Louisa Degenhardt

Summary

Affiliation: Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health
Country: Australia

Publications

  1. doi Mortality among regular or dependent users of heroin and other opioids: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW, Australia
    Addiction 106:32-51. 2011
  2. doi What data are available on the extent of illicit drug use and dependence globally? Results of four systematic reviews
    Louisa Degenhardt
    Burnet Research Institute, GPO Box 2284, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Depend 117:85-101. 2011
  3. doi Drug dependence and associated risks among female street-based sex workers in the greater Sydney area, Australia
    Amanda Roxburgh
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Subst Use Misuse 43:1202-17. 2008
  4. ncbi Prevalence of injecting drug use and associated risk behavior among regular ecstasy users in Australia
    Bethany White
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Depend 83:210-7. 2006
  5. pmc Evaluating the drug use "gateway" theory using cross-national data: consistency and associations of the order of initiation of drug use among participants in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Depend 108:84-97. 2010
  6. doi Drug use and risk among regular injecting drug users in Australia: does age make a difference?
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of NSW, New South Wales, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Rev 27:357-60. 2008
  7. ncbi Age differentials in the impacts of reduced heroin: effects of a "heroin shortage" in NSW, Australia
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Depend 79:397-404. 2005
  8. doi The epidemiology of ecstasy use and harms in Australia
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, N S W 2052, Australia
    Neuropsychobiology 60:176-87. 2009
  9. doi Prescribers' perceptions of the diversion and injection of medication by opioid substitution treatment patients
    Briony Larance
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre NDARC, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Rev 30:613-20. 2011
  10. ncbi The epidemiology of cannabis use and cannabis-related harm in Australia 1993-2007
    Amanda Roxburgh
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre NDARC, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Addiction 105:1071-9. 2010

Detail Information

Publications96

  1. doi Mortality among regular or dependent users of heroin and other opioids: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW, Australia
    Addiction 106:32-51. 2011
    ..To review the literature on mortality among dependent or regular users of opioids across regions, according to specific causes, and related to a number of demographic and clinical variables...
  2. doi What data are available on the extent of illicit drug use and dependence globally? Results of four systematic reviews
    Louisa Degenhardt
    Burnet Research Institute, GPO Box 2284, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Depend 117:85-101. 2011
    ..We systematically reviewed availability and quality of data on the prevalence of use and dependence on meth/amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine and opioids...
  3. doi Drug dependence and associated risks among female street-based sex workers in the greater Sydney area, Australia
    Amanda Roxburgh
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Subst Use Misuse 43:1202-17. 2008
    ..This study examines drug use and dependence and associated risks among female street-based sex workers...
  4. ncbi Prevalence of injecting drug use and associated risk behavior among regular ecstasy users in Australia
    Bethany White
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Depend 83:210-7. 2006
    ..The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of injecting drug use and associated risk behaviour among a sentinel sample of ecstasy users...
  5. pmc Evaluating the drug use "gateway" theory using cross-national data: consistency and associations of the order of initiation of drug use among participants in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Depend 108:84-97. 2010
    ..We compared patterns and order of initiation of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and other illicit drug use across 17 countries with a wide range of drug use prevalence...
  6. doi Drug use and risk among regular injecting drug users in Australia: does age make a difference?
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of NSW, New South Wales, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Rev 27:357-60. 2008
    ..To examine age-related differences in drug use and risk among regular injecting drug users (IDU) in Australia...
  7. ncbi Age differentials in the impacts of reduced heroin: effects of a "heroin shortage" in NSW, Australia
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Depend 79:397-404. 2005
    ..This paper uses a unique event, the Australian heroin shortage, to see whether an abrupt, substantial and sustained change in heroin supply had different effects on harms related to heroin use among younger and older heroin users...
  8. doi The epidemiology of ecstasy use and harms in Australia
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, N S W 2052, Australia
    Neuropsychobiology 60:176-87. 2009
    ..This paper examines the epidemiology of ecstasy use and harm in Australia using multiple data sources...
