Graeme P Young

Summary

Affiliation: Flinders University
Country: Australia

Publications

  1. pmc Demographic, social cognitive and social ecological predictors of intention and participation in screening for colorectal cancer
    Tess A Gregory
    School of Psychology, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5000, Australia
    BMC Public Health 11:38. 2011
  2. ncbi request reprint Resistant starch and colorectal neoplasia
    Graeme P Young
    Flinders University of South Australia, Department of Medicine, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia 5042
    J AOAC Int 87:775-86. 2004
  3. doi request reprint Population-based screening for colorectal cancer: Australian research and implementation
    Graeme P Young
    Flinders University Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 24:S33-42. 2009
  4. ncbi request reprint Preventing cancer: dietary lifestyle or clinical intervention?
    Graeme P Young
    Department of Medicine, Flinders Medical Centre, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, Adelaide, Australia
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 11:S618-31. 2002
  5. ncbi request reprint Diet and genomic stability
    Graeme P Young
    Department of Medicine, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
    Forum Nutr 60:91-6. 2007
  6. ncbi request reprint Which fecal occult blood test is best to screen for colorectal cancer?
    Graeme P Young
    Flinders Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Flinders University, Room 3D230, Bedford Park, Adelaide, SA 5042, Australia
    Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 6:140-1. 2009
  7. ncbi request reprint Dietary fibre and colorectal cancer: a model for environment--gene interactions
    Graeme P Young
    Department of Medicine, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, Adelaide, Australia
    Mol Nutr Food Res 49:571-84. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint New stool screening tests for colorectal cancer
    Graeme P Young
    Flinders Cancer Control Alliance, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
    Digestion 76:26-33. 2007
  9. ncbi request reprint Suppression of azoxymethane-induced colon cancer development in rats by dietary resistant starch
    Richard K Le Leu
    Department of Medicine, Flinders University, Bedford Park, Australia
    Cancer Biol Ther 6:1621-6. 2007
  10. pmc Screening for colorectal cancer and advanced colorectal neoplasia in kidney transplant recipients: cross sectional prevalence and diagnostic accuracy study of faecal immunochemical testing for haemoglobin and colonoscopy
    Michael G Collins
    Central Northern Adelaide Renal and Transplantation Service, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
    BMJ 345:e4657. 2012

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications55

  1. pmc Demographic, social cognitive and social ecological predictors of intention and participation in screening for colorectal cancer
    Tess A Gregory
    School of Psychology, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5000, Australia
    BMC Public Health 11:38. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the social cognitive and social ecological predictors of intention to screen with predictors of participation...
  2. ncbi request reprint Resistant starch and colorectal neoplasia
    Graeme P Young
    Flinders University of South Australia, Department of Medicine, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia 5042
    J AOAC Int 87:775-86. 2004
    ..These effects can be interpreted as reflecting improved colonic health, which might be of benefit in protection against CRC. Direct evidence for protection is still not available...
  3. doi request reprint Population-based screening for colorectal cancer: Australian research and implementation
    Graeme P Young
    Flinders University Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 24:S33-42. 2009
    ..CRC screening has progressed from a matter of irrelevance and distaste, to commonwealth government policy in the context of an organized program for all Australians...
  4. ncbi request reprint Preventing cancer: dietary lifestyle or clinical intervention?
    Graeme P Young
    Department of Medicine, Flinders Medical Centre, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, Adelaide, Australia
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 11:S618-31. 2002
    ..With these Western cancers, we are fortunate that there are options for prevention. At least choices are available and some will suite certain circumstances and personalities more than others...
  5. ncbi request reprint Diet and genomic stability
    Graeme P Young
    Department of Medicine, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
    Forum Nutr 60:91-6. 2007
    ..Activation of apoptosis may be a key to protection...
  6. ncbi request reprint Which fecal occult blood test is best to screen for colorectal cancer?
    Graeme P Young
    Flinders Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Flinders University, Room 3D230, Bedford Park, Adelaide, SA 5042, Australia
    Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 6:140-1. 2009
    ..The latest generation of FITs should replace traditional GFOBTs in two-step (test then colonoscopy) screening for colorectal cancer...
  7. ncbi request reprint Dietary fibre and colorectal cancer: a model for environment--gene interactions
    Graeme P Young
    Department of Medicine, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, Adelaide, Australia
    Mol Nutr Food Res 49:571-84. 2005
    ..Activation of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest seem likely to be mechanisms that would enable correction of genomic events that drive oncogenesis. Butyrate itself can regulate gene expression by both epigenetic and direct effects...
