Genomes and Genes
Alfred King Yin Lam
Affiliation: Griffith University
- Gopalan V, Ebrahimi F, Islam F, Vider J, Qallandar O, Pillai S, et al. Tumour suppressor properties of miR-15a and its regulatory effects on BCL2 and SOX2 proteins in colorectal carcinomas. Exp Cell Res. 2018;370:245-253 pubmed publisher..Therefore, its modulation has potential implications in controlling various biological and pathogenic processes in colon carcinogenesis via targeting its downstream proteins such as BCL2 and SOX2. ..
- Islam F, Gopalan V, Lam A, Kabir S. Pea lectin inhibits cell growth by inducing apoptosis in SW480 and SW48 cell lines. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018;117:1050-1057 pubmed publisher..G2/M and G0/G1 cell cycle arrested was noted in SW48 and SW480 cell lines, respectively, after treatment with pea lectin. ..
- Salajegheh A, Vosgha H, Md Rahman A, Amin M, Smith R, Lam A. Modulatory role of miR-205 in angiogenesis and progression of thyroid cancer. J Mol Endocrinol. 2015;55:183-96 pubmed publisher..The current experiments provided specific information on the functional consequences of VEGF manipulation via miRNA on cancer. ..
- Lam A, Ong K, Ho Y. Aurora kinase expression in colorectal adenocarcinoma: correlations with clinicopathological features, p16 expression, and telomerase activity. Hum Pathol. 2008;39:599-604 pubmed publisher..These findings may be important to select patients to benefit for clinical trials of aurora kinase inhibitors. ..
- Rahman M, Salajegheh A, Smith R, Lam A. MicroRNA-126 suppresses proliferation of undifferentiated (BRAF(V600E) and BRAF(WT)) thyroid carcinoma through targeting PIK3R2 gene and repressing PI3K-AKT proliferation-survival signalling pathway. Exp Cell Res. 2015;339:342-50 pubmed publisher..Therefore, miR-126 could be a potential therapeutic tool in the treatment of undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma. ..
- Pillai S, Gopalan V, Smith R, Lam A. Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma--an update of its clinicopathological features and molecular biology. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2015;94:64-73 pubmed publisher..To conclude, DSVPTC has different clinical, pathological and molecular profiles when compared to conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma. ..
- Lam K, Lo C, Wei W. Warthin tumor-like variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a case with dedifferentiation (anaplastic changes) and aggressive biological behavior. Endocr Pathol. 2005;16:83-9 pubmed..The present case is the first reported case of Warthin tumor-like variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with anaplastic changes. ..
- Chruścik A, Lam A. Clinical pathological impacts of microRNAs in papillary thyroid carcinoma: A crucial review. Exp Mol Pathol. 2015;99:393-8 pubmed publisher..Targeting these subsets of miRNAs may be useful in management of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. ..
- Lee K, Smith R, Gopalan V, Lam A. Targeted Single Gene Mutation in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1756:213-229 pubmed publisher..This chapter focuses on the sequencing techniques in identification of single gene mutations. ..
- Islam F, Gopalan V, Lam A. Identification of Cancer Stem Cells in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1756:165-176 pubmed publisher..Here, we describe the identification and isolation of CSCs from esophageal adenocarcinoma cells by cell sorting after Hoechst 33342 staining followed by in vitro functional assays, and in vivo xenograft techniques. ..
- Lam A. Histopathological Assessment for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1756:67-76 pubmed publisher..Tumor regression grading systems could be used to assess the response to the neoadjuvant therapy in esophageal adenocarcinoma. ..
- Amin M, Lam A. Current perspectives of mi-RNA in oesophageal adenocarcinoma: Roles in predicting carcinogenesis, progression and values in clinical management. Exp Mol Pathol. 2015;98:411-8 pubmed publisher..Although miRs have the potential to act as prognostic and clinical biomarkers for cancer therapy in oesophageal adenocarcinoma, more works in larger populations and clinical trials are needed to validate these clinical implications. ..
- Lam A, Carmichael R, Gertraud Buettner P, Gopalan V, Ho Y, Siu S. Clinicopathological significance of synchronous carcinoma in colorectal cancer. Am J Surg. 2011;202:39-44 pubmed publisher..We examined the clinicopathological features of patients with synchronous colorectal carcinomas in a large cohort of patients. Attention to these features was important for better management of this group of cancer. ..
