Bruce J Brew

Summary

Affiliation: University of New South Wales
Country: Australia

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Variable benefit in neuropsychological function in HIV-infected HAART-treated patients
    Lucette A J Cysique
    Faculty of Medicine, St Vincent s Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Neurology 66:1447-50. 2006
  2. ncbi request reprint HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in the Modern Antiviral Treatment Era: Prevalence, Characteristics, Biomarkers, and Effects of Treatment
    Phillip Chan
    Neurology team, Department of Internal Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 11:317-24. 2014
  3. ncbi request reprint Update on HIV dementia and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
    Bruce J Brew
    St Vincent s Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Darlinghurst, NSW, 2010, Australia
    Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 14:468. 2014
  4. pmc Tryptophan, Neurodegeneration and HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder
    Nicholas W S Davies
    Department of Neurology, and
    Int J Tryptophan Res 3:121-40. 2010
  5. pmc NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% patch, for the treatment of painful HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy: integrated analysis of two phase III, randomized, controlled trials
    Stephen Brown
    AIDS Research Alliance, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    AIDS Res Ther 10:5. 2013
  6. doi request reprint Is specific HIV eradication from the brain possible or needed?
    Bruce J Brew
    St Vincent s Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW, 2010, Australia
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 13:403-9. 2013
  7. pmc Valproic acid is associated with cognitive decline in HIV-infected individuals: a clinical observational study
    Lucette A Cysique
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California, USA
    BMC Neurol 6:42. 2006
  8. pmc Cerebrospinal fluid neopterin: an informative biomarker of central nervous system immune activation in HIV-1 infection
    Lars Hagberg
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg SE 41685 Sweden
    AIDS Res Ther 7:15. 2010
  9. ncbi request reprint CSF amyloid beta42 and tau levels correlate with AIDS dementia complex
    B J Brew
    Department of Neurology, St Vincent s Hospital, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Neurology 65:1490-2. 2005
  10. doi request reprint Neurodegeneration and ageing in the HAART era
    Bruce J Brew
    Department of Neurology, St Vincent s Hospital, Darlinghurst, Sydney, Australia
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 4:163-74. 2009

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications91

  1. ncbi request reprint Variable benefit in neuropsychological function in HIV-infected HAART-treated patients
    Lucette A J Cysique
    Faculty of Medicine, St Vincent s Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Neurology 66:1447-50. 2006
    ..A neuroactive HAART regimen was associated with neuropsychological improvement. Decline occurred in a minority with lower nadir CD4. The current CD4 count and plasma viral load were not associated with cognitive change...
  2. ncbi request reprint HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in the Modern Antiviral Treatment Era: Prevalence, Characteristics, Biomarkers, and Effects of Treatment
    Phillip Chan
    Neurology team, Department of Internal Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 11:317-24. 2014
    ..We will then review the outcomes of recent clinical studies focused on the CNS penetrating antiretroviral regimens and some novel therapeutic approaches. ..
  3. ncbi request reprint Update on HIV dementia and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
    Bruce J Brew
    St Vincent s Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Darlinghurst, NSW, 2010, Australia
    Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 14:468. 2014
    ..The outcomes of recent research on the pathogenesis of HAND and how it overlaps with neurodegenerative diseases are discussed. Lastly, there is a brief discussion of the results of clinical trials using a brain-penetrating cART regimen...
  4. pmc Tryptophan, Neurodegeneration and HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder
    Nicholas W S Davies
    Department of Neurology, and
    Int J Tryptophan Res 3:121-40. 2010
    ....
  5. pmc NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% patch, for the treatment of painful HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy: integrated analysis of two phase III, randomized, controlled trials
    Stephen Brown
    AIDS Research Alliance, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    AIDS Res Ther 10:5. 2013
    ..Data from two phase III, double-blind studies were integrated to further analyze the efficacy and safety of NGX-4010 and explore the effect of demographic and baseline factors on NGX-4010 treatment in HIV-DSP...
  6. doi request reprint Is specific HIV eradication from the brain possible or needed?
    Bruce J Brew
    St Vincent s Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW, 2010, Australia
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 13:403-9. 2013
    ..There is increasing interest in the possibility of eradication of HIV, given the recent case reports. However, it is not clear to what extent brain involvement by HIV poses a challenge to systemic eradication strategies...