  9. doi Prescribers' perceptions of the diversion and injection of medication by opioid substitution treatment patients
    Briony Larance
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre NDARC, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Rev 30:613-20. 2011
    ....
  10. ncbi The epidemiology of cannabis use and cannabis-related harm in Australia 1993-2007
    Amanda Roxburgh
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre NDARC, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Addiction 105:1071-9. 2010
    ..To examine trends in patterns of cannabis use and related harm in the Australian population between 1993 and 2007...
  11. pmc The "lessons" of the Australian "heroin shortage"
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 1:11. 2006
    ..In this paper we summarise insights from four years' research into the causes, consequences and policy implications of the "heroin shortage"...
  12. doi Increasing cancer mortality among opioid-dependent persons in Australia: a new public health challenge for a disadvantaged population
    Deborah Randall
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Australia
    Aust N Z J Public Health 35:220-5. 2011
    ..To examine cancer mortality in a population-based cohort of opioid-dependent persons...
  13. ncbi Examining links between cocaine use and street-based sex work in New South Wales, Australia
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, 2052, Australia
    J Sex Res 43:107-14. 2006
    ..Subsequent reductions in cocaine availability led to decreased cocaine use and possession offenses, along with reductions in prostitution offenses...
  14. pmc Opioid dependence latent structure: two classes with differing severity?
    Fiona L Shand
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Addiction 106:590-8. 2011
    ..To examine the structure of illicit opioid abuse and dependence within an opioid dependent sample and its relationship to other clinical variables...
  15. doi HIV prevention, treatment, and care services for people who inject drugs: a systematic review of global, regional, and national coverage
    Bradley M Mathers
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Lancet 375:1014-28. 2010
    ..We undertook a systematic review to estimate national, regional, and global coverage of HIV services in IDUs...
  16. pmc Identification and quantification of change in Australian illicit drug markets
    Stuart Gilmour
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    BMC Public Health 6:200. 2006
    ..This paper aims to investigate the presence of these epidemic patterns, to quantify the scale over which they occur and to estimate the relative importance of the 'heroin shortage' and any epidemic patterns in the drug markets...
  17. doi Injecting risk behaviour and related harm among men who use performance- and image-enhancing drugs
    Briony Larance
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Rev 27:679-86. 2008
    ..Our study examines the patterns of use, risk behaviours and related harm associated with PIEDs injection. We also report the ways in which PIEDs users currently seek injecting equipment and harm-reduction advice...
  18. doi The epidemiology of methamphetamine use and harm in Australia
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, New South Wales
    Drug Alcohol Rev 27:243-52. 2008
    ..This paper provides data on methamphetamine use in Australia, and documents trends in methamphetamine-related harms...
  19. doi Post-marketing surveillance of buprenorphine-naloxone in Australia: diversion, injection and adherence with supervised dosing
    Briony Larance
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Depend 118:265-73. 2011
    ..These studies compared the diversion and injection of buprenorphine-naloxone (BNX), buprenorphine (BPN) and methadone (MET) in Australia...
  20. pmc Investigating the co-occurrence of self-mutilation and suicide attempts among opioid-dependent individuals
    Elizabeth Maloney
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales 2052, Sydney, Australia
    Suicide Life Threat Behav 40:50-62. 2010
    ..Not only is self-mutilation a clinically significant problem, but when combined with a history of attempted suicide, the psychological dysfunction observed is markedly high...
  21. doi Meth/amphetamine use and associated HIV: Implications for global policy and public health
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Int J Drug Policy 21:347-58. 2010
    ..More active models of engagement with M/A users and provision of services that meet their specific needs are required...
  22. doi Outcomes of occasional cannabis use in adolescence: 10-year follow-up study in Victoria, Australia
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, 2052, NSW, Australia
    Br J Psychiatry 196:290-5. 2010
    ..Regular adolescent cannabis use predicts a range of later drug use and psychosocial problems. Little is known about whether occasional cannabis use carries similar risks...
  23. doi Are adolescents who moderate their cannabis use at lower risk of later regular and dependent cannabis use?
    Wendy Swift
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Addiction 104:806-14. 2009
    ..To examine whether moderation of cannabis use among adolescent cannabis users is associated with reductions in cannabis use frequency and risk of dependence in young adulthood...