  8. ncbi request reprint New stool screening tests for colorectal cancer
    Graeme P Young
    Flinders Cancer Control Alliance, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
    Digestion 76:26-33. 2007
    ..The purpose of this review is to clarify the place of new-technology stool tests in screening for colorectal neoplasia...
  9. ncbi request reprint Suppression of azoxymethane-induced colon cancer development in rats by dietary resistant starch
    Richard K Le Leu
    Department of Medicine, Flinders University, Bedford Park, Australia
    Cancer Biol Ther 6:1621-6. 2007
    ..The protective effect of consumption of RS as dietary high-amylose cornstarch against colon cancer development appears to be related to active fermentation in the colon, particularly through production of butyrate...
  10. pmc Screening for colorectal cancer and advanced colorectal neoplasia in kidney transplant recipients: cross sectional prevalence and diagnostic accuracy study of faecal immunochemical testing for haemoglobin and colonoscopy
    Michael G Collins
    Central Northern Adelaide Renal and Transplantation Service, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
    BMJ 345:e4657. 2012
    ....
  11. doi request reprint Interval fecal immunochemical testing in a colonoscopic surveillance program speeds detection of colorectal neoplasia
    Joanne M Lane
    Flinders Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park Adelaide, South Australia
    Gastroenterology 139:1918-26. 2010
    ..We investigated whether giving fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) for hemoglobin between surveillance colonoscopies resulted in earlier detection of neoplasia...
  12. doi request reprint Inhibition by resistant starch of red meat-induced promutagenic adducts in mouse colon
    Jean Winter
    Flinders Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park
    Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 4:1920-8. 2011
    ....
  13. doi request reprint Detection of K-ras mutations in azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci in mice using LNA-mediated real-time PCR clamping and mutant-specific probes
    Ying Hu
    Department of Medicine, Flinders Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
    Mutat Res 677:27-32. 2009
    ..It is highly sensitive and can be applied to the detection of early genetic alterations in carcinogen-based animal models...
  14. ncbi request reprint Comparison of a brush-sampling fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin with a sensitive guaiac-based fecal occult blood test in detection of colorectal neoplasia
    Alicia Smith
    Bowel Health Service, Repatriation General Hospital Daw Park, South Australia, Australia
    Cancer 107:2152-9. 2006
    ....
  15. pmc Combination of selenium and green tea improves the efficacy of chemoprevention in a rat colorectal cancer model by modulating genetic and epigenetic biomarkers
    Ying Hu
    Flinders Centre for Innovation in Cancer, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
    PLoS ONE 8:e64362. 2013
    ..The preventive effect is associated with regulation of genetic and epigenetic biomarkers implicated in colonic carcinogenesis...
  16. doi request reprint Selenium-enriched milk proteins and selenium yeast affect selenoprotein activity and expression differently in mouse colon
    Ying Hu
    Flinders Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park 5042, Australia
    Br J Nutr 104:17-23. 2010
    ....
  17. doi request reprint The potential of sphingomyelin as a chemopreventive agent in AOM-induced colon cancer model: wild-type and p53+/- mice
    Ying Hu
    Department of Medicine, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, Australia
    Mol Nutr Food Res 52:558-66. 2008
    ..Further investigation to understand the variable effect of SM in preventing CRC is warranted...
  18. ncbi request reprint Defective acute apoptotic response to genotoxic carcinogen in small intestine of APC(Min/+) mice is restored by sulindac
    Ying Hu
    Department of Medicine, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
    Cancer Lett 248:234-44. 2007
    ....
  19. ncbi request reprint Fermentation of starch and protein in the colon: implications for genomic instability
    Richard K Le Leu
    Department of Medicine, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, Australia
    Cancer Biol Ther 6:259-60. 2007
  20. doi request reprint Synbiotic intervention of Bifidobacterium lactis and resistant starch protects against colorectal cancer development in rats
    Richard K Le Leu
    Flinders Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Flinders University, South Australia 5042, Australia
    Carcinogenesis 31:246-51. 2010
    ..lactis significantly protects against the development of CRC in the rat-azoxymethane model. Synbiotic combination of prebiotic and probiotic seems likely to be a superior preventive strategy to prebiotic alone...