  7. pmc Valproic acid is associated with cognitive decline in HIV-infected individuals: a clinical observational study
    Lucette A Cysique
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California, USA
    BMC Neurol 6:42. 2006
    ..However, the effect of VPA on cognitive functions in advanced HIV-infected individuals is largely unknown. A recent study would suggest that it may have a neuroprotective effect, the doses used were low and the observation period short...
  8. pmc Cerebrospinal fluid neopterin: an informative biomarker of central nervous system immune activation in HIV-1 infection
    Lars Hagberg
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg SE 41685 Sweden
    AIDS Res Ther 7:15. 2010
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint CSF amyloid beta42 and tau levels correlate with AIDS dementia complex
    B J Brew
    Department of Neurology, St Vincent s Hospital, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Neurology 65:1490-2. 2005
    ..ADC had significantly decreased CSF Abeta42 and increased t-tau and p-tau concentrations similar to AD, suggesting that ADC may be associated with AD or an AD-like process...
  10. doi request reprint Neurodegeneration and ageing in the HAART era
    Bruce J Brew
    Department of Neurology, St Vincent s Hospital, Darlinghurst, Sydney, Australia
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 4:163-74. 2009
    ..Lastly, there will be a brief discussion of interventions to minimize such neurodegeneration including optimization of HAART for brain entry...
  11. ncbi request reprint Can the peripheral blood monocyte count be used as a marker of CSF resistance to antiretroviral drugs?
    Bruce J Brew
    Department of Neurology, St Vincent s Hospital, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    J Neurovirol 10:38-43. 2004
    ..These preliminary data suggest that peripheral blood monocytes may be important in delivery of antiretroviral drugs to the brain and the development of resistance...
  12. doi request reprint Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and other forms of JC virus disease
    Bruce J Brew
    Department of Neurology and St Vincent s Center for Applied Medical Research, St Vincent s Hospital and University of New South Wales, Victoria Street, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia
    Nat Rev Neurol 6:667-79. 2010
    ..Rapid improvements in immune function, however, might lead to transient worsening of the disease. In this Review, we critically appraise the controversies surrounding JCV infection, and provide practical management guidelines for PML...
  13. ncbi request reprint Evidence for a change in AIDS dementia complex in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy and the possibility of new forms of AIDS dementia complex
    Bruce J Brew
    Department of Neurology, St Vincent s Hospital, Sydney, and National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia
    AIDS 18:S75-8. 2004
    ..It is certainly recognized that some of the concepts discussed here are highly speculative...
  14. ncbi request reprint Quinolinic acid in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease
    Gilles J Guillemin
    Centre for Immunology, St Vincent s Hospital, Sydney, Australia
    Adv Exp Med Biol 527:167-76. 2003
    ..Interestingly, IL-1beta has been found in association with plaques in AD. All together these data imply that QUIN may be, locally, one of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of neuronal damage in AD...
  15. pmc Expression of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and production of kynurenine pathway metabolites in triple transgenic mice and human Alzheimer's disease brain
    Wei Wu
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    PLoS ONE 8:e59749. 2013
    ..Our study adds to the evidence that the kynurenine pathway may play important roles in the neurodegenerative processes of AD...
  16. ncbi request reprint Elevated cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light protein concentrations predict the development of AIDS dementia complex
    Magnus Gisslen
    Department of Infectious Diseases, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University, Goteborg, SE 416 85, Sweden, and Department of Neurology, St Vincent s Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    J Infect Dis 195:1774-8. 2007
    ..By contrast, no differences were found in CSF HIV-1 RNA or neopterin concentrations between the 2 groups. CSF NFL may prove to be a useful predictive marker for ADC...
  17. ncbi request reprint The kynurenine pathway and inflammation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Yiquan Chen
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Neurotox Res 18:132-42. 2010
    ..These data point to an inflammation-driven excitotoxic-chelation defective mechanism in ALS, which may be amenable to inhibitors of the KP...
  18. pmc HIV, vascular and aging injuries in the brain of clinically stable HIV-infected adults: a (1)H MRS study
    Lucette A Cysique
    University of New South Wales, St Vincent s Clinical School, Sydney, Australia
    PLoS ONE 8:e61738. 2013
    ..Moreover, their significance and relation to more classical HAND biomarkers remain unclear...