  24. ncbi Effects of a sustained heroin shortage in three Australian States
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Addiction 100:908-20. 2005
    ..In early 2001 in Australia there was a sudden and dramatic decrease in heroin availability that occurred throughout the country that was evidenced by marked increases in heroin price and decreases in its purity...
  25. pmc Are non-fatal opioid overdoses misclassified suicide attempts? Comparing the associated correlates
    Elizabeth Maloney
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052, Australia
    Addict Behav 34:723-9. 2009
    ..Additionally, if both behaviours are reported a thorough assessment of underlying comorbid problems should be initiated by treatment services...
  26. doi Mortality among clients of a state-wide opioid pharmacotherapy program over 20 years: risk factors and lives saved
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of NSW, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Depend 105:9-15. 2009
    ..The current study examines reductions in mortality related to treatment in an entire treatment population...
  27. ncbi Characteristics of drug-related hospital separations in Australia
    Amanda Roxburgh
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Depend 92:149-55. 2008
    ..To examine (a) numbers of alcohol and drug-related hospital separations, 1999-2005; (b) demographics of these separations; (c) principal diagnoses co-occurring with drug-related problems; (d) length of hospital stay...
  28. pmc Posttraumatic stress disorder among female street-based sex workers in the greater Sydney area, Australia
    Amanda Roxburgh
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    BMC Psychiatry 6:24. 2006
    ..It also investigates associations between current PTSD symptoms and: demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, injecting and sex risk behaviours, and trauma history...
  29. pmc Was an increase in cocaine use among injecting drug users in New South Wales, Australia, accompanied by an increase in violent crime?
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    BMC Public Health 5:40. 2005
    ..Specifically, the paper aims to examine the impact of increased cocaine use among Sydney IDU upon police incidents of robbery with a weapon, assault and homicide...
  30. doi The persistence of the association between adolescent cannabis use and common mental disorders into young adulthood
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Addiction 108:124-33. 2013
    ..Most reports have focused on associations in adolescence, with few studies extending into adulthood. We examine the association from adolescence until the age of 29 years in a representative prospective cohort of young Australians...
  31. ncbi Impact of drug market changes on substance-using pregnant women in three key Sydney drug markets
    Elizabeth Conroy
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NS, 2052, Australia
    Women Health 44:93-105. 2006
    ..This paper aimed to assess the extent of any drug-related problems among pregnant women associated with the reduction in heroin supply in New South Wales (NSW)...
  32. ncbi Opioid agonist pharmacotherapy in New South Wales from 1985 to 2006: patient characteristics and patterns and predictors of treatment retention
    Lucy Burns
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney
    Addiction 104:1363-72. 2009
    ....
  33. pmc Impulsivity and borderline personality as risk factors for suicide attempts among opioid-dependent individuals
    Elizabeth Maloney
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052, Australia
    Psychiatry Res 169:16-21. 2009
    ..This research also highlights the importance of assessing impulsivity, in both clinical settings and research, particularly among those with a history of suicidal behaviour...
  34. ncbi Hospital separations for cannabis- and methamphetamine-related psychotic episodes in Australia
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Med J Aust 186:342-5. 2007
    ..To examine trends in hospital separations related to "drug-induced" psychosis for cannabis and methamphetamine, in the context of patterns of cannabis and methamphetamine use in the Australian population...
  35. ncbi The impact of a reduction in drug supply on demand for and compliance with treatment for drug dependence
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Depend 79:129-35. 2005
    ..Given the evidence of drug substitution by some users, the current paper also examines the effects of the shortage on entry to treatment for other forms of drug dependence...
  36. ncbi Changes in the initiation of heroin use after a reduction in heroin supply
    Carolyn Day
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Rev 25:307-13. 2006
    ..Efforts need to be made to reduce the chances that young people who have initiated methamphetamine injecting do not move to heroin injecting when the heroin supply returns...
