J L Taylor

Summary

Affiliation: University of New South Wales
Country: Australia

Publications

  1. pmc Unexpected reflex response to transmastoid stimulation in human subjects during near-maximal effort
    J L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Randwick, NSW 2031 and the University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    J Physiol 536:305-12. 2001
  2. pmc Motor commands contribute to human position sense
    Simon C Gandevia
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Barker Street, Randwick, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia
    J Physiol 571:703-10. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint Corticospinal transmission after voluntary contractions
    Janet L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Adv Exp Med Biol 508:435-41. 2002
  4. doi request reprint Voluntary activation of trapezius measured with twitch interpolation
    Janet L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Barker Street, Randwick, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia
    J Electromyogr Kinesiol 19:584-90. 2009
  5. ncbi request reprint Independent control of voluntary movements and associated anticipatory postural responses in a bimanual task
    Janet L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and University of New South Wales, Barker Street 2031, Randwick, NSW, Australia
    Clin Neurophysiol 116:2083-90. 2005
  6. ncbi request reprint Stimulation at the cervicomedullary junction in human subjects
    Janet L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, University of New South Wales, Barker Street, Randwick NSW 2031, Sydney, Australia
    J Electromyogr Kinesiol 16:215-23. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint Noninvasive stimulation of the human corticospinal tract
    J L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Barker St, Randwick, NSW, Australia 2031
    J Appl Physiol 96:1496-503. 2004
  8. pmc Interaction of transcranial magnetic stimulation and electrical transmastoid stimulation in human subjects
    Janet L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Barker Street, Randwick, NSW 2031, Australia
    J Physiol 541:949-58. 2002
  9. ncbi request reprint Evidence for a supraspinal contribution to human muscle fatigue
    Janet L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and the University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 33:400-5. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint Transcranial magnetic stimulation and human muscle fatigue
    J L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and University of New South Wales, Barker Street, Randwick, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia
    Muscle Nerve 24:18-29. 2001

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications64

  1. pmc Unexpected reflex response to transmastoid stimulation in human subjects during near-maximal effort
    J L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Randwick, NSW 2031 and the University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    J Physiol 536:305-12. 2001
    ..The response travels via the motor cortex but is only apparent during near-maximal voluntary efforts...
  2. pmc Motor commands contribute to human position sense
    Simon C Gandevia
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Barker Street, Randwick, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia
    J Physiol 571:703-10. 2006
    ..These results establish for the first time a definitive role for 'outflow' signals in position sense...
  3. ncbi request reprint Corticospinal transmission after voluntary contractions
    Janet L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Adv Exp Med Biol 508:435-41. 2002
    ..If so, an activity-dependent decrease in the effectiveness of cortical drive to the motoneurones could affect the control of many voluntary movements...
  4. doi request reprint Voluntary activation of trapezius measured with twitch interpolation
    Janet L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Barker Street, Randwick, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia
    J Electromyogr Kinesiol 19:584-90. 2009
    ..Measurement of voluntary activation will be a useful technique to demonstrate whether the reduced maximal voluntary force reported in such disorders is due to muscular or neural factors...
  5. ncbi request reprint Independent control of voluntary movements and associated anticipatory postural responses in a bimanual task
    Janet L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and University of New South Wales, Barker Street 2031, Randwick, NSW, Australia
    Clin Neurophysiol 116:2083-90. 2005
    ..This study used transcranial magnetic stimulation over each hemisphere to clarify the relationship between a voluntary movement on one side and the anticipatory postural response on the other...
  6. ncbi request reprint Stimulation at the cervicomedullary junction in human subjects
    Janet L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, University of New South Wales, Barker Street, Randwick NSW 2031, Sydney, Australia
    J Electromyogr Kinesiol 16:215-23. 2006
    ..The advantages and disadvantages of stimulation at the cervicomedullary junction as a test of motoneurone excitability are reviewed...
  7. ncbi request reprint Noninvasive stimulation of the human corticospinal tract
    J L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Barker St, Randwick, NSW, Australia 2031
    J Appl Physiol 96:1496-503. 2004
    ..The major drawback to the use of electrical stimulation of the corticospinal tract is that each stimulus is transiently painful...
  8. pmc Interaction of transcranial magnetic stimulation and electrical transmastoid stimulation in human subjects
    Janet L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Barker Street, Randwick, NSW 2031, Australia
    J Physiol 541:949-58. 2002
    ..Thus, it is consistent with the two stimuli activating some of the same corticospinal axons...