  19. ncbi request reprint Characterization of the kynurenine pathway in NSC-34 cell line: implications for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Yiquan Chen
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    J Neurochem 118:816-25. 2011
    ..There is currently a lack of effective treatment for ALS and our in vitro results provide a novel therapeutic strategy for ALS patients...
  20. ncbi request reprint The assessment of cognitive function in advanced HIV-1 infection and AIDS dementia complex using a new computerised cognitive test battery
    Lucette A J Cysique
    Faculty of Medicine, St Vincent s Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Arch Clin Neuropsychol 21:185-94. 2006
    ..This study supports the utility of a brief computerised battery in the detection of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment that could be used for wide-scale screening...
  21. doi request reprint HIV and age do not substantially interact in HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment
    Lucette A Cysique
    Neurology Department, Xavier Building, Level 4, St Vincent s Hospital, Darlinghurst, Sydney 2010, NSW, Australia
    J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 23:83-9. 2011
    ..Further longitudinal studies are warranted...
  22. doi request reprint Prevalence of non-confounded HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment in the context of plasma HIV RNA suppression
    Lucette A Cysique
    Brain Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    J Neurovirol 17:176-83. 2011
    ..Nonetheless, predictive modelling with these last two factors misclassified 27% and had low sensitivity (43%) emphasising that other yet-to-be-defined factors were operative...
  23. ncbi request reprint Undetectable cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA and beta-2 microglobulin do not indicate inactive AIDS dementia complex in highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated patients
    Lucette A Cysique
    St Vincent s Hospital Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Darlinghurst, Sydney, Australia
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 39:426-9. 2005
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint Prevalence and pattern of neuropsychological impairment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients across pre- and post-highly active antiretroviral therapy eras: a combined study of two cohorts
    Lucette A Cysique
    Faculty of Medicine, St Vincent s Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    J Neurovirol 10:350-7. 2004
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and production of quinolinic acid by human microglia, astrocytes, and neurons
    Gilles J Guillemin
    Centre for Immunology, St Vincent s Hospital, Sydney, Australia
    Glia 49:15-23. 2005
    ..However, astrocytes and neurons had the ability to catabolize QUIN. This study also provides the first evidence of IDO expression and lack of production of QUIN in culture of primary human neurons...
  26. doi request reprint Neuropsychological functioning and antiretroviral treatment in HIV/AIDS: a review
    Lucette A Cysique
    Brain Sciences, University of New South Wales, and Department of Neurology, Xavier Building, Level 4, St Vincent s Hospital, 390 Victoria Street, Sydney, NSW, 2010, Australia
    Neuropsychol Rev 19:169-85. 2009
    ..The review emphasizes the need to address methodological limitations of published studies and the need for large and representative cross-disciplinary longitudinal investigations across the HIV illness span...
  27. pmc Interferon-γ regulates the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells via activation of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO)
    Juliana Croitoru-Lamoury
    St Vincent s Centre for Applied Medical Research, St Vincent s Hospital, Sydney, Australia
    PLoS ONE 6:e14698. 2011
    ..A functional KP present in MSCs, NSCs and perhaps other stem cell types offers novel therapeutic opportunities for optimisation of stem cell proliferation and differentiation...
  28. pmc Characterisation of the expression of NMDA receptors in human astrocytes
    Ming Chak Lee
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, and Vincent s Centre for Applied Medical Research, St Vincent s Hospital, Sydney, Australia
    PLoS ONE 5:e14123. 2010
    ..This discovery has significant implications for redefining the cellular interaction between glia and neurons in both physiological processes and pathological conditions...
  29. ncbi request reprint The neuropsychological profile of symptomatic AIDS and ADC patients in the pre-HAART era: a meta-analysis
    Lucette A J Cysique
    Faculty of Medicine, St Vincent s Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    J Int Neuropsychol Soc 12:368-82. 2006
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint A beta 1-42 induces production of quinolinic acid by human macrophages and microglia
    Gilles J Guillemin
    Centre for Immunology, St Vincent s Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia
    Neuroreport 14:2311-5. 2003
    ..These data imply that local QUIN production may be one of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of neuronal damage in AD...