- Ebrahimi F, Gopalan V, Smith R, Lam A. miR-126 in human cancers: clinical roles and current perspectives. Exp Mol Pathol. 2014;96:98-107 pubmed publisher..Understanding these mechanisms by which miR-126 is involved with cancer pathogenesis will be useful in the development of therapeutic targets for the management of patients with cancer. ..
- Saremi N, Lam A. Application of Tissue Microarray in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1756:105-118 pubmed publisher..In this chapter, we have a brief overview of tissue microarray technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of tissue microarray, and related troubleshootings. ..
- Fridman M, Lam A, Krasko O, Schmid K, Branovan D, Demidchik Y. Morphological and clinical presentation of papillary thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents of Belarus: the influence of radiation exposure and the source of irradiation. Exp Mol Pathol. 2015;98:527-31 pubmed publisher..External radiation related" papillary thyroid carcinomas were distinguished from other two groups of carcinoma in more advanced local spread and more aggressive behaviour of micro-carcinomas. ..
- Islam F, Gopalan V, Lam A. RNA Interference-Mediated Gene Silencing in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1756:269-279 pubmed publisher..Lentiviral particles expressing MET shRNA was used to silence MET genes. Then, Western blot analysis was performed to confirm MET knockdown. ..
- Vosgha H, Salajegheh A, Smith R, Lam A. The important roles of miR-205 in normal physiology, cancers and as a potential therapeutic target. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2014;14:621-37 pubmed..To conclude, miR-205 has important clinical and pathological correlations in different cancers and may act as a diagnostic and prognostic marker as well as new molecular target for cancer therapy. ..
- Lee K, Gopalan V, Lam A. Somatic DNA Copy-Number Alterations Detection for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Using Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1756:195-212 pubmed publisher..This chapter will review the methods involved in digital polymerase chain reaction for the research or potential clinical applications in esophageal adenocarcinoma. ..
- Lam A. Introduction: Esophageal Adenocarcinoma: Updates of Current Status. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1756:1-6 pubmed publisher..There is an urgent need for works of the multidisciplinary teams (clinical, pathological, the molecular biology and translational research) for improved outcomes of patients with this cancer. ..
- Lee K, Gopalan V, Islam F, Wahab R, Mamoori A, Lu C, et al. GAEC1 mutations and copy number aberration is associated with biological aggressiveness of colorectal cancer. Eur J Cell Biol. 2018;97:230-241 pubmed publisher..Nevertheless, GAEC1 mRNA and protein are only weakly associated. Taken together, GAEC1 mutation affects GAEC1 expression and is associated with poorer clinical outcomes. This further strengthens the role of GAEC1 as an oncogene. ..
- Islam F, Gopalan V, Smith R, Lam A. Translational potential of cancer stem cells: A review of the detection of cancer stem cells and their roles in cancer recurrence and cancer treatment. Exp Cell Res. 2015;335:135-47 pubmed publisher..Overall, given their significance in cancer biology, refining the isolation and targeting of CSCs will play an important role in future management of cancer. ..
- Rahman M, Salajegheh A, Smith R, Lam A. Multiple proliferation-survival signalling pathways are simultaneously active in BRAF V600E mutated thyroid carcinomas. Exp Mol Pathol. 2015;99:492-7 pubmed publisher..Therefore, consideration needs to put on multiple targets when deciding molecular target therapies for patients with BRAF V600E mutated thyroid carcinoma. ..
- Ebrahimi F, Gopalan V, Wahab R, Lu C, Smith R, Lam A. Deregulation of miR-126 expression in colorectal cancer pathogenesis and its clinical significance. Exp Cell Res. 2015;339:333-41 pubmed publisher..To conclude, deregulation of miR-126 in colorectal cancer at the tissue and cellular levels as well as its correlation with various clinicopathological parameters confirm the cancer suppressive role of miR-126 in colorectal cancer. ..
- Islam F, Gopalan V, Wahab R, Smith R, Lam A. Cancer stem cells in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma: Identification, prognostic and treatment perspectives. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2015;96:9-19 pubmed publisher..Therefore, innovative insights into CSC biology and CSC-targeted therapies will help to achieve more effective management of patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. ..