  9. ncbi request reprint Evidence for a supraspinal contribution to human muscle fatigue
    Janet L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and the University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 33:400-5. 2006
    ..One factor that may contribute to supraspinal fatigue is the firing of fatigue-sensitive muscle afferents that may act to impair voluntary descending drive...
  10. ncbi request reprint Transcranial magnetic stimulation and human muscle fatigue
    J L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and University of New South Wales, Barker Street, Randwick, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia
    Muscle Nerve 24:18-29. 2001
    ..In some patients with symptoms of fatigue, the response to TMS after exercise is altered, but the changed MEP behavior is not yet linked to particular symptoms or pathology...
  11. ncbi request reprint Changes in muscle afferents, motoneurons and motor drive during muscle fatigue
    J L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Eur J Appl Physiol 83:106-15. 2000
    ..Changes may be associated with muscle fatigue without causing it...
  12. ncbi request reprint Supraspinal fatigue during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the human elbow flexors
    J L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and the University of New South Wales, Sydney 2031, Australia
    J Appl Physiol 89:305-13. 2000
    ..This suggests that part of the fatigue developed during intermittent exercise is "upstream" of the motor cortex...
  13. ncbi request reprint Effect of contraction strength on responses in biceps brachii and adductor pollicis to transcranial magnetic stimulation
    J L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Randwick, Australia
    Exp Brain Res 117:472-8. 1997
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint A comparison of central aspects of fatigue in submaximal and maximal voluntary contractions
    Janet L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Barker St, Randwick, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    J Appl Physiol 104:542-50. 2008
    ..The best indication that central fatigue is important during submaximal tasks is the disproportionate increase in subjects' perceived effort when maintaining a low target force...
  15. ncbi request reprint Altered responses of human elbow flexors to peripheral-nerve and cortical stimulation during a sustained maximal voluntary contraction
    J L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Randwick, NSW, Australia
    Exp Brain Res 127:108-15. 1999
    ..Thus, an increased response from the motor cortex to the magnetic stimulus remains a likely contributor to the increase in the size of the MEP in fatigue...
  16. pmc Ischaemia after exercise does not reduce responses of human motoneurones to cortical or corticospinal tract stimulation
    J L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia
    J Physiol 525:793-801. 2000
    ..It also suggests that firing of such afferents does not directly inhibit motoneurones or motor cortical output cells...
  17. pmc Absence of viscerosomatic inhibition with injections of lobeline designed to activate human pulmonary C fibres
    S C Gandevia
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Prince of Wales Hospital and University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia
    J Physiol 511:289-300. 1998
    ..The results cast doubt on the ability of the J reflex to limit exercise in humans...
  18. pmc Impaired response of human motoneurones to corticospinal stimulation after voluntary exercise
    S C Gandevia
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    J Physiol 521:749-59. 1999
    ..6. This study describes a novel depression of effectiveness of corticospinal actions on human motoneurones. This depression may involve the corticomotoneuronal synapse...
  19. doi request reprint Noninvasive stimulation of human corticospinal axons innervating leg muscles
    P G Martin
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Barker Street, Randwick, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia
    J Neurophysiol 100:1080-6. 2008
    ..Thus it is possible to examine the excitability of lower limb motoneuron pools to corticospinal inputs without the confounding effects of changes occurring within the motor cortex...
  20. pmc Group III and IV muscle afferents differentially affect the motor cortex and motoneurones in humans
    P G Martin
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia
    J Physiol 586:1277-89. 2008
    ..05). Activity in group III and IV muscle afferents produced by hypertonic saline facilitates motoneurones innervating elbow flexor and extensor muscles but depresses motor cortical cells projecting to these muscles...
  21. pmc Twitch interpolation: superimposed twitches decline progressively during a tetanic contraction of human adductor pollicis
    S C Gandevia
    Neuroscience Research Australia, Barker Street, Randwick, NSW 2031, Australia
    J Physiol 591:1373-83. 2013
    ....
  22. pmc Maximal force, voluntary activation and muscle soreness after eccentric damage to human elbow flexor muscles
    O Prasartwuth
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, University of New South Wales, Barker Street, Randwick, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia
    J Physiol 567:337-48. 2005
    ..The impairment of voluntary activation to nerve stimulation but not motor cortical stimulation suggests that the activation deficit lies in the motor cortex or at a spinal level...