  21. ncbi request reprint A synbiotic combination of resistant starch and Bifidobacterium lactis facilitates apoptotic deletion of carcinogen-damaged cells in rat colon
    Richard K Le Leu
    Department of Medicine, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, South Australia 5042
    J Nutr 135:996-1001. 2005
    ..Because the synbiotic combination of these agents facilitates the apoptotic response to DNA damage by a cancer initiator in the colon of rats, it warrants further study for its capacity to protect against colorectal cancer...
  22. doi request reprint Suppression of colorectal oncogenesis by selenium-enriched milk proteins: apoptosis and K-ras mutations
    Ying Hu
    Department of Medicine, Flinders Cancer Control Alliance, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
    Cancer Res 68:4936-44. 2008
    ..Suppression may be a consequence of enhanced apoptotic deletion of azoxymethane-induced DNA lesions and the subsequent reduction in frequency of K-ras mutations...
  23. ncbi request reprint Effect of dietary resistant starch and protein on colonic fermentation and intestinal tumourigenesis in rats
    Richard K Le Leu
    Department of Medicine, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, South Australia 5042, Australia
    Carcinogenesis 28:240-5. 2007
    ..These effects of RS not only protected against intestinal tumourigenesis but also ameliorated the tumour-enhancing effects of feeding indigestible protein...
  24. doi request reprint The influence of selenium-enriched milk proteins and selenium yeast on plasma selenium levels and rectal selenoprotein gene expression in human subjects
    Ying Hu
    Flinders Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia
    Br J Nutr 106:572-82. 2011
    ..Changes in rectal selenoproteins are not predicted by changes in plasma Se; dairy-Se effectively regulates the expression of several rectal selenoproteins of relevance to the risk for CRC...
  25. pmc Butyrate delivered by butyrylated starch increases distal colonic epithelial apoptosis in carcinogen-treated rats
    Julie M Clarke
    Preventative Health National Research Flagship, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia
    Carcinogenesis 33:197-202. 2012
    ..We propose this pro-apoptotic function of butyrate plays a major role reducing tumour formation in the AOM-treated rat and that these data support a potential protective role of butyrate in CRC...
  26. ncbi request reprint Many participants in fecal occult blood test population screening have a higher-than-average risk for colorectal cancer
    Daniel L Worthley
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Flinders Medical Centre, South Australia, Australia
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 18:1079-83. 2006
    ..This study investigated the prevalence of higher-than-average risk characteristics, and rate of prior colonoscopy, in participants in fecal occult blood test screening programs...
  27. doi request reprint Dietary red meat aggravates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice whereas resistant starch attenuates inflammation
    Richard K Le Leu
    Preventative Health National Research Flagship, CSIRO, and CSIRO Animal, Food and Health Sciences, Adelaide, SA, Australia
    Dig Dis Sci 58:3475-82. 2013
    ..Although a genetic component has been identified as a risk factor for developing inflammatory bowel disease, there is evidence that dietary factors also play a role in the development of this disease...
  28. pmc Discovery and validation of molecular biomarkers for colorectal adenomas and cancer with application to blood testing
    Lawrence C LaPointe
    Flinders Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
    PLoS ONE 7:e29059. 2012
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint Sulindac corrects defective apoptosis and suppresses azoxymethane-induced colonic oncogenesis in p53 knockout mice
    Ying Hu
    Department of Medicine Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
    Int J Cancer 116:870-5. 2005
    ..Sulindac is an effective chemopreventive agent in the presence of p53 dysfunction...
  30. ncbi request reprint Comparing the effects of COX and non-COX-inhibiting NSAIDs on enhancement of apoptosis and inhibition of aberrant crypt foci formation in a rat colorectal cancer model
    Jonathan E Martin
    Flinders Centre for Innovation in Cancer, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
    Anticancer Res 33:3581-8. 2013
    ..01), but sulindac was more potent in inhibition of large ACF, p<0.05. COX-inhibiting sulindac achieved the greatest protective effect. The greater safety profile of Rac-FB should provide an advantage for chemoprevention. ..
  31. doi request reprint Psychosocial variables associated with colorectal cancer screening in South Australia
    Stephen R Cole
    Bowel Health Service, Repatriation General Hospital Daw Park, Daws Road, Daw Park, 5041 South Australia, Australia
    Int J Behav Med 18:302-9. 2011
    ..Population screening reduces mortality from colorectal cancer, yet factors associated with uptake of screening are incompletely understood...