- Islam F, Qiao B, Smith R, Gopalan V, Lam A. Cancer stem cell: fundamental experimental pathological concepts and updates. Exp Mol Pathol. 2015;98:184-91 pubmed publisher..Understanding these basic concepts of CSCs is important for translational applications using CSCs in the management of patients with cancer. ..
- Islam F, Tang J, Gopalan V, Lam A. Epigenetics: DNA Methylation Analysis in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1756:247-256 pubmed publisher..Herein, we describe the polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing-based protocol for identifying DNA methylation status in esophageal adenocarcinoma. ..
- Maroof H, Salajegheh A, Smith R, Lam A. MicroRNA-34 family, mechanisms of action in cancer: a review. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2014;14:737-51 pubmed..Thus, microRNA-34 family members could act as prognostic markers and therapeutic targets in human cancers. ..
- Lam A, Leung M. Whole-Slide Imaging for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1756:135-142 pubmed publisher..g., HER2) in a more efficient and objective manner. In this chapter, we will elaborate the concepts, advantages, barriers, and the operations of whole-slide imaging scanning. ..
- Lam A. Application of Pathological Staging in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1756:93-103 pubmed publisher..In addition, different criteria are used in patients with and without neoadjuvant therapy. The silent aspects of the use of new staging protocol are discussed. ..
- Pillai S, Gopalan V, Lo C, Liew V, Smith R, Lam A. Silent genetic alterations identified by targeted next-generation sequencing in pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma: A clinicopathological correlations. Exp Mol Pathol. 2017;102:41-46 pubmed publisher..The precise detection of these genetic changes helps in understanding the pathogenesis of these tumours. ..
- Gopalan V, Saremi N, Sullivan E, Kabir S, Lu C, Salajegheh A, et al. The expression profiles of the galectin gene family in colorectal adenocarcinomas. Hum Pathol. 2016;53:105-13 pubmed publisher..These altered expression patterns of galectin genes suggest the multifunctional role of galectin genes in the regulation of colorectal cancer development, progression, and metastasis. ..
- Salajegheh A, Vosgha H, Rahman M, Amin M, Smith R, Lam A. Interactive role of miR-126 on VEGF-A and progression of papillary and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2016;51:75-85 pubmed publisher..The current experiments provided specific information on the functional consequences of VEGF manipulation via microRNA on cancer. ..
- Rahman M, Salajegheh A, Smith R, Lam A. Inhibition of BRAF kinase suppresses cellular proliferation, but not enough for complete growth arrest in BRAF V600E mutated papillary and undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas. Endocrine. 2016;54:129-138 pubmed..Thus, alternative proliferation pathways should be inhibited for therapeutic suppression of BRAF-induced proliferation in thyroid carcinomas. ..
- Haque M, Gopalan V, Yadav S, Islam M, Eftekhari E, Li Q, et al. Detection of regional DNA methylation using DNA-graphene affinity interactions. Biosens Bioelectron. 2017;87:615-621 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, this method has been used to detect methylation levels in a collection of DNA samples taken from oesophageal cancer tissues. ..
- Sajnani K, Islam F, Smith R, Gopalan V, Lam A. Genetic alterations in Krebs cycle and its impact on cancer pathogenesis. Biochimie. 2017;135:164-172 pubmed publisher..Understanding and applying the knowledge of these mechanisms opens new therapeutic options for patients with cancer. ..
- Wahab S, Islam F, Gopalan V, Lam A. The Identifications and Clinical Implications of Cancer Stem Cells in Colorectal Cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2017;16:93-102 pubmed publisher..This could open new opportunities for the better management of patients with colorectal carcinoma. ..
- Lam A. Lipomatous tumours in adrenal gland: WHO updates and clinical implications. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2017;24:R65-R79 pubmed publisher..It is important to recognize the features of this group of lipomatous tumours in the adrenal gland as they are being detected on increasing incidence as a result of the wide-spread use of modern imaging modalities. ..
- Islam F, Haque M, Yadav S, Islam M, Gopalan V, Nguyen N, et al. An electrochemical method for sensitive and rapid detection of FAM134B protein in colon cancer samples. Sci Rep. 2017;7:133 pubmed publisher..Finally, the assay was further validated with ELISA method. We believe that our assay could potentially lead a low-cost alternative to conventional immunological assays for target antigens analysis in point-of-care applications. ..