  23. pmc Length-dependent changes in voluntary activation, maximum voluntary torque and twitch responses after eccentric damage in humans
    O Prasartwuth
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, University of New South Wales, Barker Street, Randwick, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia
    J Physiol 571:243-52. 2006
    ..Therefore, it appears that both central and peripheral factors limit muscle performance following eccentric damage, with limits to voluntary drive being especially important at short lengths...
  24. pmc Muscle fatigue changes cutaneous suppression of propriospinal drive to human upper limb muscles
    P G Martin
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, University of New South Wales, Barker Street, Randwick, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia
    J Physiol 580:211-23. 2007
    ..This pattern of changes may maintain coordination during multimuscle movements when one group of muscles is fatigued...
  25. ncbi request reprint Output of human motoneuron pools to corticospinal inputs during voluntary contractions
    P G Martin
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, University of New South Wales, Barker Street, Randwick, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia
    J Neurophysiol 95:3512-8. 2006
    ..001). This suggests that motoneuron firing rates are important determinants of evoked output from the motoneuron pool. However, motor cortical output does not appear to be limited at high contraction strengths...
  26. pmc Cortically evoked neural volleys to the human hand are increased during ischaemic block of the forearm
    P A McNulty
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    J Physiol 538:279-88. 2002
    ..Thus, we conclude that the increased response of biceps to TMS during distal ischaemia is not accompanied by a corresponding decrease in the motor cortical representation of the hand...
  27. ncbi request reprint Theta burst stimulation does not reliably depress all regions of the human motor cortex
    P G Martin
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and University of New South Wales, Randwick, NSW 2031, Australia
    Clin Neurophysiol 117:2684-90. 2006
    ..This study compared the magnitude and variability of changes evoked by TBS for a distal and proximal arm muscle...
  28. pmc Impairment of human proprioception by high-frequency cutaneous vibration
    N S Weerakkody
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Barker Street, Randwick, NSW 2031, Australia
    J Physiol 581:971-80. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that stimuli which preferentially activate Pacinian, but not Meissner corpuscles, impair proprioceptive acuity in a movement detection task...
  29. pmc Dynamic changes in the perceived posture of the hand during ischaemic anaesthesia of the arm
    N Inui
    Neuroscience Research Australia, Sydney, 2031, Australia
    J Physiol 589:5775-84. 2011
    ..Hence it is unlikely that block of small-fibre afferents is critical for phantom formation in an ischaemic block...
  30. pmc Changes in respiratory sensations induced by lobeline after human bilateral lung transplantation
    J E Butler
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    J Physiol 534:583-93. 2001
    ..This suggests that some functional reinnervation of pulmonary afferents may occur...
  31. pmc Local subcutaneous and muscle pain impairs detection of passive movements at the human thumb
    N S Weerakkody
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Barker Street, Randwick, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia
    J Physiol 586:3183-93. 2008
    ..The results highlight the complex relationship between nociceptive inputs and their influence on proprioception and motor control...
  32. ncbi request reprint Selection of motor responses on the basis of unperceived stimuli
    J L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Randwick, N S W, Australia
    Exp Brain Res 110:62-6. 1996
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint Balancing acts: respiratory sensations, motor control and human posture
    S C Gandevia
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Sydney, Randwick, New South Wales, Australia
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 29:118-21. 2002
    ..4. Thus, challenges to posture can indirectly challenge ventilation, while coordinated diaphragm contraction may contribute to control of the trunk...
  34. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of muscle sympathetic outflow following transcranial cortical stimulation
    V G Macefield
    The Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Randwick NSW, Australia
    J Auton Nerv Syst 68:49-57. 1998
    ....
  35. pmc Effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation during human walking
    R C Fitzpatrick
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Sydney, Australia
    J Physiol 517:931-9. 1999
    ..However, altered perception of the vertical or the base of support, or direct vestibulo-fugal influences on the leg muscles could contribute to the changes in gait...
  36. doi request reprint Voluntary activation of the different compartments of the flexor digitorum profundus
    Hiske van Duinen
    Neuroscience Research Australia and University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    J Neurophysiol 104:3213-21. 2010
    ..When altered mechanical connections between the compartments decrease voluntary force output there is little difference in neural drive...
  37. doi request reprint Facilitation and inhibition of tibialis anterior responses to corticospinal stimulation after maximal voluntary contractions
    Sabine Giesebrecht
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    J Neurophysiol 103:1350-6. 2010
    ..This behavior differs markedly from that in elbow flexor muscles and suggests that activity-dependent changes in the motor pathway may be muscle specific...