  32. ncbi request reprint Effect of resistant starch on genotoxin-induced apoptosis, colonic epithelium, and lumenal contents in rats
    Richard K Le Leu
    Department of Medicine, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, 5042, Australia
    Carcinogenesis 24:1347-52. 2003
    ..Altering amounts of dietary RS changes fermentative activity in the colon. Increased RS is associated with enhanced AARGC. Changes in amount of fermentable substrate are capable of changing the biological response to DNA damage...
  33. doi request reprint Exploring the validity of the continuum of resistance model for discriminating early from late and non-uptake of colorectal cancer screening: implications for the design of invitation and reminder letters
    Tess Gregory
    School of Psychology, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5000, Australia
    Int J Behav Med 20:572-81. 2013
    ..The continuum of resistance model contends that respondents lie at one end of a continuum and non-respondents at the other with respect to factors demonstrated to impact on screening participation...
  34. ncbi request reprint Selenium-rich foods: a promising approach to colorectal cancer prevention
    Ying Hu
    Department of Medicine Gastroenterology, Flinders Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide 5042, Australia
    Curr Pharm Biotechnol 13:165-72. 2012
    ..Further clinical studies and development of tools for speciating Se in foods will enable progress to be made in determining desirable Se forms and foods with respect to providing safe and effective ways of reducing cancer risk...
  35. doi request reprint Repair and removal of azoxymethane-induced O6-methylguanine in rat colon by O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase and apoptosis
    Laura S Nyskohus
    Flinders Centre for Innovation in Cancer, Flinders University of South Australia, Australia
    Mutat Res 758:80-6. 2013
    ..In the colonic epithelium, apoptosis may be complementary to MGMT, in terms of minimising potentially mutagenic events and maintaining a healthy genome...
  36. pmc Protocol for population testing of an Internet-based Personalised Decision Support system for colorectal cancer screening
    Carlene J Wilson
    Flinders Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, School of Medicine, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia
    BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 10:50. 2010
    ..The hypothesis is that exposure to (tailored) PDS will result in greater participation in screening than participation following exposure to non-tailored PDS or resulting from the current non-tailored, paper-based approach...
  37. ncbi request reprint Colorectal cancer screening in rural and remote areas: analysis of the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program data for South Australia
    Angelita Martini
    Discipline of Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
    Rural Remote Health 11:1648. 2011
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Choice of fecal occult blood tests for colorectal cancer screening: recommendations based on performance characteristics in population studies: a WHO (World Health Organization) and OMED (World Organization for Digestive Endoscopy) report
    Graeme P Young
    Department of Medicine Gastroenterology, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
    Am J Gastroenterol 97:2499-507. 2002
    ..Various FOBTs are now available with a wide range of evidence supporting their use. The purpose of this study was to review published data on the performance of these FOBTs to provide recommendations for their effective use in screening...
  39. pmc Effect of high amylose maize starches on colonic fermentation and apoptotic response to DNA-damage in the colon of rats
    Richard K Le Leu
    Flinders Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, South Australia 5042, Australia
    Nutr Metab (Lond) 6:11. 2009
    ..abstract:..
  40. ncbi request reprint Absence of acute apoptotic response to genotoxic carcinogens in p53-deficient mice is associated with increased susceptibility to azoxymethane-induced colon tumours
    Ying Hu
    Department of Medicine, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
    Int J Cancer 115:561-7. 2005
    ..Subsequent studies are now warranted to test the converse, namely, that enhanced apoptotic response to carcinogen reduces risk for colorectal oncogenesis...
  41. ncbi request reprint Applying evidence-based guidelines improves use of colonoscopy resources in patients with a moderate risk of colorectal neoplasia
    Peter A Bampton
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, SA
    Med J Aust 176:155-7. 2002
    ..To determine whether applying National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines for colorectal cancer prevention would reduce the number of follow-up colonoscopies...
  42. ncbi request reprint Reduced accumulation of specific microRNAs in colorectal neoplasia
    Michael Z Michael
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Flinders Centre for Digestive Health, Flinders Medical Centre, South Australia, Australia
    Mol Cancer Res 1:882-91. 2003
    ..Human homologues of murine miRNA sequences, miR-143 and miR-145, consistently display reduced steady-state levels of the mature miRNA at the adenomatous and cancer stages of colorectal neoplasia...