  31. ncbi request reprint Quinolinic acid up-regulates chemokine production and chemokine receptor expression in astrocytes
    Juliana Croitoru-Lamoury
    Centre for Immunology, St Vincent s Hospital, Sydney, Australia
    Adv Exp Med Biol 527:37-45. 2003
    ..These results suggest that QUIN may be critical in the amplification of brain inflammation particularly in ADC...
  32. ncbi request reprint Expression of the kynurenine pathway enzymes in human microglia and macrophages
    Gilles J Guillemin
    Centre for Immunology, St Vincent s Hospital, Sydney, Australia
    Adv Exp Med Biol 527:105-12. 2003
    ..These results suggest that activated infiltrating macrophages are the most potent QUIN producers during brain inflammatory diseases with playing a lesser role...
  33. doi request reprint Cerebrovascular disease in HIV-infected individuals in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Belinda Cruse
    St Vincent s Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    J Neurovirol 18:264-76. 2012
    ..Finally, a discussion regarding the significant association between cerebrovascular disease and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder is presented, together with possible mechanisms behind this relationship...
  34. ncbi request reprint The kynurenine pathway and quinolinic acid: pivotal roles in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders
    Apsara Kandanearatchi
    St Vincent s Centre for Applied Medical Research, Sydney, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    FEBS J 279:1366-74. 2012
    ..Evidence both direct and indirect will be discussed for involvement of the kynurenine pathway at each step in the neuropathogenesis of HIV associated neurocognitive disorder...
  35. doi request reprint The burden of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment in Australia and its estimates for the future
    Lucette A Cysique
    Brain Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Sex Health 8:541-50. 2011
    ..There are currently no estimates of the future burden of neurocognitive disease in this population...
  36. doi request reprint Mechanism for quinolinic acid cytotoxicity in human astrocytes and neurons
    Nady Braidy
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052, Australia
    Neurotox Res 16:77-86. 2009
    ..These results contribute significantly to our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in QUIN neuro- and gliotoxicity and are relevant for the development of therapies for neuroinflammatory diseases...
  37. pmc Effect of quinolinic acid on human astrocytes morphology and functions: implications in Alzheimer's disease
    Ka Ka Ting
    St Vincent s Centre for Applied Medical Research, St Vincent s Hospital, Sydney, Australia
    J Neuroinflammation 6:36. 2009
    ..All together, this study showed that QUIN is an important factor for astroglial activation, dysregulation and cell death with potential relevance to AD and other neuroinflammatory diseases...
  38. ncbi request reprint Serum nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide levels through disease course in multiple sclerosis
    Nady Braidy
    Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Brain Res 1537:267-72. 2013
    ..Serum NAD(+) and NADH levels are may be associated with disease progression in MS. Given the importance of NAD(+) in the maintenance of normal cellular function, it is likely that this molecule is of therapeutic relevance in MS...
  39. pmc Validity of cognitive screens for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder: a systematic review and an informed screen selection guide
    Jody Kamminga
    St Vincent s Clinical School, St Vincent s Hospital Applied Medical Research Centre, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 10:342-55. 2013
    ....
  40. doi request reprint Facial emotional processing in HIV infection: relation to neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric status
    Tammy A Lane
    Psychology Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
    Neuropsychology 26:713-22. 2012
    ..To examine facial emotional processing in HIV+ individuals and its relation to neurocognitive performance, neuropsychiatric symptomatology and immune status...
  41. doi request reprint The kynurenine pathway in brain tumor pathogenesis
    Seray Adams
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Cancer Res 72:5649-57. 2012
    ..Targeting the KP in brain tumors may represent a viable strategy likely to prevent QUIN-induced neurotoxicity and KYN and 3-HAA-mediated immune suppression...
  42. doi request reprint Neurocognitive dysfunction in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era
    Nomvuyo Z Mothobi
    Department of Neurology and HIV Medicine, St Vincent s Hospital, St Vincent s Centre for Applied Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 25:4-9. 2012
    ....
  43. ncbi request reprint Characterization of the kynurenine pathway in human neurons
    Gilles J Guillemin
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia
    J Neurosci 27:12884-92. 2007
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Marked improvement in survival following AIDS dementia complex in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Gregory J Dore
    National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    AIDS 17:1539-45. 2003
    ..To determine the effect of introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on survival following AIDS dementia complex (ADC)...