- Islam F, Gopalan V, Vider J, Lu C, Lam A. MiR-142-5p act as an oncogenic microRNA in colorectal cancer: Clinicopathological and functional insights. Exp Mol Pathol. 2018;104:98-107 pubmed publisher..High miR-142-5p expression was associated with the biological aggressiveness of cancer. Thus, suppression of miR-142-5p could be a therapeutic strategy for patients with colorectal cancers. ..
- Pillai S, Gopalan V, Smith R, Lam A. Updates on the genetics and the clinical impacts on phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma in the new era. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2016;100:190-208 pubmed publisher..Immunohistochemistry and gene sequencing can ensure a more effective detection, prediction of malignant potential and treatment of PCC/PCLs. ..
- Lam A, Saremi N. Cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a distinctive type of thyroid cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2017;24:R109-R121 pubmed publisher..5%) and patients' mortality rates (2%). To conclude, patients with CMV-PTC have distinctive clinical, pathological and molecular profiles when compared to conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma. ..
- Lam A, Fridman M. Characteristics of cribriform morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in post-Chernobyl affected region. Hum Pathol. 2018;74:170-177 pubmed publisher..To conclude, CMV-PTC in patients in the radiation-affected region behaves in an indolent fashion. They had distinctive features that are different from patients with conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma living in the same region. ..
- Fridman M, Krasko O, Lam A. Optimizing treatment for children and adolescents with papillary thyroid carcinoma in post-Chernobyl exposed region: The roles of lymph node dissections in the central and lateral neck compartments. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2018;44:733-743 pubmed publisher..To conclude, the lymph nodes metastases in young patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma in post-Chernobyl exposed region are common and the pattern could be predicted by many clinical and pathological factors. ..
- Lee K, Tan J, Lam A, Gan S. MicroRNAs serving as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A critical review. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2016;103:1-9 pubmed publisher..To conclude, understanding the roles of miRNA in NPC will identify ways to improve the management of patients with NPC. ..
- Daniele L, Nikolarakos D, Keenan J, Schaefer N, Lam A. Clear cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified/hyalinising clear cell carcinoma of the salivary gland: The current nomenclature, clinical/pathological characteristics and management. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2016;102:55-64 pubmed publisher..To conclude, HCCC is a low grade malignancy but have the potential for local metastases, recurrence, distant metastases and cancer-related death. ..
- Kasem K, Gopalan V, Salajegheh A, Lu C, Smith R, Lam A. JK1 (FAM134B) gene and colorectal cancer: a pilot study on the gene copy number alterations and correlations with clinicopathological parameters. Exp Mol Pathol. 2014;97:31-6 pubmed publisher..The changes in DNA copy number associated with progression of colorectal malignancies reflect that JK-1 (FAM134B) gene could play a role in controlling some steps in development of the invasive phenotypes. ..
- Pillai S, Lo C, Liew V, Lalloz M, Smith R, Gopalan V, et al. MicroRNA 183 family profiles in pheochromocytomas are related to clinical parameters and SDHB expression. Hum Pathol. 2017;64:91-97 pubmed publisher..To conclude, the findings indicate a role for miR-183 cluster members in the pathogenesis and clinical progression of pheochromocytoma. ..
- Wahab R, Gopalan V, Islam F, Smith R, Qiao B, Lam A. Cellular expression, in-vitro and in-vivo confirmation of GAEC1 oncogenic properties in colon cancer. Eur J Cell Biol. 2017;96:487-495 pubmed publisher..Collectively, the expression analysis, in vitro and in vivo data indicated that GAEC1 is differentially expressed in cancer cells and act as an oncogene in colon cancer progression. ..
- Islam F, Gopalan V, Vider J, Wahab R, Ebrahimi F, Lu C, et al. MicroRNA-186-5p overexpression modulates colon cancer growth by repressing the expression of the FAM134B tumour inhibitor. Exp Cell Res. 2017;357:260-270 pubmed publisher..Reduced cancer cells growth followed by inhibition of miR-186-5p highlights the potential of miR-186-5p inhibitor as a novel strategy for targeting colorectal cancer initiation and progression. ..