  38. ncbi request reprint Use of motor cortex stimulation to measure simultaneously the changes in dynamic muscle properties and voluntary activation in human muscles
    Gabrielle Todd
    The University of Adelaide, Australia
    J Appl Physiol 102:1756-66. 2007
    ..Voluntary output from the motor cortex becomes insufficient to maintain complete activation of muscle, although slowing of muscle contraction and relaxation indicates that lower motor unit firing rates are required for fusion of force...
  39. pmc Proprioceptive movement illusions due to prolonged stimulation: reversals and aftereffects
    Tatjana Seizova-Cajic
    School of Psychology, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    PLoS ONE 2:e1037. 2007
    ..We investigated them using vibration as a stimulus because vibration of muscle tendons results in a powerful illusion of movement...
  40. doi request reprint Recovery from supraspinal fatigue is slowed in old adults after fatiguing maximal isometric contractions
    Sandra K Hunter
    Exercise Science Program, Department of Physical Therapy, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI
    J Appl Physiol 105:1199-209. 2008
    ..The greater endurance with age is largely due to a difference in mechanisms located within the muscle. However, recovery from the fatiguing exercise is impaired for old adults because of greater supraspinal fatigue than in the young...
  41. ncbi request reprint Sustained contraction at very low forces produces prominent supraspinal fatigue in human elbow flexor muscles
    Janette L Smith
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and University of New South Wales, Randwick, New South Wales, Australia
    J Appl Physiol 103:560-8. 2007
    ..The effect of central fatigue on performance of the weak contraction is less clear, but it may contribute to the increase in perceived effort...
  42. ncbi request reprint Viewpoint: Fatigue mechanisms determining exercise performance: integrative physiology is systems physiology
    Simon C Gandevia
    J Appl Physiol 104:1546. 2008
  43. doi request reprint Increased ventilation does not impair maximal voluntary contractions of the elbow flexors
    Janette L Smith
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, NSW 2031, Australia
    J Appl Physiol 104:1674-82. 2008
    ..Results suggest that any effects of increased respiratory work on limb exercise performance are not due to a failure to drive both muscle groups optimally...
  44. ncbi request reprint Decreased input to the motor cortex increases motor cortical excitability
    Gabrielle Todd
    Discipline of Physiology, School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, Australia
    Clin Neurophysiol 117:2496-503. 2006
    ..To investigate whether a short-duration reduction of input to the motor cortex affects excitability in the hand region of the motor cortex...
  45. ncbi request reprint The origin of activity in the biceps brachii muscle during voluntary contractions of the contralateral elbow flexor muscles
    Inge Zijdewind
    Department Medical Physiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, A Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
    Exp Brain Res 175:526-35. 2006
    ..Comparison of the MEPs and subcortically evoked potentials implies that cortical excitability was greater in associated contractions than in the matched voluntary efforts...
  46. ncbi request reprint Stimulus waveform influences the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
    Janet L Taylor
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Randwick, NSW, Australia
    J Affect Disord 97:271-6. 2007
    ..However, non-optimal coil orientation and high intensities of monophasic rTMS may have influenced previous results...
  47. pmc The history of contraction of the wrist flexors can change cortical excitability
    Meg Stuart
    School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
    J Physiol 545:731-7. 2002
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint The effect of a contralateral contraction on maximal voluntary activation and central fatigue in elbow flexor muscles
    Gabrielle Todd
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and the University of New South Wales, 2031 Sydney, Australia
    Exp Brain Res 150:308-13. 2003
    ..Our data suggest that voluntary drive from the motor cortex is slightly less able to drive the muscle maximally after a fatiguing voluntary contraction on the contralateral side...
  49. pmc Measurement of voluntary activation of fresh and fatigued human muscles using transcranial magnetic stimulation
    Gabrielle Todd
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and the University of New South Wales, Sydney 2031, Australia
    J Physiol 551:661-71. 2003
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint Depression of activity in the corticospinal pathway during human motor behavior after strong voluntary contractions
    Nicolas T Petersen
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia 2031
    J Neurosci 23:7974-80. 2003
    ..Our findings support the view that synapses in the corticospinal system are depressed after strong voluntary contractions during both relaxation and activity. Furthermore, this depression can affect the production of voluntary movement...
  51. ncbi request reprint Changes in segmental and motor cortical output with contralateral muscle contractions and altered sensory inputs in humans
    Tibor Hortobagyi
    East Carolina University, Biomechanics Laboratory, Greenville, North Carolina 27858, USA
    J Neurophysiol 90:2451-9. 2003
    ....
