DNase1L2 degrades nuclear DNA during corneocyte formation
    Heinz Fischer
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    J Invest Dermatol 127:24-30. 2007
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate that DNase1L2 plays an essential role in DNA degradation during terminal differentiation of epidermal KC...
  14. doi request reprint Transcription of the caspase-14 gene in human epidermal keratinocytes requires AP-1 and NFkappaB
    Claudia Ballaun
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 371:261-6. 2008
    ..Our data reveal the basic organization of the human caspase-14 promoter and suggest an important role of AP-1 and NFkappaB in the transcriptional control of caspase-14...
  15. ncbi request reprint Retinoic acid increases the expression of p53 and proapoptotic caspases and sensitizes keratinocytes to apoptosis: a possible explanation for tumor preventive action of retinoids
    Paul Mrass
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Cancer Res 64:6542-8. 2004
    ..The ability of retinoic acid to regulate the expression of proapoptotic genes and to sensitize KCs to apoptosis may play a role in their prevention of NMSC in transplant patients and patients with DNA-repair deficiencies...
  16. doi request reprint Targeted deletion of Atg5 reveals differential roles of autophagy in keratin K5-expressing epithelia
    Supawadee Sukseree
    Research Division of Biology and Pathobiology of the Skin, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 430:689-94. 2013
    ..Taken together, the results of this study suggest that autophagy is dispensable for the suppression of autoimmunity by thymic epithelial cells but essential for normal differentiation of the preputial gland in mice...
  17. pmc Essential role of the keratinocyte-specific endonuclease DNase1L2 in the removal of nuclear DNA from hair and nails
    Heinz Fischer
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    J Invest Dermatol 131:1208-15. 2011
    ..These data identify DNase1L2 as an essential and specific regulator of programmed cell death in skin appendages, and demonstrate that the breakdown of nuclear DNA is crucial for establishing the full mechanical stability of hair...
  18. ncbi request reprint Caspase-15 is autoprocessed at two sites that contain an aspartate residue in the P1' position
    Leopold Eckhart
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 350:955-9. 2006
    ..Together with previous reports, our results show that caspase-15, unlike all other caspases, efficiently cleaves sites with an aspartate in the P1' position...
  19. doi request reprint The antimicrobial heterodimer S100A8/S100A9 (calprotectin) is upregulated by bacterial flagellin in human epidermal keratinocytes
    Arby Abtin
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    J Invest Dermatol 130:2423-30. 2010
    ..coli induced the expression of S100A8 and S100A9. Our data suggest that bacterial flagellin induces the upregulation of S100A8/S100A9 via a TLR5-dependent mechanism in epidermal KCs...
  20. ncbi request reprint Caspase-14 but not caspase-3 is processed during the development of fetal mouse epidermis
    Heinz Fischer
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Differentiation 73:406-13. 2005
    ..In summary, this study demonstrates that caspase-14, but not caspase-3 activation coincides temporally and spatially with embryonic KC differentiation, suggesting a role for caspase-14 in terminally differentiated KC...
  21. ncbi request reprint Identification of a novel exon encoding the amino-terminus of the predominant caspase-5 variants
    Leopold Eckhart
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 348:682-8. 2006
    ..Taken together, our findings call for a revision of the structure of caspase-5 at the genomic level as well as at the mRNA and protein levels...
  22. ncbi request reprint Stratum corneum-derived caspase-14 is catalytically active
    Heinz Fischer
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    FEBS Lett 577:446-50. 2004
    ..Our results suggest that during regular terminal keratinocyte differentiation, endogenous procaspase-14 is converted to caspase-14 subunits that are catalytically active in the outermost layers of normal human skin...
  23. doi request reprint Autophagy is induced by UVA and promotes removal of oxidized phospholipids and protein aggregates in epidermal keratinocytes
    Yi Zhao
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    J Invest Dermatol 133:1629-37. 2013
    ....
  24. pmc In situ labeling of DNA reveals interindividual variation in nuclear DNA breakdown in hair and may be useful to predict success of forensic genotyping of hair
    Sandra Szabo
    Research Division of Biology and Pathobiology of the Skin, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Int J Legal Med 126:63-70. 2012
    ..Furthermore, our results suggest that in situ labeling of DNA in hair may be useful for predicting the probability of success of forensic analysis of nuclear DNA in shed hair...
  25. doi request reprint Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A3 is transcriptionally activated by all-trans-retinoic acid in human epidermal keratinocytes
    Ulrich Koenig
    Research Division of Biology and Pathobiology of the Skin, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Wahringer Gurtel 18 20, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 400:207-11. 2010
    ..Our results indicate that the regulation of the retinoic acid metabolism in the epidermis involves transcriptional activation of ALDH1A3, possibly representing a positive feedback loop, which enhances the effect of exogenous RA...