- Haque M, Gopalan V, Islam M, Masud M, Bhattacharjee R, Hossain M, et al. Quantification of gene-specific DNA methylation in oesophageal cancer via electrochemistry. Anal Chim Acta. 2017;976:84-93 pubmed publisher..Finally, the method was validated with methylation specific-high resolution melting curve analysis and Sanger sequencing methods. ..
- Pillai S, Gopalan V, Lam A. Review of sequencing platforms and their applications in phaeochromocytoma and paragangliomas. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2017;116:58-67 pubmed publisher..In future, novel approaches of sequencing, such as third and fourth generation sequencing can alter the workflow, cost, analysis, and interpretation of genomics associated with PCC/PGL. ..
- Lam A, Gopalan V, Nassiri M, Kasim K, Dissanayake J, Tang J, et al. Altered JS-2 expression in colorectal cancers and its clinical pathological relevance. Mol Oncol. 2011;5:475-81 pubmed publisher..In addition, genetic alteration of JS-2 was found to be related to location, pathological subtypes and staging of colorectal cancer. ..
- Mamoori A, Wahab R, Islam F, Lee K, Vider J, Lu C, et al. Clinical and biological significance of miR-193a-3p targeted KRAS in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. Hum Pathol. 2018;71:145-156 pubmed publisher..This study confirms the tumor suppressor roles of miR-193a-3p, its downstream target affinity to KRAS and clinical significance in patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. ..
- Gopalan V, Islam F, Lam A. Surface Markers for the Identification of Cancer Stem Cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1692:17-29 pubmed publisher..This chapter will overview the functional significance of cancer stem cells, its biological correlations, specific markers, and detection methods. ..
- Islam F, Gopalan V, Wahab R, Lee K, Haque M, Mamoori A, et al. Novel FAM134B mutations and their clinicopathological significance in colorectal cancer. Hum Genet. 2017;136:321-337 pubmed publisher..To conclude, FAM134B mutation is common in colorectal cancer. The association of the mutation of this gene with adverse clinical and pathological parameters is congruent with the tumour suppressive properties of the gene. ..
- Gopalan V, Islam F, Pillai S, Tang J, Tong D, Law S, et al. Overexpression of microRNA-1288 in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Exp Cell Res. 2016;348:146-154 pubmed publisher..Overexpression of miR-1288 play a key role in the pathogenesis of ESCCs and its modulation may have potential therapeutic value in patients with ESCC. ..
- Lam A. Update on Adrenal Tumours in 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) of Endocrine Tumours. Endocr Pathol. 2017;28:213-227 pubmed publisher..Overall, the new classification incorporated new data on pathology, clinical behaviour, and genetics of the adrenal tumours that are important for current management of patients with these tumours. ..
- Kasem K, Sullivan E, Gopalan V, Salajegheh A, Smith R, Lam A. JK1 (FAM134B) represses cell migration in colon cancer: a functional study of a novel gene. Exp Mol Pathol. 2014;97:99-104 pubmed publisher..They also concurred with the previous findings of JK1 activity correlations with clinical and pathological features in colon cancer. The capacity may have utility as a means to prevent cancer cells forming metastases. ..
- Islam F, Gopalan V, Law S, Tang J, Chan K, Lam A. MiR-498 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: clinicopathological impacts and functional interactions. Hum Pathol. 2017;62:141-151 pubmed publisher..The changes in miR-498 expression may have impacts on the clinical pathological parameters of ESCC as well as in the management of the patients with ESCC. ..
- Ng S, Lu C, Pakneshan S, Leung M, Siu S, Lam A. Harvest of lymph nodes in colorectal cancer depends on demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2018;33:19-22 pubmed publisher..The minimum number of lymph nodes harvested depends on demographic (age) and clinical (location and dimension of cancer) characteristics of the patients with colorectal cancer. ..
- Chruścik A, Gopalan V, Lam A. The clinical and biological roles of transforming growth factor beta in colon cancer stem cells: A systematic review. Eur J Cell Biol. 2018;97:15-22 pubmed publisher..TGF-? is a key player in angiogenesis, tumour growth and metastasis in colon cancer. ..
- Maroof H, Islam F, Ariana A, Gopalan V, Lam A. The roles of microRNA-34b-5p in angiogenesis of thyroid carcinoma. Endocrine. 2017;58:153-166 pubmed publisher..It could be a target for developing treatment strategies of thyroid carcinoma with aggressive clinical behaviour. ..