  45. ncbi request reprint Human mesenchymal stem cells constitutively express chemokines and chemokine receptors that can be upregulated by cytokines, IFN-beta, and Copaxone
    Juliana Croitoru-Lamoury
    Centre for Immunology, St Vincent s Hospital, Department of Neurology, Sydney NSW, Australia
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 27:53-64. 2007
    ..Administration of cytokines, including IFN-beta and Copaxone, may be important in stem cell transplantation therapies and perhaps important in the efficacy of existing MS therapies...
  46. pmc Independent evolution of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance mutations in diverse areas of the brain in HIV-infected patients, with and without dementia, on antiretroviral treatment
    Theresa K Smit
    Retroviral Genetics Laboratory, Center for Virus Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, Darcy Rd, Westmead NSW 2145, Sydney, Australia
    J Virol 78:10133-48. 2004
    ..The emergence of resistant virus in the CNS may have considerable influence on the outcome of neurologic disease and also the reseeding of HIV in the systemic circulation upon failure of therapy...
  47. pmc Evidence for predilection of macrophage infiltration patterns in the deeper midline and mesial temporal structures of the brain uniquely in patients with HIV-associated dementia
    Li Zhou
    Retroviral Genetics Division, Center for Virus Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead Hospital, The University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW, Sydney, Australia
    BMC Infect Dis 9:192. 2009
    ..HIV-1 penetrates the central nervous system, which is vital for HIV-associated dementia (HAD). But the role of cellular infiltration and activation together with HIV in the development of HAD is poorly understood...
  48. ncbi request reprint Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase and quinolinic acid immunoreactivity in Alzheimer's disease hippocampus
    G J Guillemin
    Centre for Immunology, St Vincent s Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia
    Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 31:395-404. 2005
    ..Our data imply that QUIN may be involved in the complex and multifactorial cascade leading to neuro-degeneration in AD. These results may open a new therapeutic door for AD patients...
  49. ncbi request reprint HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in Australia: a case of a high-functioning and optimally treated cohort and implications for international neuroHIV research
    Lucette A Cysique
    St Vincent s Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    J Neurovirol 20:258-68. 2014
    ..g., reading) estimates of premorbid cognition in addition to the traditional demographic factors...
  50. ncbi request reprint Antiretroviral therapy in HIV infection: are neurologically active drugs important?
    Lucette A J Cysique
    Faculty of Medicine, St Vincent s Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Arch Neurol 61:1699-704. 2004
    ..The effect on neuropsychological function of antiretroviral drugs that are able to penetrate into the brain in effective concentration (neuroactive drugs) remains unclear...
  51. ncbi request reprint Kynurenine pathway metabolism in human blood-brain-barrier cells: implications for immune tolerance and neurotoxicity
    Robert Owe-Young
    University of New South Wales Centre for Immunology, St Vincent s Hospital, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia
    J Neurochem 105:1346-57. 2008
    ..The results point to a mechanism whereby a systemic inflammatory signal can be transduced across an intact BBB to cause local neurotoxicity...
  52. pmc Effects of Kynurenine Pathway Metabolites on Intracellular NAD Synthesis and Cell Death in Human Primary Astrocytes and Neurons
    Nady Braidy
    University of New South Wales, Faculty of Medicine, Sydney, Australia
    Int J Tryptophan Res 2:61-9. 2009
    ..Therefore, the differing responses of astrocytes and neurons to an increase in KP metabolites should be considered when assessing KP toxicity during neuroinflammation...
  53. ncbi request reprint Human immunodeficiency virus-related primary central nervous system lymphoma: factors influencing survival in 111 patients
    Mark E Newell
    National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Cancer 100:2627-36. 2004
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint Implications for the kynurenine pathway and quinolinic acid in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Gilles J Guillemin
    Centre for Immunology and University of New South Wales, School of Medicine and School of Medical Sciences, Sydney, Australia
    Neurodegener Dis 2:166-76. 2005
    ..This review details the potential role the KP has in ALS and advances a testable hypothetical model...
  55. ncbi request reprint Expression of chemokines and their receptors in human and simian astrocytes: evidence for a central role of TNF alpha and IFN gamma in CXCR4 and CCR5 modulation
    Juliana Croitoru-Lamoury
    Service de Neurovirologie, Commissariat a l Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses Cedex
    Glia 41:354-70. 2003
    ..Finally, with the conditions we used, there was no difference between species or age of tissue...