  37. ncbi GHB in Sydney, Australia, 2000-2006: a case study of the EDRS as a strategic early warning system
    Matthew Dunn
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Int J Drug Policy 20:413-7. 2009
    ..This paper documents the operation of Australia's Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS), using multiple data sources to document trends in gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) use in Sydney, Australia between the years 2000-2006...
  38. pmc Using intervention time series analyses to assess the effects of imperfectly identifiable natural events: a general method and example
    Stuart Gilmour
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    BMC Med Res Methodol 6:16. 2006
    ..ITSA methods are quasi-experimental in nature and the validity of modelling with these methods depends upon assumptions about the timing of the intervention and the response of the process to it...
  39. pmc Cohort protocol paper: the Pain and Opioids In Treatment (POINT) study
    Gabrielle Campbell
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 15:17. 2014
    ....
  40. doi Global burden of disease attributable to illicit drug use and dependence: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia Electronic address
    Lancet 382:1564-74. 2013
    ..We aimed to assess the prevalence and burden of drug dependence, as measured in years of life lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)...
  41. doi Cannabis and progression to other substance use in young adults: findings from a 13-year prospective population-based study
    Wendy Swift
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 Australia
    J Epidemiol Community Health 66:e26. 2012
    ..Adolescent cannabis use predicts the onset of later illicit drug use. In contrast, little is known about whether cannabis in young adulthood also predicts subsequent progression or cessation of licit or illicit drug use...
  42. doi Pills and pints: risky drinking and alcohol-related harms among regular ecstasy users in Australia
    Stuart A Kinner
    Centre for Population Health, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Rev 31:273-80. 2012
    ..The aim of this study was to document the incidence and some health-related correlates of alcohol use, and concurrent alcohol and ecstasy use, among a large, national sample of regular ecstasy users (REU) in Australia...
  43. doi Adolescent cannabis users at 24 years: trajectories to regular weekly use and dependence in young adulthood
    Wendy Swift
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Australia
    Addiction 103:1361-70. 2008
    ..To examine the association between cannabis use by 18 years and problematic cannabis use at 24 years, considering possible mediating and confounding factors...
  44. doi Estimating the costs of drug-related hospital separations in Australia
    Steven Riddell
    The National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Aust N Z J Public Health 32:156-61. 2008
    ..To estimate the total hospital costs of drug-related separations in Australia from 1999/2000 to 2004/05, and separate costs for the following illicit drug classes: opioids, amphetamine, cannabis and cocaine...
  45. ncbi The epidemiology of GHB and ketamine use in an Australian household survey
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of NSW, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Int J Drug Policy 19:311-6. 2008
    ..This paper provides the first such Australian data on the patterns and correlates of GHB and ketamine use...
  46. ncbi Underlying causes of cocaine, amphetamine and opioid related deaths in Australia
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    J Clin Forensic Med 12:187-95. 2005
    ..To examine the characteristics of deaths in Australia where opioids, cocaine or amphetamines were mentioned, taking into account changes in the use and availability of these drugs in recent years...
  47. doi Systematic review of prospective studies investigating "remission" from amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine or opioid dependence
    Bianca Calabria
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Addict Behav 35:741-9. 2010
    ..To review and summarize existing prospective studies reporting on remission from dependence upon amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine or opioids...
  48. ncbi Who are the new amphetamine users? A 10-year prospective study of young Australians
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Addiction 102:1269-79. 2007
    ..We examined these issues using a representative cohort of young people followed-up in Victoria, Australia...
  49. pmc Predictors of frequent use of amphetamine type stimulants among HIV-negative gay men in Sydney, Australia
    Garrett Prestage
    National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Depend 91:260-8. 2007
    ....
  50. ncbi Alcohol use and risk taking among regular ecstasy users
    Courtney Breen
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of NSW, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Subst Use Misuse 41:1095-109. 2006
    ..Safe sex messages should address the sexual risk associated with substance use and should be tailored to reducing alcohol consumption, particularly targeting "heavy" alcohol users. The study's limitations are noted...
  51. pmc Predictors of social anxiety in an opioid dependent sample and a control sample
    Fiona L Shand
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    J Anxiety Disord 24:49-54. 2010
    ..However, much of the variance in social anxiety remains unexplained for this population...