  52. ncbi request reprint Responses of human motoneurons to corticospinal stimulation during maximal voluntary contractions and ischemia
    Jane E Butler
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and University of New South Wales, Randwick, New South Wales, 2031 Australia
    J Neurosci 23:10224-30. 2003
    ....
  53. ncbi request reprint Reproducible measurement of voluntary activation of human elbow flexors with motor cortical stimulation
    Gabrielle Todd
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, University of Wales, New South Wales 2031, Australia
    J Appl Physiol 97:236-42. 2004
    ..Furthermore, its reliability and variability were similar to the resting twitch estimated from 30 contractions and to that evoked by conventional motor nerve stimulation...
  54. pmc Hyperthermia: a failure of the motor cortex and the muscle
    Gabrielle Todd
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and the University of New South Wales, Sydney 2031, Australia
    J Physiol 563:621-31. 2005
    ..The increased central fatigue during hyperthermia may represent a failure of descending voluntary drive to compensate for changed muscle properties, despite the availability of additional cortical output...
  55. ncbi request reprint Muscle fiber and motor unit behavior in the longest human skeletal muscle
    A John Harris
    Department of Physiology, University of Otago, Dunedin 9001, New Zealand
    J Neurosci 25:8528-33. 2005
    ....
  56. ncbi request reprint Supraspinal fatigue does not explain the sex difference in muscle fatigue of maximal contractions
    Sandra K Hunter
    Exercise Science Program, Department of Physical Therapy, PO Box 1881, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA
    J Appl Physiol 101:1036-44. 2006
    ....
  57. ncbi request reprint Fatigue-sensitive afferents inhibit extensor but not flexor motoneurons in humans
    Peter G Martin
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, University of New South Wales, Randwick, New South Wales 2031, Australia
    J Neurosci 26:4796-802. 2006
    ..The more pronounced inhibitory influence of these afferents on extensors suggests that these muscles may require greater cortical drive to generate force during fatigue...
  58. pmc The effect of sustained low-intensity contractions on supraspinal fatigue in human elbow flexor muscles
    Karen Søgaard
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Lersø Parkalle 102, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark
    J Physiol 573:511-23. 2006
    ..While central fatigue can only be demonstrated during MVCs, it may have contributed to the disproportionate increase in perceived effort reported during the prolonged low-force contraction...
  59. ncbi request reprint Subthreshold transcranial magnetic stimulation during the long latency component of the cutaneomotor reflex
    Meg Stuart
    School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Exp Brain Res 170:285-94. 2006
    ..Thus, the pathway of the long-latency cutaneomotor reflex is not similar to the transcortical pathway of the stretch reflex. Either the response does not travel via the cortex or it involves different cortical neurones...
  60. pmc The effect of electrical stimulation of the corticospinal tract on motor units of the human biceps brachii
    Nicolas T Petersen
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and University of New South Wales, Randwick, Sydney, Australia
    J Physiol 544:277-84. 2002
    ..We propose that in response to electrical stimulation of the descending tract fibres, biceps motoneurones receive a large excitatory input with minimal dispersion and it presumably contains a dominant monosynaptic component...
  61. ncbi request reprint Magnetic muscle stimulation produces fatigue without effort
    Janet L Taylor
    J Appl Physiol 103:733-4. 2007
  62. pmc Effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation on human posture and perception while standing
    Daniel L Wardman
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute and University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    J Physiol 551:1033-42. 2003
    ..Instead, they and other observations support a simpler interpretation that the GVS signal is consistent with head movement and evokes an automated response to stabilise the head in space...
  63. ncbi request reprint Savant-like skills exposed in normal people by suppressing the left fronto-temporal lobe
    Allan W Snyder
    Centre for the Mind, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
    J Integr Neurosci 2:149-58. 2003
    ..Our conclusions are derived from 11 right-handed male university students, eight of whom underwent placebo stimulation. We examined performance before, during and after exposure to the stimulation...
  64. ncbi request reprint Tonic and phasic respiratory drives to human genioglossus motoneurons during breathing
    Julian P Saboisky
    Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Randwick, Australia
    J Neurophysiol 95:2213-21. 2006
    ..The presence of different drives to GG implies that complex premotor networks can differentially engage human hypoglossal motoneurons during respiration. This is unlike the ordered recruitment of motor units in limb and axial muscles...