  43. doi request reprint A population-based study of metastatic colorectal cancer in individuals aged ≥ 80 years: findings from the South Australian Clinical Registry for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
    Rajiv Kumar
    Department of Medical Oncology, Flinders Medical Center, Bedford Park, South Australia 5042, Australia
    Cancer 119:722-8. 2013
    ..Life expectancy is increasing, and more patients are presenting with cancer at an advanced age (≥80 years). Optimal management for this group of patients has not been well defined...
  44. ncbi request reprint Mannose-binding lectin deficiency does not increase the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori seropositivity
    Daniel L Worthley
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Flinders Medical Centre, Australia
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 19:147-52. 2007
    ..Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common human infections and can bind mannose-binding lectin. Therefore, we examined whether mannose-binding lectin status influences the prevalence of H. pylori infection...
  45. ncbi request reprint Map of differential transcript expression in the normal human large intestine
    Lawrence C LaPointe
    Department of Medicine, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
    Physiol Genomics 33:50-64. 2008
    ..These patterns describe an expression map of individual transcript variation as well as multigene expression patterns along the large intestine. This is the first gene expression map of an entire human organ...
  46. doi request reprint Ambivalence and its influence on participation in screening for colorectal cancer
    Candice Oster
    University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
    Qual Health Res 23:1188-201. 2013
    ..The majority of participants expressed ambivalence about CRC screening, and the main cue to action was the opportunity to screen without being too inconvenienced. ..
  47. pmc Sensitive and selective amplification of methylated DNA sequences using helper-dependent chain reaction in combination with a methylation-dependent restriction enzymes
    Keith N Rand
    CSIRO Animal, Food and Health Sciences, Preventative Health Flagship, North Ryde, NSW 1670, Australia
    Nucleic Acids Res 41:e15. 2013
    ..A detection sensitivity of 0.1% methylated DNA in a background of unmethylated DNA was achieved, which was similar to the well-established Heavy Methyl method that requires bisulphite-treated DNA...
  48. ncbi request reprint Patient and carer perceptions of cancer care in South Australia
    Kerri R Beckmann
    Cancer Council South Australia, PO Box 929, Unley, Adelaide, SA 5061, Australia
    Aust Health Rev 33:645-55. 2009
    ..Results also highlighted inadequate discharge processes. Carers were more likely than patients to report negative experiences. Perceptions of care also differed by cancer type...
  49. ncbi request reprint Fecal DNA for colorectal-cancer screening
    Daniel L Worthley
    N Engl J Med 352:1384-5; author reply 1384-5. 2005
  50. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of an automated immunochemical fecal occult blood test for colorectal neoplasia detection in a Chinese population
    Wai Man Wong
    Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong
    Cancer 97:2420-4. 2003
    ..Tokyo, Japan), in a Chinese population referred for colonoscopy...
  51. ncbi request reprint Screening with a fecal multitarget DNA test
    Graeme P Young
    Gastroenterology 129:757-9; discussion 759. 2005
  52. ncbi request reprint Amylase-resistant starch as adjunct to oral rehydration therapy in children with diarrhea
    P Raghupathy
    Department of Child Health, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India
    J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 42:362-8. 2006
    ....
  53. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of oral rehydration solution by whole-gut perfusion in rats: effect of osmolarity, sodium concentration and resistant starch
    Sandeep Subramanya
    Wellcome Trust Research Laboratory, Department of Gastrointestinal Sciences, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India
    J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 43:568-75. 2006
    ..Adding amylase-resistant starch (RS) to ORS is expected to increase colonic fluid absorption. This study used combined small and large bowel perfusion to evaluate combinations of reduced osmolarity and starch in ORS...
  54. ncbi request reprint Participant satisfaction with fecal occult blood test screening for colorectal cancer
    Daniel L Worthley
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 22:142-3. 2007
  55. pmc A randomized controlled trial of glucose versus amylase resistant starch hypo-osmolar oral rehydration solution for adult acute dehydrating diarrhea
    Balakrishnan S Ramakrishna
    Wellcome Trust Research Laboratory, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India
    PLoS ONE 3:e1587. 2008
    ..Reduction of gross diarrhea rate in excess of that seen over time with intravenous therapy and appropriate antibiotics is not usually achieved by oral glucose-electrolyte rehydration therapy for cholera and cholera-like diarrheas...