  52. doi The diversion and injection of a buprenorphine-naloxone soluble film formulation
    Briony Larance
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia Electronic address
    Drug Alcohol Depend 136:21-7. 2014
    ..We compared the diversion and injection of a new formulation of buprenorphine, a buprenorphine-naloxone film product (BNX film), with buprenorphine-naloxone tablets (BNX tablets), mono-buprenorphine (BPN) and methadone (MET) in Australia...
  53. pmc Sex differences amongst dependent heroin users: histories, clinical characteristics and predictors of other substance dependence
    Fiona L Shand
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Addict Behav 36:27-36. 2011
    ..To examine differences in the characteristics and histories of male and female dependent heroin users, and in the clinical characteristics associated with multiple substance dependence diagnoses...
  54. ncbi The predictors and consequences of adolescent amphetamine use: findings from the Victoria Adolescent Health Cohort Study
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Addiction 102:1076-84. 2007
    ..However, little is known about the predictors and effects of early-onset amphetamine use. We set out to examine these issues using a representative cohort of young people followed-up over 11 years in Victoria, Australia...
  55. doi Improving the data to strengthen the global response to HIV among people who inject drugs
    Bradley Mathers
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Int J Drug Policy 21:100-2. 2010
    ..Nonetheless, there remains an urgent need for more and higher quality data to be collected, in order to sufficiently inform, improve and ultimately evaluate the response...
  56. ncbi Injection of medications used in opioid substitution treatment in Australia after the introduction of a mixed partial agonist-antagonist formulation
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Med J Aust 191:161-5. 2009
    ..Comparison was made with injecting of two other opioid substitution treatment medications, methadone and buprenorphine (BPN); severe harms have been documented after injection of the latter...
  57. ncbi Gender differences among regular injecting drug users in Sydney, Australia, 1996-2003
    Courtney Breen
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Rev 24:353-8. 2005
    ..Treatment and other measures to reduce harm may need to be targeted specifically at women and, in particular, indigenous women...
  58. ncbi Are diagnostic orphans at risk of developing cannabis abuse or dependence? Four-year follow-up of young adult cannabis users not meeting diagnostic criteria
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Depend 92:86-90. 2008
    ..To examine the characteristics of "diagnostic orphans" among cannabis users - those who report one or two symptoms of DSM-IV dependence but do not meet diagnostic criteria for DSM-IV abuse or dependence - 4 years post-assessment...
  59. ncbi Risk and benefit perceptions of party drug use
    Bethany White
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Addict Behav 31:137-42. 2006
    ..Harm reduction campaigns may need to acknowledge benefits of drug use to ensure health promotion messages are considered credible and acceptable to users...
  60. pmc Toward a global view of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and cocaine use: findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    PLoS Med 5:e141. 2008
    ..This paper describes such data from the first 17 countries participating in the World Health Organization's (WHO's) World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative...
  61. ncbi Estimating the proportion of prescription opioids that is consumed by people who inject drugs in Australia
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia Melbourne School of Global and Population Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Rev 32:468-74. 2013
    ..To estimate the contribution that people who inject drugs (PWID) make to population-level use of prescription opioids in Australia...
  62. pmc Establishing the Melbourne Injecting Drug User Cohort Study (MIX): rationale, methods, and baseline and twelve-month follow-up results
    Danielle Horyniak
    Centre for Population Health, Burnet Institute, 85 Commercial Rd, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
    Harm Reduct J 10:11. 2013
    ..In this study we specifically sought to recruit a sample of younger, largely out-of-treatment PWID, in order to study the trajectories of their drug use over time...
  63. doi The availability, diversion and injection of pharmaceutical opioids in South Asia
    Briony Larance
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Rev 30:246-54. 2011
    ..To provide an overview of the availability of pharmaceutical opioids and the evidence on the extent of diversion and injection in South Asia...
  64. doi The increasing mortality burden of liver disease among opioid-dependent people: cohort study
    Amy Gibson
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Addiction 106:2186-92. 2011
    ....