  56. ncbi request reprint Kynurenine pathway metabolism in human astrocytes: a paradox for neuronal protection
    G J Guillemin
    Centre for Immunology, St Vincent s Hospital, Sydney, Australia
    J Neurochem 78:842-53. 2001
    ....
  57. ncbi request reprint Quinolinic acid is produced by macrophages stimulated by platelet activating factor, Nef and Tat
    D G Smith
    Centre for Immunology, St. Vincent's Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia
    J Neurovirol 7:56-60. 2001
    ..IL1-beta, IL6, TGF-beta2 and gp41 stimulation produced no significant increase in QUIN production. These results suggest that some of the neurotoxicity of PAF, nef and tat may be mediated by QUIN...
  58. ncbi request reprint Neural transplantation of human MSC and NT2 cells in the twitcher mouse model
    J Croitoru-Lamoury
    Department of Neurology, Centre for Immunology, St Vincent s Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Cytotherapy 8:445-58. 2006
    ..This study was designed to explore the efficacy of these two human stem cell types as a graft source for the treatment of demyelinating disorders such as Krabbe's disease and multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  59. ncbi request reprint Kynurenine pathway metabolism in human astrocytes
    G J Guillemin
    Centre for Immunology, St Vincent s Hospital, Sydney, Australia
    Adv Exp Med Biol 467:125-31. 1999
    ..The results demonstrated that astrocytes express most KP enzymes, except for kynurenine-hydroxylase. This in vitro study provides novel informations regarding the ability of human fetal astrocytes to degrade L-tryptophan along the KP...
  60. ncbi request reprint Changes to AIDS dementia complex in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy
    G J Dore
    National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales, Darlinghurst, Australia
    AIDS 13:1249-53. 1999
    ....
  61. ncbi request reprint Undifferentiated mouse mesenchymal stem cells spontaneously express neural and stem cell markers Oct-4 and Rex-1
    F M J Lamoury
    Department of Neurology, Centre for Immunology, St Vincent s Hospital, Corner West and Boundary Streets, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia
    Cytotherapy 8:228-42. 2006
    ..Indeed, issues such as the identification of a subset of stem cells that is neurally fated, methods of expansion and optimal stage of differentiation for transplantation remain poorly understood...
  62. ncbi request reprint Characterisation of kynurenine pathway metabolism in human astrocytes and implications in neuropathogenesis
    G J Guillemin
    Centre for Immunology of Neurology and HIV Medicine, St Vincent s Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Redox Rep 5:108-11. 2000
    ..However, it is likely that, in the presence of macrophages and/or microglia, astrocytes are neurotoxic by producing large concentrations of KYN that can be metabolised by neighbouring monocytic cells to QUIN...
  63. ncbi request reprint Cerebrospinal fluid S-100beta and its relationship with AIDS dementia complex
    L A Pemberton
    Centre for Immunology, St Vincent s Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia
    J Clin Virol 22:249-53. 2001
    ..Confirmatory in vivo data are lacking. Currently, the only widely available marker of the astrocyte is the protein S-100beta...
  64. doi request reprint The relationship between ApoE, TNFA, IL1a, IL1b and IL12b genes and HIV-1-associated dementia
    L A Pemberton
    Centre for Immunology, St Vincent s Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia
    HIV Med 9:677-80. 2008
    ..Host genetic factors implicated in AIDS dementia complex (ADC) were studied...
  65. ncbi request reprint Changes in Cathepsin D and Beclin-1 mRNA and protein expression by the excitotoxin quinolinic acid in human astrocytes and neurons
    Nady Braidy
    Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Metab Brain Dis 29:873-83. 2014
    ..Maintenance of autophagy may play a crucial role in neuroprotection in the setting of AD. ..
  66. pmc Central nervous system antiretroviral efficacy in HIV infection: a qualitative and quantitative review and implications for future research
    Lucette A Cysique
    Departments of Neurology and HIV Medicine, St, Vincent s Hospital, Sydney, Australia
    BMC Neurol 11:148. 2011
    ..The current review aims to better synthesise existing literature by using an innovative two-phase review approach (qualitative and quantitative) to overcome methodological differences between studies...