  26. doi request reprint Degradation by stratum corneum proteases prevents endogenous RNase inhibitor from blocking antimicrobial activities of RNase 5 and RNase 7
    Arby Abtin
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    J Invest Dermatol 129:2193-201. 2009
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Terminal differentiation of nail matrix keratinocytes involves up-regulation of DNase1L2 but is independent of caspase-14 expression
    Karin Jäger
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Differentiation 75:939-46. 2007
    ..Our results show that caspase-14 is not strictly, if at all, required for differentiation-associated keratinocyte cell death and implicates DNase1L2 in terminal differentiation of nail matrix keratinocytes...
  28. doi request reprint Increased sensitivity of histidinemic mice to UVB radiation suggests a crucial role of endogenous urocanic acid in photoprotection
    Caterina Barresi
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    J Invest Dermatol 131:188-94. 2011
    ..Taken together, these results provide strong evidence for an important contribution of endogenous UCA to the protection of the epidermis against the damaging effects of UVB radiation...
  29. pmc DNase 2 is the main DNA-degrading enzyme of the stratum corneum
    Heinz Fischer
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    PLoS ONE 6:e17581. 2011
    ..Taken together, these data identify DNase 2 as the predominant DNase on the mammalian skin surface and indicate that its activity is primarily targeted to exogenous DNA...
  30. doi request reprint Flagellin is the principal inducer of the antimicrobial peptide S100A7c (psoriasin) in human epidermal keratinocytes exposed to Escherichia coli
    Arby Abtin
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertal 18 20, 1090 Vienna, Austria
    FASEB J 22:2168-76. 2008
    ..coli supernatant. Taken together, our data demonstrate that bacterial flagellin is essential and sufficient for the induction of S100A7c expression in KCs by E. coli...
  31. ncbi request reprint Caspase-14 expression by epidermal keratinocytes is regulated by retinoids in a differentiation-associated manner
    Michael Rendl
    Division of Immunology, Allergy, and Infectious Diseases, Department of Dermatology, University of Vienna Medical School, Austria
    J Invest Dermatol 119:1150-5. 2002
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint A basement membrane-like matrix formed by cell-released proteins at the medium/air interface supports growth of keratinocytes
    Leopold Eckhart
    Department of Dermatology, University of Vienna Medical School, Vienna, Austria
    Eur J Cell Biol 82:549-55. 2003
    ..Our findings provide a basis for the production of epidermal basement membranes for potential medical uses...
  33. ncbi request reprint Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor inhibits UVB-induced apoptosis of human keratinocytes but not of keratinocyte-derived cell lines via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway
    Michael Mildner
    Division of Immunology, Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Department of Dermatology, Vienna Medical School, Wahringer Gurtel 18 20, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    J Biol Chem 277:14146-52. 2002
    ....
  34. pmc Autophagy in the thymic epithelium is dispensable for the development of self-tolerance in a novel mouse model
    Supawadee Sukseree
    Research Division of Biology and Pathobiology of the Skin, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    PLoS ONE 7:e38933. 2012
    ..In summary, the results of this study suggest that autophagy in the thymic epithelium is dispensable for negative selection of autoreactive T cells...
  35. ncbi request reprint Human caspase 12 has acquired deleterious mutations
    Heinz Fischer
    Department of Dermatology, University of Vienna Medical School, Vienna, Austria
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 293:722-6. 2002
    ..Based on our data we conclude that functional caspase 12 is lost in humans and that it can therefore not play a role in Alzheimer's disease...
  36. doi request reprint Identification of a homozygous PSTPIP1 mutation in a patient with a PAPA-like syndrome responding to canakinumab treatment
    Alexandra Geusau
    Division of Immunology, Allergy, and Infectious Diseases, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, 1090 Vienna, Austria
    JAMA Dermatol 149:209-15. 2013
    ..The patient was diagnosed as having features of a PAPA-like syndrome in which cutaneous manifestations, such as pyoderma gangrenosum and acne fulminans, predominated...
  37. ncbi request reprint Distribution of caspase-14 in epidermis and hair follicles is evolutionarily conserved among mammals
    Lorenzo Alibardi
    Department of Biology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
    Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol 286:962-73. 2005
    ..The association of caspase-14 with keratohyalin and trichohyalin granules may indicate a specific role of caspase-14 in the maturation of these keratinocyte-specific structures...
  38. ncbi request reprint Ultrastructural localization of caspase-14 in human epidermis
    Lorenzo Alibardi
    Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica Sperimentale, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
    J Histochem Cytochem 52:1561-74. 2004
    ..These observations will allow focusing efforts of biochemical substrate screening on a subset of proteins localizing to distinct compartments of terminally differentiated keratinocytes...