  65. doi Mortality among cocaine users: a systematic review of cohort studies
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Depend 113:88-95. 2011
    ..To conduct a systematic review of mortality among cohort studies of cocaine users...
  66. ncbi Documenting the heroin shortage in New South Wales
    Carolyn Day
    National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Rev 25:297-305. 2006
    ..These data support the notion that the heroin market in NSW underwent significant changes, which appear to have involved a lasting shift in the nature of the market...
  67. ncbi The impact of illicit drug market changes on health agency operations in Sydney, Australia
    Amy Gibson
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    J Subst Abuse Treat 28:35-40. 2005
    ....
  68. doi Australian heroin seizures and the causes of the 2001 heroin shortage
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Int J Drug Policy 19:293-4; discussion 295-6. 2008
  69. pmc Child maltreatment as a risk factor for opioid dependence: Comparison of family characteristics and type and severity of child maltreatment with a matched control group
    Elizabeth Conroy
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Child Abuse Negl 33:343-52. 2009
    ..To examine the prevalence, characteristics and risk factors for child maltreatment among opioid-dependent persons compared to a community sample of similar social disadvantage...
  70. doi Does cannabis use increase the risk of death? Systematic review of epidemiological evidence on adverse effects of cannabis use
    Bianca Calabria
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Randwick, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Rev 29:318-30. 2010
    ..To conduct a comprehensive search of the peer-reviewed literature to assess risk of cannabis-related mortality...
  71. doi A systematic review of research examining benzodiazepine-related mortality
    Fiona Charlson
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Australia
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 18:93-103. 2009
    ..This paper will review literature examining the association of benzodiazepine use and mortality...
  72. ncbi Substance use, dependence and treatment seeking in the United States and Australia: a cross-national comparison
    Maree Teesson
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Depend 81:149-55. 2006
    ..To compare the prevalence of alcohol and drug use, dependence and treatment seeking in the United States of America and Australia...
  73. doi Mortality among amphetamine users: a systematic review of cohort studies
    Jessica Singleton
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Depend 105:1-8. 2009
    ..To report the results of a comprehensive literature search of studies of mortality among people who use amphetamines...
  74. doi Exposure to opioid maintenance treatment reduces long-term mortality
    Amy Gibson
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW, Australia
    Addiction 103:462-8. 2008
    ..To (i) examine the predictors of mortality in a randomized study of methadone versus buprenorphine maintenance treatment; (ii) compare the survival experience of the randomized subject groups; and (iii) describe the causes of death...
  75. ncbi Patterns of ecstasy use in Australia: findings from a national household survey
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of NSW, Sydney, Australia
    Addiction 99:187-95. 2004
    ..To examine the patterns, correlates and context of 'recent' (preceding 12 months) ecstasy use using data from a nationally representative sample of Australians interviewed in 2001...
  76. doi Is ecstasy a drug of dependence?
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Depend 107:1-10. 2010
    ..Further controlled studies are required to investigate this phenomenon...
  77. ncbi The external validity of results derived from ecstasy users recruited using purposive sampling strategies
    Libby Topp
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052, Sydney, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Depend 73:33-40. 2004
    ..These findings may partially offset concerns that purposive samples of ecstasy users are likely to remain a primary source of ecstasy-related information...
  78. ncbi Crime, drugs and distress: patterns of drug use and harm among criminally involved injecting drug users in Australia
    Stuart A Kinner
    Queensland Alcohol and Drug Research and Education Centre QADREC, School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia
    Aust N Z J Public Health 33:223-7. 2009
    ..Explore demographic characteristics, patterns of drug use and psychological distress among regular injecting drug users (IDUs) in Australia, as a function of recent criminal activity...
  79. ncbi Recent trends in the use of "club drugs": an Australian review
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of NSW, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Subst Use Misuse 40:1241-56. 2005
    ..This could be most easily achieved by the inclusion of MDMA, ketamine, and GHB in household surveys that are currently collected routinely in a number of countries...
  80. doi The effects of the market withdrawal of temazepam gel capsules on benzodiazepine injecting in Sydney, Australia
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Rev 27:145-51. 2008
    ..This study assessed the impact on benzodiazepine injection among IDU in Sydney of removing temazepam gel capsule preparations from the Australian market...