  67. ncbi request reprint Involvement of quinolinic acid in AIDS dementia complex
    Gilles J Guillemin
    Centre for Immunology, Department of Neurology, St Vincent s Hospital, Sydney, Australia
    Neurotox Res 7:103-23. 2005
    ..We then synthesize these findings into a hypothetical model for the role played by QUIN in ADC, and discuss the implications of this model for ADC and other inflammatory brain diseases...
  68. ncbi request reprint Lactate concentrations distinguish between nucleoside neuropathy and HIV neuropathy
    Bruce J Brew
    Department of Neurology, St Vincent s Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia
    AIDS 17:1094-6. 2003
    ..Raised serum lactate levels discriminated between stavudine nucleoside neuropathy and DSPN with 90% sensitivity and 90% specificity (P = 0.001). DSPN occurred despite an undetectable viral load, making it a poor discriminator...
  69. ncbi request reprint Concurrent quantification of quinolinic, picolinic, and nicotinic acids using electron-capture negative-ion gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
    G A Smythe
    Ray Williams Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Facility, UNSW, Wallace Wurth Building, Faculty of Medicine, Sydney, New South Wales, 2052, Australia
    Anal Biochem 301:21-6. 2002
    ..The method enables rapid and specific concurrent quantification of quinolinic, picolinic, and nicotinic acids in tissue extracts and physiological and culture media...
  70. pmc Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in an HIV-1 infected patient with disseminated varicella zoster virus: a case report
    Sarah C Sasson
    HIV, Immunology and Infectious Diseases Unit, St Vincent s Hospital, 390 Victoria Street Darlinghurst, 2010, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    BMC Infect Dis 13:396. 2013
    ....
  71. pmc Characterization of the kynurenine pathway and quinolinic Acid production in macaque macrophages
    Chai K Lim
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia MND and Neurodegenerative disease Research Group, Australian School of Advance Medicine, Macquarie University, Australia
    Int J Tryptophan Res 6:7-19. 2013
    ..Our data validate the simian model as a relevant model to study the human cellular KP metabolism in the context of inflammation...
  72. ncbi request reprint Microglia, macrophages, perivascular macrophages, and pericytes: a review of function and identification
    Gilles J Guillemin
    Centre for Immunology, Neuroimmunology Department, St Vincent s Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    J Leukoc Biol 75:388-97. 2004
    ..This review briefly discusses the functions of these cells and catalogs a large number of membranous and biochemical markers, which can assist in the identification of these cells...
  73. ncbi request reprint Quinolinic acid upregulates chemokine production and chemokine receptor expression in astrocytes
    Gilles J Guillemin
    Centre for Immunology, St Vincent s Hospital, Sydney, Australia
    Glia 41:371-81. 2003
    ..These results suggest that QUIN may be critical in the amplification of brain inflammation, particularly in ADC...
  74. pmc First evidence of overlaps between HIV-Associated Dementia (HAD) and non-viral neurodegenerative diseases: proteomic analysis of the frontal cortex from HIV+ patients with and without dementia
    Li Zhou
    Center for Virus Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead Hospital, The University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW 2145, Sydney, Australia
    Mol Neurodegener 5:27. 2010
    ..The pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is poorly understood. To date, detailed proteomic fingerprinting directly from autopsied brain tissues of HAD and HIV non-dementia patients has not been performed...
  75. ncbi request reprint Implications of the kynurenine pathway and quinolinic acid in Alzheimer's disease
    Gilles J Guillemin
    Centre for Immunology and Department of Neurology, St Vincent s Hospital and University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Redox Rep 7:199-206. 2002
    ....
  76. pmc Understanding the roles of the kynurenine pathway in multiple sclerosis progression
    Chai K Lim
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia
    Int J Tryptophan Res 3:157-67. 2010
    ..This review summarizes the known relationships between the KP and MS...
  77. ncbi request reprint Improved cognitive function as a consequence of hepatitis C virus treatment
    H H Thein
    National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    HIV Med 8:520-8. 2007
    ..The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of treatment-related clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) on cognitive function...
  78. ncbi request reprint The effects of HIV and aging on brain functions: proposing a research framework and update on last 3 years' findings
    Lucette A Cysique
    aUniversity of New South Wales bNeuroscience Research Australia cNeurology Department, St Vincent s Hospital, New South Wales Sydney, Australia
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 9:355-64. 2014
    ..Moreover, in the light of this proposed research framework, we review the last 3  years' research findings...
  79. ncbi request reprint Treatment of opportunistic infections and lymphoma in the nervous system
    Clement T Loy
    Department of Neurology, St Vincent s Hospital, 376 Victoria Street, Sydney, Australia 2010
    J HIV Ther 7:21-5. 2002
    ..Treatment for primary and metastatic central nervous system lymphoma is also reviewed...
  80. pmc Myositis associated with a newly described microsporidian, Trachipleistophora hominis, in a patient with AIDS
    A S Field
    Division of Anatomical Pathology, St Vincent s Hospital, Sydney, Australia
    J Clin Microbiol 34:2803-11. 1996
    ..A new genus and species, Trachipleistophora hominis, has been established for this parasite. The patient was treated with albendazole, sulfadiazine, and pyrimethamine, and the clinical symptoms resolved...
  81. ncbi request reprint IFN-beta1b induces kynurenine pathway metabolism in human macrophages: potential implications for multiple sclerosis treatment
    G J Guillemin
    Centre for Immunology, St Vincent s Hospital, Sydney, Australia
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 21:1097-101. 2001
    ..Inhibitors of the KP may be able to augment the efficacy of IFN-beta in MS...
  82. ncbi request reprint The peripheral nerve complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
    B J Brew
    Departments of Neurology and HIV Medicine, St Vincent s Hospital and National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales, Darlinghurst, Sydney 2010, Australia
    Muscle Nerve 28:542-52. 2003
    ....
  83. ncbi request reprint Transcriptional activity of blood-and cerebrospinal fluid-derived nef/long-terminal repeat sequences isolated from a slow progressor infected with nef-deleted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) who developed HIV-associated dementia
    Melissa J Churchill
    The Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    J Neurovirol 12:219-28. 2006
    ..Thus, nef and LTR mutations that augment transcription may contribute to neuropathogenesis of nef-deleted HIV-1...
  84. ncbi request reprint Longitudinal analysis of nef/long terminal repeat-deleted HIV-1 in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of a long-term survivor who developed HIV-associated dementia
    Melissa Churchill
    Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, Melbourne, Australia
    J Infect Dis 190:2181-6. 2004
    ..Thus, nef/LTR-deleted HIV-1 strains may undergo compartmentalized evolution in long-term survivors and cause neurologic disease...
  85. ncbi request reprint CSF neurofilament protein (NFL) -- a marker of active HIV-related neurodegeneration
    Sahra Abdulle
    Department of Infectious Diseases, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden
    J Neurol 254:1026-32. 2007
    ..The effect of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) was studied by repeated CSF sampling in four of the ADC patients initiating treatment...
  86. ncbi request reprint Defining and evaluating HIV-related neurodegenerative disease and its treatment targets: a combinatorial approach to use of cerebrospinal fluid molecular biomarkers
    Magnus Gisslen
    Department of Infectious Diseases, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2:112-9. 2007
    ..Careful analysis of this and other marker combinations promises more rational trial design and more rapid progress in managing CNS HIV infection and HRND using both antiviral and adjuvant treatment approaches...
  87. doi request reprint Response to Birbeck et al
    Edwina Wright
    Epilepsia 49:541-3. 2008
  88. pmc Pathogenicity and immunogenicity of attenuated, nef-deleted HIV-1 strains in vivo
    Paul R Gorry
    Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Retrovirology 4:66. 2007
    ....
  89. ncbi request reprint Neurological complications of HIV infection
    Justin C McArthur
    HIV Neurosciences Program, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Lancet Neurol 4:543-55. 2005
    ..The sensory neuropathies associated with HIV infection are a major cause of morbidity; incidence may be increased by the toxic effects of specific antiretroviral drugs within the peripheral nervous system...
  90. ncbi request reprint Env gp120 sequence analysis of HIV type 1 strains from diverse areas of the brain shows preponderance of CCR5 usage
    Meet Shah
    Retroviral Genetics Division, Center for Virus Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead Hospital, The University of Sydney, Darcy Road, Westmead NSW 2145, Australia
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 22:177-81. 2006
    ....
  91. ncbi request reprint A report on the effect of commencing enfuvirtide on peripheral neuropathy
    Catherine L Cherry
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 24:1027-30. 2008
    ..We observed no clear evidence of neurotoxicity from enfuvirtide in this population...