  81. ncbi The management of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use problems by general practitioners in Australia
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Rev 24:499-506. 2005
    ..More efforts need to be directed towards assisting GPs to identify and target problematic alcohol and tobacco use among their patients...
  82. ncbi Changes in patterns of drug injection concurrent with a sustained reduction in the availability of heroin in Australia
    Libby Topp
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Depend 70:275-86. 2003
    ....
  83. ncbi GHB use among Australians: characteristics, use patterns and associated harm
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Depend 67:89-94. 2002
    ..The high rate of problems reported by a group with limited use of this drug suggests that in a context of polydrug use, GHB use is associated with significant risks to users...
  84. ncbi Drug-related aggression among injecting drug users
    Emma Black
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales
    N S W Public Health Bull 17:12-6. 2006
  85. ncbi Changes in patterns of drug use among injecting drug users following changes in the availability of heroin in New South Wales, Australia
    Amanda Roxburgh
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Rev 23:287-94. 2004
    ..It also highlighted the importance of the ongoing monitoring of drug trends in Australia...
  86. ncbi The prevalence and correlates of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) overdose among Australian users
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSE 2052, Australia
    Addiction 98:199-204. 2003
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the correlates, context and risk perceptions regarding gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) overdose among a sample of recreational GHB users in Australia...
  87. ncbi The emergence of potent forms of methamphetamine in Sydney, Australia: a case study of the IDRS as a strategic early warning system
    Libby Topp
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Rev 21:341-8. 2002
    ..Base and ice are more potent forms of methamphetamine than speed, and international experience, along with preliminary data obtained from the IDRS, suggest that their use is associated with harms in a number of domains...
  88. ncbi Evaluating explanations of the Australian 'heroin shortage'
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW, Australia
    Addiction 100:459-69. 2005
    ..In this paper we outline and evaluate competing explanations for a heroin shortage that occurred in Australia during 2001 with an abrupt onset at the beginning of 2001...
  89. ncbi Patterns of co-morbidity between alcohol use and other substance use in the Australian population
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Rev 22:7-13. 2003
    ..Co-morbid substance use disorders (sedatives, stimulants or opioids) predicted a high likelihood of seeking treatment for a mental health problem among alcohol-dependent people...
  90. pmc Effects of reduction in heroin supply on injecting drug use: analysis of data from needle and syringe programmes
    Carolyn Day
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    BMJ 329:428-9. 2004
  91. ncbi Drug use and risk behaviour among regular ecstasy users: Does sexuality make a difference?
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Cult Health Sex 7:599-614. 2005
    ....
  92. ncbi Prevention of HIV infection for people who inject drugs: why individual, structural, and combination approaches are needed
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Lancet 376:285-301. 2010
    ..Although further evidence is needed on how to optimise combinations of interventions in different settings and epidemics, we know enough now about which actions are effective: the challenge is to deliver these well and to scale...
  93. ncbi Substance use disorders in an Australian community survey
    Maree Teesson
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Rev 21:275-80. 2002
    ..A third (33%) of those people with an alcohol use disorder and 42% of those with a drug use disorder had consulted a health professional in the past 12 months for their substance use disorder...
  94. doi Global epidemiology of injecting drug use and HIV among people who inject drugs: a systematic review
    Bradley M Mathers
    Secretariat of the Reference Group to the UN on HIV and Injecting Drug Use, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Lancet 372:1733-45. 2008
    ..Our aim was to determine the prevalence of injecting drug use among individuals aged 15-64 years, and of HIV among people who inject drugs...
  95. doi Estimating the level of HIV prevention coverage, knowledge and protective behavior among injecting drug users: what does the 2008 UNGASS reporting round tell us?
    Bradley M Mathers
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 52:S132-42. 2009
    ..9 million global IDU population...
  96. ncbi Exploring the association between cannabis use and depression
    Louisa Degenhardt
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Addiction 98:1493-504. 2003
    ..To examine the evidence on the association between cannabis and depression and evaluate competing explanations of the association...